SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Photographic film

Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity and resolution of the film; the emulsion will darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a slight chemical change, proportional to the amount of light absorbed by each crystal; this creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed into a visible photograph. In addition to visible light, all films are sensitive to ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays, high-energy particles. Unmodified silver halide crystals are sensitive only to the blue part of the visible spectrum, producing unnatural-looking renditions of some colored subjects; this problem was resolved with the discovery that certain dyes, called sensitizing dyes, when adsorbed onto the silver halide crystals made them respond to other colors as well.

First orthochromatic and panchromatic films were developed. Panchromatic film renders all colors in shades of gray matching their subjective brightness. By similar techniques, special-purpose films can be made sensitive to the infrared region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film, there is one layer of silver halide crystals; when the exposed silver halide grains are developed, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, which blocks light and appears as the black part of the film negative. Color film has at least three sensitive layers, incorporating different combinations of sensitizing dyes; the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by a yellow filter layer to stop any remaining blue light from affecting the layers below. Next comes a green-and-blue sensitive layer, a red-and-blue sensitive layer, which record the green and red images respectively. During development, the exposed silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film.

But in a color film, the by-products of the development reaction combine with chemicals known as color couplers that are included either in the film itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, the dye clouds formed are in proportion to the exposure and development. Following development, the silver is converted back to silver halide crystals in the bleach step, it is removed from the film during the process of fixing the image on the film with a solution of ammonium thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate. Fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers, with upwards of 20 different chemicals in each layer. There are several types of photographic film, including: Print film, when developed, yields transparent negatives with the light and dark areas and colors inverted to their respective complementary colors.

This type of film is designed to be printed onto photographic paper by means of an enlarger but in some cases by contact printing. The paper is itself developed; the second inversion that results restores light and color to their normal appearance. Color negatives incorporate an orange color correction mask that compensates for unwanted dye absorptions and improves color accuracy in the prints. Although color processing is more complex and temperature-sensitive than black-and-white processing, the wide availability of commercial color processing and scarcity of service for black-and-white prompted the design of some black-and-white films which are processed in the same way as standard color film. Color reversal film produces positive transparencies known as diapositives. Transparencies can be reviewed with the aid of a lightbox. If mounted in small metal, plastic or cardboard frames for use in a slide projector or slide viewer they are called slides. Reversal film is marketed as "slide film". Large-format color reversal sheet film is used by some professional photographers to originate very-high-resolution imagery for digital scanning into color separations for mass photomechanical reproduction.

Photographic prints can be produced from reversal film transparencies, but positive-to-positive print materials for doing this directly have all been discontinued, so it now requires the use of an internegative to convert the positive transparency image into a negative transparency, printed as a positive print. Black-and-white reversal film exists but is uncommon. Conventional black-and-white negative film can be reversal-processed to produce black-and-white slides, as by dr5 Chrome. Although kits of chemicals for black-and-white reversal processing may no longer be available to amateur darkroom enthusiasts, an acid bleaching solution, the only unusual component, essential, is prepared from scratch. Black-and-white transparencies may be produced by printing negatives onto special positive print film, still available from some specialty photographic supply dealers. In order to produce a usable image, the film needs to be exposed properly; the amount of exposure variation that a given film can tolerate, while still producing an acceptable level of quality, is called its exposure latitude.

Color print film has greater exposure latitude tha

Edmundson Acres, California

Edmundson Acres is a census-designated place in Kern County, California. It is located 1.25 miles north-northeast of Arvin, at an elevation of 486 feet. Edmundson Acres' ZIP code is 93203; the population was 279 at the 2010 census. The 2010 United States Census reported that Edmundson Acres had a population of 279; the population density was 4,195.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Edmundson Acres was 108 White, 5 African American, 3 Native American, 1 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 143 from other races, 19 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 225 persons; the Census reported that 279 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 71 households, out of which 32 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 35 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 13 had a female householder with no husband present, 8 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 4 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships.

9 households were made up of individuals and 5 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.93. There were 56 families; the population was spread out with 89 people under the age of 18, 41 people aged 18 to 24, 69 people aged 25 to 44, 48 people aged 45 to 64, 32 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.9 males. There were 80 housing units at an average density of 1,203.0 per square mile, of which 42 were owner-occupied, 29 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%. 155 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 124 people lived in rental housing units

Sky Pasada

WCC Aviation, Inc. operating as Sky Pasada, is an airline based in Binalonan, Pangasinan and owned by the Guico family of Pangasinan. Its corporate headquarters is located at the World City Medical Center in Quezon City; the airline is serving the aeronautical highway of northern Luzon with flights to Basco, Palanan and Binalonan. On July 1, 2010, the airline suspended operations on order from the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines to repair its fleet of two Let L-410 Turbolet aircraft to conform to international standards; as of January 2020 Sky Pasada flies to the following domestic destinations: Basco - Basco Airport Binalonan - Binalonan Airfield Maconacon - Maconacon Airport Palanan - Palanan Airport Tuguegarao - Tuguegarao Airport As of June 2010 Sky Pasada's fleet included two Let L-410 Turbolets. On February 10, 2012, Sky Pasada flight SP0633, a Let L-410 operating from Basco, Batanes to Itbayat overran the runway due to strong winds; as a result, the landing gear of the aircraft was destroyed