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Phreaking is a slang term coined to describe the activity of a culture of people who study, experiment with, or explore telecommunication systems, such as equipment and systems connected to public telephone networks. The term phreak is a sensational spelling of the word freak with the ph- from phone, may refer to the use of various audio frequencies to manipulate a phone system. Phreak, phreaker, or phone phreak are names used for and by individuals who participate in phreaking; the term first referred to groups who had reverse engineered the system of tones used to route long-distance calls. By re-creating these tones, phreaks could switch calls from the phone handset, allowing free calls to be made around the world. To ease the creation of these tones, electronic tone generators known as blue boxes became a staple of the phreaker community, a group of people that included future Apple Inc. cofounders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. The blue box era came to an end with the ever-increasing use of computerized phone systems, which sent dialing information on a separate, inaccessible channel.

By the 1980s, much of the system in the US and Western Europe had been converted. Phreaking has since become linked with computer hacking; this is sometimes called the H/P culture. Phone phreaking got its start in the late 1950s in the United States, its golden age was the late 1960s and early 1970s. Phone phreaks spent a lot of time dialing around the telephone network to understand how the phone system worked, engaging in activities such as listening to the pattern of tones to figure out how calls were routed, reading obscure telephone company technical journals, learning how to impersonate operators and other telephone company personnel, digging through telephone company trash bins to find "secret" documents, sneaking into telephone company buildings at night and wiring up their own telephones, building electronic devices called blue boxes, black boxes, red boxes to help them explore the network and make free phone calls, hanging out on early conference call circuits and "loop arounds" to communicate with one another and writing their own newsletters to spread information.

Before 1984, long-distance telephone calls were a premium item in the United States, with strict regulations. In some locations, calling across the street counted as long distance. To report that a phone call was long distance meant an elevated importance universally accepted because the calling party is paying by the minute to speak to the called party. Phreaking consisted of techniques to evade the long-distance charges; this evasion was illegal. In 1990, the pager cloning technique was used by law enforcement. In the UK the situation was rather different due to the difference in technology between the American and British systems, the main difference being the absence of tone dialing and signalling in the 1950s and 1960s; the tone system in the United States has been replaced, but in some countries, in addition to new systems, the tone system is still available, for example in Italy. One of the first phreaking methods was switch-hooking, which allows placing calls from a phone where the rotary dial or keypad has been disabled by a key lock or other means to prevent unauthorized calls from that phone.

It is done by pressing and releasing the switch hook to open and close the subscriber circuit, simulating the pulses generated by the rotary dial. Most current telephone exchanges support this method, as they need to be backward compatible with old subscriber hardware. By clicking the hook for a variable number of times at 5 to 10 clicks per second, separated by intervals of one second, the caller can dial numbers as if they were using the rotary dial; the pulse counter in the exchange counts the pulses or clicks and interprets them in two possible ways. Depending on continent and country, one click with a following interval can be either "one" or "zero" and subsequent clicks before the interval are additively counted; this renders ten consecutive clicks being either "zero" or "nine", respectively. Some exchanges allow using additional clicks for special controls, but numbers 0-9 now fall in one of these two standards. One special code, "flash", is a short single click, possible but hard to simulate.

Back in the day of rotary dial often technically identical phone sets were marketed in multiple areas of the world, only with plugs matched by country and the dials being bezeled with the local standard numbers. Such key-locked telephones, if wired to a modern DTMF capable exchange, can be exploited by a tone dialer that generates the DTMF tones used by modern keypad units; these signals are now uniformly standardized worldwide, along with rotary dialing, they are all, left of in-band signaling. It is notable that the two methods can be combined: Even if the exchange does not support DTMF, the key lock can be circumvented by switch-hooking, the tone dialer can be used to operate automated DTMF controlled services that can't be used with rotary dial; because the UK network was run by the Post Office was reliant on Strowger switches, the techniques used in the UK were different. The exchanges worked on pulses received from each subscriber's phone, so tone signaling was of no use; the techniques relied on the quirks of the exchange wiring, or facilities put in by the engineering staff.

Some typical tricks used between the 1950s and 1970s included: 9-1-11. By dialing an exchange local to the caller's phone, dialing 9-1-10 at the right moment tapping the phone rest to add an extra pulse, this could give irregular Subscriber Trunk Dialling

Marble Hornets

Marble Hornets is a YouTube web series inspired by the Slender Man online mythos. The first video was posted on YouTube on June 20, 2009, following a post that its creator, Troy Wagner, created on the Something Awful forum the previous day. To date, there are 92 videos on the main channel; the series has 39 accompanying videos from a side-channel, "totheark". These videos, as well as the eponymous "totheark", have been featured multiple times throughout the story; as of June 16, 2019, the principal channel has over 100 million views. On August 3, 2015, a follow-up series titled Clear Lakes 44 was uploaded onto the Marble Hornets channel; as of April 2016, Clear Lakes 44 was cancelled after the members of the creative team went their separate ways, as confirmed by Wagner. On October 16, 2016, a successor to Clear Lakes 44, titled ECKVA, was launched. On December 27, 2017, Wagner posted a new photo to his Twitter page, teasing a comic related to Marble Hornets slated for a 2018 release. In 2015, a film spinoff Always Watching: A Marble Hornets Story was released.

