click links in text for more info


The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated. The term itself is derived from Ancient Greek roots, φῶς, φωτός/phos, photos meaning "light" and σφαῖρα/sphaira meaning "sphere", in reference to it being a spherical surface, perceived to emit light, it extends into a star's surface until the plasma becomes opaque, equivalent to an optical depth of ​2⁄3, or equivalently, a depth from which 50% of light will escape without being scattered. In other words, a photosphere is the deepest region of a luminous object a star, transparent to photons of certain wavelengths; the surface of a star is defined to have a temperature given by the effective temperature in the Stefan–Boltzmann law. Stars, except neutron stars, have no liquid surface. Therefore, the photosphere is used to describe the Sun's or another star's visual surface; the Sun is composed of the chemical elements hydrogen and helium. All heavier elements, called metals in astronomy, account for less than 2% of the mass, with oxygen, carbon and iron being the most abundant.

The Sun's photosphere has a temperature between 4,500 and 6,000 K and a density of about 3×10−4 kg/m3. Other stars may have cooler photospheres; the Sun's photosphere is around 100 kilometers thick, is composed of convection cells called granules—cells of plasma each 1000 kilometers in diameter with hot rising plasma in the center and cooler plasma falling in the narrow spaces between them, flowing at velocities of 7 kilometer per second. Each granule has a lifespan of only about twenty minutes, resulting in a continually shifting "boiling" pattern. Grouping the typical granules are super granules up to 30,000 kilometers in diameter with lifespans of up to 24 hours and flow speeds of about 500 meter per second, carrying magnetic field bundles to the edges of the cells. Other magnetically-related phenomena include sunspots and solar faculae dispersed between the granules; these details are too fine to be seen. The Sun's visible atmosphere has other layers above the photosphere: the 2,000 kilometer-deep chromosphere lies just between the photosphere and the much hotter but more tenuous corona.

Other "surface features" on the photosphere are solar sunspots. Animated explanation of the Photosphere. Animated explanation of the temperature of the Photosphere. Solar Lower Atmosphere and Magnetism


Internet-in-a-Box is a low-cost digital library, consisting of a wireless access point with storage, which users nearby can connect to. Its realization in hardware and software has changed since 2012, as miniaturization of storage space and electronics progressed; as of 2017, its hardware may consist of a Raspberry Pi with a replaceable storage card. In 2016, Columbia University's Masters in Public Administration in Development Practice explored using these boxes in Dominican Republic for three months; the digital library is composed of multiple modules. Examples of modules include Wikipedia in a specific language, Wikipedia's Medical Encyclopedia, Khan Academy lite, OpenStreetMap. Other content includes OpenStreetMap, Owncloud, PhET, TED Talks; the concept grew out of One Laptop per Child's school server project. Meta: Internet-in-a-Box Internet-in-a-Box software and community documentation Kiwix Afripedia Project

Muslim Mubarak

Muslim Mubarak Almas is an Iraqi footballer playing for Baghdad club Al-Difaa Al-Madani. He was part of Iraq B team in the 2007 King's Cup. For several years the forward that been touted as starter for the national side after his displays for Al-Zawraa and the Under-19s, however coach after coach have overlooked the dazzling frontman for the national side. Has won the league title at three clubs, in 2006 with Al-Zawraa in which he dispatched the winning penalty, with Arbil FC in 2008 and with Al Shorta in 2013. Al-ShortaArab Police Championship: 2002 Iraqi Premier League: 2012–13Al-ZawraaIraqi Premier League: 2005–06ErbilIraqi Premier League: 2007–08, 2008–09, 2011–12 Muslim Mubarak at Muslim Mubarak on Goalzz


Sławków is a town in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, near Katowice. It borders the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - a metropolis with a population of around 2 million. Sławków is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship it was in Katowice Voivodeship; the population of the town is 6,866. From 1999 to 2001, Sławków was part of Lesser Poland Voivodeship; when it was transferred to Silesian Voivodeship in 2002, it was assigned to Będzin County, despite being separated from the rest of that county by the cities of Dąbrowa Górnicza and Sosnowiec. It is the western terminus of the Broad Gauge Metallurgy Line. Sławków is located in western Lesser Poland, 29 kilometres from Katowice, 56 km from Kraków, in Kraków-Silesia Upland, on the Biała Przemsza river; the town borders Dąbrowa Górnicza, Sosnowiec and Bukowno. Apart from its historic center, Sławków has 25 smaller districts, as much as 35% of the town is covered by forests; the name of the town comes from ancient Slavic given name Sławomir, can be translated as The settlement of Sławko.

