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Phrase structure rules

Phrase structure rules are a type of rewrite rule used to describe a given language's syntax and are associated with the early stages of transformational grammar, proposed by Noam Chomsky in 1957. They are used to break down a natural language sentence into its constituent parts known as syntactic categories, including both lexical categories and phrasal categories. A grammar that uses phrase structure rules is a type of phrase structure grammar. Phrase structure rules as they are employed operate according to the constituency relation, a grammar that employs phrase structure rules is therefore a constituency grammar. Phrase structure rules are of the following form: A → B C meaning that the constituent A is separated into the two subconstituents B and C; some examples for English are as follows: S ⟶ NP VP NP ⟶ N 1 N 1 ⟶ N 1 The first rule reads: A S consists of a NP followed by a VP. The second rule reads: A noun phrase consists of an optional Det followed by a N; the third rule means that a N can be preceded by an optional AP and followed by an optional PP.

The round brackets indicate optional constituents. Beginning with the sentence symbol S, applying the phrase structure rules successively applying replacement rules to substitute actual words for the abstract symbols, it is possible to generate many proper sentences of English. If the rules are correct any sentence produced in this way ought to be grammatically correct, it is to be expected that the rules will generate syntactically correct but semantically nonsensical sentences, such as the following well-known example: Colorless green ideas sleep furiouslyThis sentence was constructed by Noam Chomsky as an illustration that phrase structure rules are capable of generating syntactically correct but semantically incorrect sentences. Phrase structure rules break sentences down into their constituent parts; these constituents are represented as tree structures. The tree for Chomsky's sentence can be rendered as follows: A constituent is any word or combination of words, dominated by a single node.

Thus each individual word is a constituent. Further, the subject NP Colorless green ideas, the minor NP green ideas, the VP sleep furiously are constituents. Phrase structure rules and the tree structures that are associated with them are a form of immediate constituent analysis. In transformational grammar, systems of phrase structure rules are supplemented by transformation rules, which act on an existing syntactic structure to produce a new one; these transformations are not required for generation, as the sentences they produce could be generated by a suitably expanded system of phrase structure rules alone, but transformations provide greater economy and enable significant relations between sentences to be reflected in the grammar. An important aspect of phrase structure rules is that they view sentence structure from the top down; the category on the left of the arrow is a greater constituent and the immediate constituents to the right of the arrow are lesser constituents. Constituents are successively broken down into their parts as one moves down a list of phrase structure rules for a given sentence.

This top-down view of sentence structure stands in contrast to much work done in modern theoretical syntax. In Minimalism for instance, sentence structure is generated from the bottom up; the operation Merge merges smaller constituents to create greater constituents until the greatest constituent is reached. In this regard, theoretical syntax abandoned phrase structure rules long ago, although their importance for computational linguistics seems to remain intact. Phrase structure rules as they are employed result in a view of sentence structure, constituency-based. Thus, grammars that employ phrase structure rules are constituency grammars, as opposed to dependency grammars, which view sentence structure as dependency-based. What this means is that for phrase structure rules to be applicable at all, one has to pursue a constituency-based understanding of sentence structure; the constituency relation is a one-to-one-or-more correspondence. For every word in a sentence, there is at least one node in the syntactic structure that corresponds to that word.

The dependency relation, in contrast, is a one-to-one relation. The distinction is illustrated with the following trees: The constituency tree on the left could be generated by phrase structure rules; the sentence S is broken down into smaller constituent parts. The dependency tree on the right could not, in contrast, be generated by phrase structure rules. A number of representational phrase structure theories of grammar neve

2000 SFA season

The 2000 SFA season was the second regular season of the Texas Sixman Football League.2000 was the first year that the SFA had two separate conferences. Now you had Southern Conference; the Seminoles, Wolf Pack and Vipers all returned for their second seasons of the SFA. The Bobcats, Mean Machine, Red Raiders and Rhinos are all in their first year of competition; the Northern Conference consisted of the Mean Machine, Wolf Pack and Vipers. The Southern Conference consisted of the Bobcats, Red Raiders and Seminoles; the second year of the SFA consisted of ten weeks from February 13, 2000 to May 21, 2000. February 13, 2000 Longhorns 26 - Wolf pack 18 Seminoles 47 - Vipers 0 Rhinos 32 - Raiders 18 Bobcats 38 - Mean Machine 18 February 20, 2000 Mean Machine 28 - Raiders 24 Bobcats 38 - Rhinos 19 Longhorns 54 - Vipers 6 Wolf Pack 33 - Seminoles 30 February 27, 2000 Bobcats 36 - Vipers 24 Seminoles 53 - Rhinos 6 Red Raiders 38 - Wolf Pack 37 Longhorns 29 - Mean Machine 25 March 5, 2000 Seminoles 34 - Mean Machine 24 Raiders 37 - Vipers 0 Wolf Pack 37 - Bobcats 6 Longhorns 32 - Rhinos 19 March 12, 2000 Mean Machine 59 - Rhinos 26 Raiders 32 - Bobcats 12 Seminoles 51 - Longhorns 7 Wolf Pack 48 - Vipers 26 March 19, 2000 Wolf Pack 48 - Rhinos 12 Mean Machine 60 - Vipers 50 Seminoles 45 - Bobcats 0 Raiders 26 - Longhorns 13 March 26, 2000 Seminoles 45 - Raiders 26 Rhinos 24 - Vipers 19 Longhorns 46 - Bobcats 20 Wolf Pack 24 - Mean Machine 20 April 2, 2000 Seminoles 32 - Longhorns 14 Vipers 39 - Wolf Pack 28 Raiders 38 - Bobcats 20 Mean Machine 32 - Rhinos 12 April 9, 2000 Mean Machine 40 - Vipers 26 Raiders 38 - Longhorns 20 Wolf Pack 40 - Rhinos 24 Seminoles 53 - Bobcats 6 April 16, 2000 Longhorns 33 - Bobcats 25 Seminoles 34 - Raiders 33 Vipers 33 - Rhinos 14 Wolf Pack 51 - Mean Machine 33 The second year of playoffs for the SFA consisted of the top 3 from each conference making the playoffs with the top seeds getting a first round bye.