Season 1The series follows Jay Merrick, a young man who attempts to find out what happened during the filming of Marble Hornets, an unfinished student film helmed by Jay's friend, Alex Kralie. Three years before, Alex abruptly ended the project after only two months of production. Before cutting contact with Jay, Alex gave him the tapes containing raw footage from the film and told Jay never to talk about it with him again. By watching the tapes, Jay discovers that the filming seemed to be hampered by a figure known as "The Operator" who stalked Alex no matter what time and place. Alex‘s physical and mental state became affected by The Operator such as Alex having severe coughing fits, severe paranoia to the point of affecting his personality making him more stressful and aggressive towards his cast and crew members, buying tons of tapes to film himself in order to catch footage of The Operator on camera. Along with this, Jay finds that the tapes have bad audio and visual problems such as audio distortion, visual distortion, inaudible audio at times, missing footage, no audio.

Most of these are assumed to be The Operator `. Jay does speculate; the Operator soon begins invading Jay's personal life, inducing him to set up cameras in his apartment. Posting the tapes to YouTube as "Entries" nets Jay cryptic and threatening responses from a user known as "Totheark". Jay's investigation leads him to meet with one of the film's cast members, Tim Wright, sends him to the abandoned house of another cast member, Brian Thomas where Jay finds the house trashed and finds several important things there such as a bullet casing, a pill bottle, a bunch of Alex’s drawings, a water bottle in a closet door along with blanket, a trail of blood upstairs that leads to the bathroom where Jay finds dry blood in them sink, that the lights don’t work. Throughout his visit, Jay hears lots of strange noises and has a severe coughing fit. Jay decides to take the stuff. Totheark responds to Jay with a video revealing they were the ones making the strange noises and were watching Jay the whole time.

Jay uploads footage of he, Tim doing a scene together while The Operator was standing outside watching them through the window. Jay notes that he is disturbed by the footage since he has no memory of it happening. Jay decides to go back to Brian‘s house in case he missed something important, where he has his first encounter with a masked figure who tackles Jay before having a seizure and Jay waking up the next day with the knife he brought with him gone. Jay uploads the next entry revealing that like Alex, he himself had been filming himself for a while but found nothing important and recorded it to a hard drive until he found footage of the masked figure watching him sleeping before Jay disappears for 2 hours. Totheark responds to Jay with a video showing where Jay was during those past 2 hours. Jay uploads the next entry where he analyzes all of the stuff he found during his first visit at Brian’s house, he finds that the pill bottle is empty and has had its label torn off though he didn’t find it like that.

He finds that bullet casing he had is missing. Jay suspects. Jay looks through Alex’s drawings and finds a message telling him to go to a tower. Jay visits a red tower to find a tape that shows Alex leaving his cameraman Seth Wilson in an abandoned building when confronted with The Operator, with Alex subsequently determining that all of the cast and crew of Marble Hornets are "gone". Threats of stalking from Totheark causes Jay to flee his apartment, subsequently burned down. Jay receives video in the mail of Alex and his girlfriend, Amy Walters, being attacked by The Operator; as a result, Jay sets out to find Alex. Season 2Seven months an amnesiac Jay wakes up in a hotel room and meets with a amnesiac young woman, Jessica Locke, who subsequently disappears, he unlocks a safe in his hotel room containing videos and a hard drive revealing the events that transpired during the previous seven months. The footage shows that, during the missing seven months, Jay had a run-in with Alex, which saw them forming an alliance to find Amy.

Jay learned that the masked figure was Tim. Having been driven insane by the terror of The Operator and suspicious of Jay spying on him, Alex killed a stranger whose body was taken by The Operator; the videos reveal that

Jeff Fairburn

Jeffrey Fairburn is a British businessman, the chief executive of Persimmon plc, a British housebuilding company and constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, from April 2013 to November 2018. Jeffrey Fairburn was born on 22 May 1966, he is the son of a motor mechanic father, grew up in York, left Fulford Comprehensive at the age of 17. After leaving school, Fairburn joined a two-year youth training scheme in York to become a quantity surveyor and training for a Higher National Certificate qualification at York Technical College. Fairburn joined Persimmon in 1989, becoming CEO in April 2013; as of December 2017, Fairburn had been a director of 305 UK companies. In December 2017, Persimmon's chairman, Nicholas Wrigley, resigned over his role in awarding Fairburn a bonus in the region of £100 million; the Persimmon bonus scheme is believed to be the UK's "most generous ever", was scheduled to pay more than £500 million to 150 senior staff from 31 December 2016. In March 2017, Fairburn agreed to hand back £25 million of the bonus and set aside a "substantial portion" of the sum to charity, bringing the total payout to £75 million.