Archaeological sites from the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages have been discovered giving evidence to early human settlement in the area. The first written record of the town's name comes from 1220. However, the exact date of its incorporation remains unknown. Indirect written sources indicate that it most took place between 1279 and 1286; this assumption is supported by two documents from the 13th century: a charter issued in 1279 by Prince Bolesław V the Chaste, in which the locality is still called a village and an agreement dated 1286 between the Bishop of Kraków Paweł z Przemankowa and Prince Leszek II the Black, in which Sławków is called a town. In the 1280s, Bishop Paweł z Przemankowa built here a defensive castle, located near western border of Lesser Poland. Due to rich deposits of lead and silver, location on a merchant route from Kraków to Wrocław, Sławków developed, in the 13th century it was one of the most important urban centers of Lesser Poland. In the 14th century its importance diminished, on, the town was destroyed several times in numerous wars, as well as in a fire.

Furthermore, the deposits of silver and lead dried out. Until the Partitions of Poland, Sławków remained administrative center of properties of the Bishop of Kraków. In 1795 Sławków belonged to New Silesia, in 1806 was annexed by the Duchy of Warsaw. In the mid-19th century first industrial enterprises were established here, the town was connected with other locations in the area by a paved road. In 1870 Sławków lost its town privileges, to recover them in 1958. In 1885 it got a rail connection in 1887 with Sosnowiec. In the Second Polish Republic Sławków belonged to part of Kielce Voivodeship. After the war, until 1975, it belonged to Kraków Voivodeship was transferred to Katowice Voivodeship. Between 1977 and 1984, Sławków was a district of Dąbrowa Górnicza. At that time the town grew in size, due to the construction of Katowice Steelworks. Medieval center of the town, with a market square, a town hall from 1905 18th-century inn, St. Nicholas Church, complex of church parish, hospital for miners, ruins of the castle of Bishops of Kraków, Lamus - manor house of Bishops of Kraków St. Jacob Church St. Rozalia wayside shrine Linia Hutnicza Szerokotorowa in Sławków is the longest broad gauge railway line in Poland.

Except for this one line, a few short stretches near border crossings, Poland uses the standard gauge for its railways, unlike Russia and the other former countries of the Soviet Union. The line runs on a single track for 400 km from the Polish-Ukrainian border, crossing it just east of Hrubieszów, to Sławków, it is used only for freight transport iron ore and coal. It is the westernmost broad gauge railway line in Europe, connected to the broad gauge rail system of the countries which before 1991 constituted the Soviet Union; the line is managed by PKP Linia Hutnicza Szerokotorowa Spólka z o.o. company. Previous name of this line was Linia Hutniczo-Siarkowa, but after sulfur ceased to be transported on the line its name was changed. Jewish Community in Sławków on Virtual Shtetl Official Website Official city website

Ham Polo Club

Ham Polo Club is a Hurlingham Polo Association polo club situated in Richmond in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, southwest London, England. It is one of the last surviving club in London; the club occupies a location between Richmond Park and the River Thames overlooked by Ham House, eight miles from Hyde Park Corner. The club's facilities include three polo fields, a stick and ball field, an exercise track, livery service, coaching and a members' clubhouse with a restaurant and bar. Polo is played at Ham Polo Club between September. There are around 125 playing members at Ham and several hundred social members. Ham Polo Club is the last remaining of the many clubs that existed as satellites to London's'Big Three' – Ranelagh and Roehampton; the club began life as the Ham Common Polo Club in 1926, with one full sized ground and two smaller rounds. The first ground was next door to Brown Gates House, Church Road, Ham Common, home of the first chairman, Loftus Storey; the full-sized ground lay between Richmond Gates and Sheen and a regular coach there was Johnny Traill, the first Argentine 10 goaler, who lived at nearby Roehampton.

Ham Common Polo Club, together with Stoke d'Abernon and clubs such as Worcester Park and Crystal Palace, was ideal for Londoners who did not compete in the major tournaments at the'Big Three' but who played for the fun of the game. The 1939 season was the last for the next six years. Ham was revived in 1946 by William Francis Walsh, known universally as Billy. On returning from service in the Army Billy found that Capt. Tom Brigg, the owner of the stables where he had worked, had died and the stables were on the market. Using his gratuity Walsh bought the stables and revived Ham Polo Club under HPA rules, it is believed that Lord Cowdray, Arthur Lucas and Billy Walsh were the trio who rescued polo in the United Kingdom after the war. The first post-war English polo tournament was held at Roehampton in 1947 and the Ham Polo Club team carried off the premier trophy the Roehampton Cup. Three years the club began using a field adjacent to Ham House for matches. In 1954, George Stevens, The Dysart families tenant at Ham House Farm agreed to turn the Ham House orchard into a polo field for the club.