April 30, 2000 Longhorns 45 - Red Raiders 28 Mean Machine 46 - Vipers 38 May 7, 2000 Longhorns 40 - Seminoles 14 Wolf Pack 62 - Mean Machine 46 May 21, 2000 Wolf Pack 46 - Longhorns 40Epler Cup II MVP Pedro Veras QB - Wolf Pack Texas Sixman Football League


In Greek mythology, Comus is the god of festivity and nocturnal dalliances. He is a cup-bearer of the god Dionysus. Comus represents chaos, his mythology occurs in the times of antiquity. During his festivals in Ancient Greece and women exchanged clothes, he was depicted as a young man on the point of unconsciousness from drink. He had a wreath of flowers on his head and carried a torch, in the process of being dropped. Unlike the purely carnal Pan or purely intoxicated Dionysos, Comus was a god of excess. Description of Comus as he appeared in painting is found in Imagines by Philostratus the Elder, a Greek writer and sophist of the 3rd century AD. Comus appears at the start of the masque Pleasure Reconciled to Virtue by Ben Jonson and in Les fêtes de Paphos, an opéra-ballet by Jean-Joseph Cassanéa de Mondonville. In John Milton's masque Comus, the god Comus is described as the son of Circe; this is a post-classical invention. Comus is featured in the baroque operas Les plaisirs de Versailles by Marc-Antoine Charpentier and King Arthur by Henry Purcell and John Dryden, in a masque, Comus, by Thomas Arne.

A selfish dandy, Comus Bassington is the central character in the novel The Unbearable Bassington by Saki. Cult British progressive folk group Comus took their name and much of the lyrical content of their 1971 album First Utterance from Comus. Text and gallery at Theoi Greek MythologyChisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Comus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Wesley Pritchett

Wesley ‘Wes’ Pritchett was an American football player. Pritchett was linebacker for the Notre Dame Fighting Irish between 1985 and leading tackler and all-American on 1988 National Championship team. In 1989 he was drafted by the Miami Dolphins in the 6th round of the NFL draft. Pritchett played for the Atlanta Falcons in 1991. In 1988, an article was published in the New York Times about Pritchett, two other players, Reggie Ho and Frank Stams, about the effort Lou Holtz made to bolster the team after a coaching change; the team went on to win the 1988 National Championship. In 2013 ESPN published a story by reporter Jerry Barca about Pritchett and the famed 1989 Fiesta Bowl, in with Notre Dame beating West Virginia 34-21, making National Champions; the same reporter wrote a book about the team, which included Pritchett, entitled ‘Unbeatable’ in 2013. In 2013 the New York Times published an article by reporter Tim Rohan entitled “In ’88, Irish Needed Three ‘Knuckleheads’ to Win Title” which profiled Pritchett.

Pritchett retired from professional football in 1991. Pritchett is now a financial advisor

Dard (1981 film)

Dard is a 1981 Bollywood crime film directed by Ambrish Sangal. Rajesh Khanna, who has a double role in the film was nominated for a Filmfare Award for Best Actor in 1982 for his performance in this film. Painful movie but best acting of KAKA Deepak is accused of killing a courtesan, Munnibai and a trial take place in court, his lover Seema gets him life imprisonment. Seema remembers her days with Deepak three years ago, when both were ardent lovers and how she loved him. Both consider themselves united by their souls. Deepak wants to meet Seema and she unwillingly meets him in jail. Deepak explains to her. Deepak looks for good opportunities in his career, he has the only family he has left in this world. Seema introduces Deepak to her father, who pretends to accept them. Seema's father urges her to pursue her law career in America, but she refuses as she does not want to leave Deepak for three years. Deepak persuades her to go ahead and Seema obeys him, hoping to get married after three years. After Seema has left, Seema's father shows Deepak his real face and orders Deepak to go away from Seema and Deepak does not accept.