In October 2018, he walked off camera during a BBC Look North interview, after his press officer objected to his being asked about the bonus. His parting words to the reporter were "I think that's unfortunate that you've done that." In November 2018, Persimmon asked Fairburn to leave the company. The controversy around Fairburn continued in November 2019 when Politicians and campaigners urged him to reveal whether he has donated a portion of his controversial £75m bonus as he promised, as it appears no charity has been set up in the former Persimmon boss's name. A year after he was forced to step down, the Charity Commission says it does not have any record of a trust bearing Mr Fairburn's name. Neither does it appear that the ex-housebuilding chief executive is a trustee of any charity in England or Wales. Fairburn drives a Range Rover, enjoys Formula One racing, his holiday destination of choice is Florida


The Schapendoes or Dutch Sheepdog, is a breed of dog originating in the Netherlands. The Schapendoes was a herding dog and general farm dog, but today participates in dog sports such as agility and flyball; the Schapendoes descends from a general type of farm and herding dog popular in the Drenthe province of the Netherlands, the Veluwe, an area of forests and swampland. The dogs there had many names, were not a specific breed as we use the term today, they were the local working dog, adapted to the people and types of work needed. They were exhibited in early dog shows as Domestic herding dog; the dogs became nearly extinct during World War II, the modern day breed descends from the few survivors. The Dutch Raad van Beheer first recognised the breed in 1952, the first standard was written in 1954. Related breeds are the Bearded Collie, the Puli, the Polish Lowland Sheepdog, the Old English Sheepdog, the Briard, the Bergamasco Shepherd and the Old German Sheepdog, all of which are small versions of the "mountain type" herding and livestock guardian dogs.

The breed was recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1971, as breed number 313 in Group 1, Section 1: Sheepdogs. Exported to the North America, the breed is recognised by the Canadian Kennel Club and the United Kennel Club in their respective Herding groups; the American Kennel Club has listed the Schapendoes as part of its Foundation Stock Service, the first step in breed recognition. Additionally, it is recognised by numerous minor kennel clubs and internet-based dog registry businesses; the Schapendoes is a medium-sized dog with long, thick fur on the body, legs and face. Small ears hang down; the face beard. The coat is of any colour. Height is up to 12 -- 20 kg, up to 25 kg for males, in weight; the breed standard describes the Schapendoes as friendly, high spirited, affectionate. He is not a guard dog or aggressively protective, if properly socialised while young, would most make a good family dog, as well as a good dog for active sports. Lively and intelligent dogs must receive regular training and outings.

Temperament of individual dogs may vary. The Schapendoes is furthermore independent and will cooperate with its trainer, rather than obey orders. Health problems or claims of exceptional health have not been documented for this breed. Before acquiring a puppy, make sure that sire and dame have all health clearances. Landrace Schapendoes club in the Netherlands International Schapendoes Federation a group working to coordinate breed development internationally The American Kennel Club lists two breed clubs, but when the breed is accepted, there will be only one parent breed club; the Schapendoes Club USA will be vying with the Schapendoes Club of America

Prebaetic System

The Prebaetic System is a system of mountain ranges that forms the northeasternmost prolongation of the Baetic System in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Although it is sometimes referred to as Cordillera Prebética, it is not a proper cordillera, or continuous alignment of ranges, but a broken system of mountain ranges. Unlike the other two subsystems of the Baetic System, it is not present in the western area, but begins west of the eastern edge of the Sierra Sur de Jaén near Martos; the Prebaetic System runs along eastern interior Andalusia, across the Region of Murcia, reaching the Mediterranean Sea shores in the southern Valencian Community. Its highest point is Sierra de la Sagra; the Sierra de María in northern Almeria Province runs across the Prebaetic and the Penibaetic System, overlapping with both. Geologically the Prebaetic System shares similar characteristics to its parent system, the Subbaetic System and it is considered its eastern offshoot; the materials that compose it were formed in a shallow sea.