The first president of the club was Major Archie David the patron of the Friars Park team. The Autumn cup which he presented is still played for annually at Ham. Johnny Traill became a familiar figure at the club and Edward Tauchert Rescued the Roehampton Trophy from the Roehampton Golf Club. In 1970, thanks to the efforts of the President Sir David Brown, the club purchased the freehold of the land, using member subscriptions and a substantial bank loan. In 1982, at the age of seventy, Billy Walsh retired as manager of the club to become President, he was succeeded by two further generations managing Ham Polo Club, his daughter and Tim, his grandson. When a fire destroyed the original Clubhouse in 1986, Chairman Geoffrey Godbold replaced it with an old army Nissen hut from the wartime barracks in Richmond Park. Under the leadership of Chairman Nicholas Coulquhoun-Denvers, a second ground was acquired in 1996 and stabling was expanded, using membership debentures and another bank loan. Hunt-Kendall Catering refurbished the clubhouse in exchange for an exclusive trade agreement in 1997 and a new exercise track was added in 1999.

A watering system and a horse-walker was installed in 2003, the roadways were tarmacked in 2007, a professional exercise track was added in 2008, permanent stables were purchased in 2015 and 2016 and the groom's quarters were refurbished in 2017. The club continues to play polo between May and September, managed by Will Healy, the current President is Mohammed S Almarzooqi; the club's Chairman is Howard Davis. There are a number of tournaments run throughout the season at Ham Polo Club; the flagship tournaments are The Summer tournament, The Dubai Trophy, The Roehampton Trophy and the Billy Walsh Tournament. The number of playing members is limited and applicants must be interviewed by the committee. Social membership entitles individuals or families to use the clubhouse facilities on match days as well as being invited to the club's social functions. A field membership bracket was introduced in 2012 for those wishing to picnic in the club's grounds on match days. Ham Polo Club has helped raise £2 million for charity over the last few years.

Several main charitable events are run each year. ChildLine Sundown Polo ChallengeOn a Saturday evening in June each year a polo match and charity auction is held to raise funds for the ChildLine organisation. Patron of the charity Esther Rantzen is always present alongside a host of celebrity guests. Laureus Sport for Good FoundationThe Laureus Sport for Good Foundation works with millions of underprivileged children worldwide. An event takes place annually, this year a number of Laureus ambassadors were in attendance including Edwin Moses, Hugo Porta, Sean Fitzpatrick, Daley Thompson and Boris Becker. Chakravarty CupFor many years the Chakravarty cup was held at Ham Polo Club; the event, started in 1997, raises funds for the charities and foundations supported by The Royal Family. The Prince of Wales took part in the match for nine years. Elle Macpherson, Australian model, television host and actress Ali Albwardy, patron of the Dubai Polo Team Adolfo Cambiaso, 10-goal professional polo player Lolo Castagnola, 9-goal professional polo player Loftus

Intisar Abioto

Intisar Abioto is an artist and storyteller living and working in Portland Oregon. Working within and between the forms of dance, collaboration and poetry, Abioto explores the meaning of time and belonging within the construction of who and what composes the African diaspora. Abioto has travelled across North America and Africa to tell stories of personal identity and collective belonging, her work interprets the tradition of Africans who can fly into contemporary and local landscapes, highlighting the fluidity of migration across national and natural boundaries. Born in Memphis, Abioto moved to Portland, Oregon as a young adult with her family. Herself and four sisters infused this new home base with the creativity intuitive to their home town community and upbringing, she completed undergraduate studies at Wesleyan University. In 2013 Abioto started The Black Portlanders, a tumblr blog that has since expanded from the digital platform into gallery installations; the project began as a way to expand the stories of who belongs in Portland, while honoring the multiple displacements that have disproportionally affected African Americans in Portland from Vanport to contemporary urban reinvestment strategies.

By capturing the full spectrum of identity and belonging within the urban landscape of Portland, the project offers a counter-narrative to press branding Portland as "the whitest city in America". Herself a member of the African Diaspora, The Black Portlanders uses photography to tell stories of transnational migration of African peoples to Portland from a perspective, at once personal and transcendent. In 2015, Abioto expanded the project to include rural experiences by partnering with the National Urban League Portland chapter to illustrate a reissue of the State of Black Oregon, a report documenting economic inequities faced by African American communities across the state with an emphasis on resulting migration shifts; this social justice tool kit was enhanced by Abioto's creative vision, which honors the history of migration from the Southern United States to the Pacific Northwest. The project includes multiple images of each person she photographs, allowing the complexity of each person's natural expressions to unfold from the lenses of camera, the artist's eye, the viewer's retina.

Abioto's work has been featured in galleries internationally such as White Box and the Portland Art Museum. Impactmania "Intisar Abioto: Visual Voice" by Jody Turner