Deepak's sister Sushma has got engaged with a man named Deepak arranges for their marriage. Ajit behaves well, understanding Deepak's financial position, but turns evil when Seema's father tempts him with money to ask for dowry during their marriage and Ajit does so. Unable to get as much money as Ajit asked for, Deepak goes to Seema's father for help. Seema's father agrees to help him on the condition that he should get married to another girl and go away from Seema forever. Unwillingly, Deepak marries another woman, but his wife dies in a year after giving birth to their son Vicky. Left alone with his child, Deepak's misfortune chases him. Deepak takes lands in jail. Seema understands her father's role behind everything and wants to make an appeal on the verdict, but Deepak stops her, he requests her to accept him as her son, to which Seema promises. Seema becomes mother of Vicky and raises him and Deepak spends his life in jail; as years passed, Vicky returns from America after completing his studies and Deepak gets released from prison.

He does not want Vicky to know that he is his father as he is unlucky man and his misfortunes should not affect his son. Vicky introduces her to his mother. Deepak gets a job of gardener in Poonam's house and Vicky becomes a successful lawyer, replacing his mother Seema as public prosecutor. Deepak feels happy on seeing his son. Poonam and Vicky get engaged and everything goes smooth until the arrival of Ajit, now an evil drunkard. Ajit blackmails Seema that he wishes to tell about Deepak to him. Seema yields to his blackmail as she does not want to break the promise made to Deepak about exposing the father-son relationship to Vicky. In due course, Ajit is killed and Deepak is accused of killing him. Vicky appears as public prosecutor against him without knowing that he is his father and demands imprisonment for Deepak. Seema appears in defence for Deepak. Seema struggles hard to keep up the promise given to Deepak. Rajesh Khanna as Deepak Srivastav / Vikas "Vicky" Hema Malini as Seema Poonam Dhillon as Poonam Bhargav Krishan Dhawan Poornima Jayaram Pinchoo Kapoor as Bhargav Ranjeeta Kaur Mazhar Khan as Ajit Saxena Shashi Kiran Om Shivpuri as Dayal Shashi Kiran as Polic Inspector Paidi Jairaj as Jailor Durga Dass The songs of the film are composed by Khayyam with lyrics written by Naqsh Lyallpuri.

29th Filmfare Awards - Rajesh Khanna was nominated in Best Actor category. Dard on IMDb


Caraway known as meridian fennel and Persian cumin, is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to western Asia and North Africa. The plant is similar in appearance to other members of the carrot family, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm stems; the main flower stem is 40 -- 60 cm tall, with small pink flowers in umbels. Caraway fruits called seeds, are crescent-shaped achenes, around 2 mm long, with five pale ridges; the etymology of caraway is complex and poorly understood. Caraway has been called by many names in different regions, with names deriving from the Latin cuminum, the Greek karon, adapted into Latin as carum, the Sanskrit karavi, sometimes translated as "caraway", but other times understood to mean "fennel". English use of the term caraway dates back to at least 1440, is considered by Walter William Skeat to be of Arabic origin, though Gernot Katzer believes the Arabic al-karawya كراوية to be derived from the Latin carum.

The fruits used whole, have a pungent, anise-like flavor and aroma that comes from essential oils carvone and anethole. Caraway is used as a spice in breads rye bread. Caraway is used in desserts, liquors and other foods, it is found in European cuisine. For example, it is used in goulash and caraway seed cake; the roots may be cooked as a vegetable like carrots. Additionally, the leaves are sometimes consumed as herbs, either raw, dried, or cooked, similar to parsley. In Hungary and Serbia, caraway is sprinkled over home-made salty scones, it is used to add flavor to cheeses such as bondost, pultost and Tilsit. Scandinavian akvavit, Icelandic brennivín, several liqueurs are made with caraway. In Middle Eastern cuisine, caraway pudding, called meghli, is a popular dessert during Ramadan, it is made and served in the Levant area in winter and on the occasion of having a new baby. Caraway is added to flavor harissa, a North African chili pepper paste. In Aleppian Syrian cuisine it is used to make the sweet scones named keleacha.

Caraway fruit oil is used as a fragrance component in soaps and perfumes. Caraway is used as a breath freshener, it has a long tradition of use in folk medicine. In the United States, the most common use of caraway is whole as an addition to rye bread – called seeded rye or Jewish rye bread. Caraway fruits are used in Irish soda bread, along with raisins and currants. Caraway is distributed throughout all of Europe except the Mediterranean region. All other European species of Carum have smaller fruits; however the only one, cultivated is Carum carvi, its fruits being used in many ways in cooking and its essential oils in the preparation of certain medicines and liqueurs. The plant prefers well-drained soil rich in organic matter. In warmer regions, it is planted in the winter as an annual. In temperate climates, it is planted as biennial. However, a polyploid variant of this plant was found to be perennial. Finland supplies about 28% of the world's caraway production from some 1500 farms, the high output occurring from its favorable climate and latitudes, which ensure long summer hours of sunlight.

Media related to Carum carvi at Wikimedia Commons This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "caraway". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press