A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not categorical. An amateur photographer takes snapshots for pleasure to remember events, places or friends with no intention of selling the images to others. A professional photographer is to take photographs for a session and image purchase fee, by salary or through the display, resale or use of those photographs. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular planned event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, like fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making an image and licensing or making printed copies of it for sale or display; some workers, such as crime scene photographers, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study or apprenticeship by the photographer in pursuit of photographic skills. A hallmark of a professional is that they invest in continuing education through associations. Many associations offer the opportunity to test and exhibit acumen in order to attain credentials such as Certified Professional Photographer or Master Photographer. While there is no compulsory registration requirement for professional photographer status, operating a business requires having a business license in most cities and counties. Having commercial insurance is required by most venues if photographing a wedding or a public event. Photographers who operate a legitimate business can provide these items. Photographers can be categorized based on the subjects; some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including sports photography, street photography, documentary photography, fashion photography, wedding photography, war photography, aviation photography and commercial photography.
The type of work commissioned will have pricing associated with the image's usage. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright. Countless industries purchase photographs on products; the photographs seen on magazine covers, in television advertising, on greeting cards or calendars, on websites, or on products and packages, have been purchased for this use, either directly from the photographer or through an agency that represents the photographer. A photographer uses a contract to sell the "license" or use of his or her photograph with exact controls regarding how the photograph will be used, in what territory it will be used, for which products; this is referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees. An additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph; the contract may be for other duration. The photographer charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, depending on the terms of the contract.
The contract may be for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. Royalties vary depending on the industry buying the photograph and the use, for example, royalties for a photograph used on a poster or in television advertising may be higher than for use on a limited run of brochures. A royalty is often based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book, cover photos command higher fees than photos used elsewhere in a book or magazine. Photos taken by a photographer while working on assignment are work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. Professional portrait and wedding photographers stipulate by contract that they retain the copyright of their photos, so that only they can sell further prints of the photographs to the consumer, rather than the customer reproducing the photos by other means. If the customer wishes to be able to reproduce the photos themselves, they may discuss an alternative contract with the photographer in advance before the pictures are taken, in which a larger up front fee may be paid in exchange for reprint rights passing to the customer.
There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images and others. Since the turn of the 21st century many online stock photography catalogues have appeared that invite photographers to sell their photos online and but for little money, without a royalty, without control over the use of the photo, the market it will be used in, the products it will be used on, time duration, etc. Commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites, in order to share them with a particular group or with the general public; those interested in legal precision may explicitl
Carla Lother is a singer, songwriter and flautist from Winnipeg, Canada. Lother was born into a musical family, her mother was a classical pianist, her father was a cabaret and jazz singer. In her early years she studied classical piano, won her first competition at the age of six. Much of her formative years were spent travelling and participating in various festivals and workshops, she sang in choirs, which Lother credited as an influence in her style of writing harmony. At 15, her brother invited her to join his rock band, she was exposed to the likes of Todd Rundgren, The Police, Led Zeppelin. In 1978 she took home first prize at the Concours de Musique du Canada and the Canadian Outstanding Artist Award in 1987. Lother studied at University of Manitoba and the Banff School of Fine Arts at the University of Alberta, she hitchhiked to New York City to attend the Mannes College of Music on a scholarship. Going to school in the United States provided her with a visa, she received a Masters in piano performance and a professional studies diploma in voice, while working cleaning bathrooms and answering phones at the school.
After graduation, she continued to work at Mannes as Director of Continuing Education. Lother borrowed $2,000 from a friend for studio time and a producer in order to record her first album, she was introduced to David Chesky. From there, she signed to Chesky Records and her first album, was released in 1999. A second album, 100 Lovers, followed in 2004. Four songs from this album are collaborations between Lother and guitarist Richie Stotts of the Plasmatics. Apart from her studio albums, Lother does session work, has recorded for CRI Recordings, performed vocals on a Bang on a Can release, she sang in advertising for Dove Soap, MasterCard, Kit Kat, Kitchen Aid, Maxwell House. She directed musical theater for ASPIRA's Project Enhance which teams professional musicians with at risk students. Lother maintains a private studio of piano students. Ephemera Cool Sounds, Modern Voices 100 Lovers
This page details statistics of the Leinster Senior Hurling Championship. The most successful team of each decade, judged by number of Leinster Senior Hurling Championship titles, is as follows: 1880s: 1 each for Kilkenny and Dublin 1890s: 4 for Kilkenny 1900s: 6 for Kilkenny 1910s: 4 for Kilkenny 1920s: 5 for Dublin 1930s: 7 for Kilkenny 1940s: 5 for Kilkenny 1950s: 5 for Kilkenny 1960s: 4 each for Wexford and Kilkenny 1970s: 7 for Kilkenny 1980s: 6 for Offaly 1990s: 5 for Kilkenny 2000s: 9 for Kilkenny 2010s: 5 for Kilkenny The most one sided Munster finals since 1896 when goals were made equal to three points: 21 points – 1901: Wexford 7-6 – 1-3 Offaly 19 points – 2008: Kilkenny 5-21 – 0-17 Wexford 18 points – 1896: Dublin 4-6 – 0-00 Kilkenny Only 5 teams of the 6 who have won the Leinster championship have successfully defended the title; these are: Kilkenny on 39 attempts out of 70 Wexford on 5 attempts out of 19 Dublin on 4 attempts out of 23 Offaly on 4 attempts out of 8 Laois on 1 attempts out of 2 The longest gaps between successive Leinster titles: 52 years: Dublin 34 years: Laois 33 years: Wexford 19 years: Wexford The record for the longest unbeaten run stands at 15 games held by Kilkenny.
It began with a 6-28 to 0-15 win against Offaly in the semi-final of the 2005 championship and finished with a 2-21 to 0-9 defeat of Dublin in the Leinster semi-final of the 2012 championship. The 15-game unbeaten streak, which included no drawn games, ended with a 2-21 to 2-11 loss to Galway in the 2012 Leinster final; this is a list of players who have scored a cumulative total of 100 points or more in the Leinster Championship. All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship records and statistics Munster Senior Hurling Championship records and statistics