The Iberian System rises north of the eastern part of the Prebaetic System. Some of the mountain ranges that make up the Prebaetic complex are, from west to east: Sierra Sur de Jaén, overlapping with the Sistema Subbético Sierra Mágina Sierra de la Sagra Sierra de Cazorla Sierra de Segura Sierra de Alcaraz Sierra de Castril Sierra de Cabrilla Sierra Seca Sierra del Taibilla Sierra de María, overlapping with the Sistema Penibético. Serra de Crevillent Sierra de Orihuela Sierra de Callosa Serra Mariola Serra del Ferrer La Carrasqueta Puig Campana Aitana Maigmó Massif Serrella Serra de la Xortà Serra de la Penya-roja Montgó Massif Sierra de Bernia Penyal d'Ifac Baetic System Geography of Spain Geology of the Iberian Peninsula Cuenca del Guadalquivir Past and present potential distribution of the Iberian Abies species: a phytogeographic approach using fossil pollen data and species distribution models Michael Deusch, Axel Friebe & Manfred Krautter: The Spongiolithic Facies in the Middle and Upper Jurassic of Spain - Abstract

Dream Fighter

"Dream Fighter" is the 8th major single recorded by Japanese girl group Perfume for their second studio album, Triangle. It was written, composed and produced by the Japanese musician and Capsule member Yasutaka Nakata; the single included the B-side track, "Negai", of which a remix version appeared on the parent album. It was premiered on November 2008, as the second single from the album in Japan, it was released on June 19, 2013, in European and Oceanic regions, on June 25 in North America. Musically, "Dream Fighter" is an electropop song, influenced by dance music. On its release, the track received favourable reviews from music critics; some highlighted the song as one of Perfume's best singles from their album and their career, commended the production and commercial appeal. It achieved success in Japan, peaking at number two on the Oricon Singles Chart and Billboard's Japan Hot 100 chart, it was certified gold, twice, by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for physical and digital shipments of 100,000 units.

An accompanying music video was shot by Kazuaki Seki. With additional promotion through Japanese commercials, the song has been performed on several concert tours by Perfume, including their 2008 Budoukan and their 2013 Perfume World Tour. "Dream Fighter" was written, composed and produced by the Japanese musician and Capsule member Yasutaka Nakata. Alongside this, it was recorded and mastered by him; the song was recorded in 2008 at Contemode Studios, Tokyo, by Nakata. Alongside the album’s remaining material, "Dream Fighter" has partial rights by Nakata through Yahama Music Communications; the single included the B-side track, "Negai", which a remix version appeared on the parent album. It was premiered on November 9, 2008, as the second single from the group's second studio album, Triangle; the single was released on June 19, 2013, in European and Oceanic regions, June 25 in North America. The CD single contains both their instrumental versions; the DVD version has a bonus disc of the music video to the single.

The artwork shows Perfume sitting in front of a grey background, with digitally-added lighting circulating them. Both formats include a bonus lyric booklet, a standard booklet that includes three shots of each member holding the digital-added lights; the DVD format included a limited edition flyer, where the first 100 customers who send it back to Tokuma Japan Communications before a certain date received bonus merchandise by the band. Musically, "Dream Fighter" was described as a technopop song, influenced by electronic dance music. A staff editor from CD Journal reviewed the parent album, noted elements of electronic music; the reviewer commented that the song included musical elements of dance music, though "not too heavy". A staff editor from Selective Hearing, AllMusic editor Adam Greenberg, noted elements of electropop through the songs compositions. Hot Express writer Yuki Sugioka labelled it a "hard dancefloor-oriented" track. A Channel-Ai staff member called it one of Perfume's "most interesting" tracks from their discography.

The editor continued saying, "The vocals sound more natural because the vocoder isn’t adjusted to the levels that are similar to the previous works, the instrumental flows smoothly using mid-high tones that provide the'dreamy' feel..."The group's vocals are processed with autotune and vocoder post-production tools, notable throughout the group's earlier work. Martin, who wrote about the song in The Japan Times, said that the girls vocals, "are obliterated beneath a blizzard of vocoder and an auto-tuning permafrost, all feeding into the music’s air of glacial cool..." With the lyrics discussing the girls fight to make their dreams come true, critics have analysed the lyrical content in their reviews. A second editor at CD Journal reviewed the single's release, described the song's lyrical content as "cheerful". A staff editor from Amazon Japan labelled the song a "girl anthem", described the lyrical content as "Cinderella–esque". "Dream Fighter" received positive reviews from most music critics.

A CD Journal staff member reviewed the parent album, labelled the song a "refreshing listen", in comparison to the group's earlier work. A staff editor at Selective Hearing was positive in their review. Ian Martin, writing for The Japan Times, was positive in his review, labelling it a "pure, spine tingling pop gem". However, he felt that the song's producer, Yasutaka Nakata, was "limiting" his production skills by adding a "rhythmical hiccup" into the song. Martin had contributed into writing the group's AllMusic biography, listed the track as one of Perfume's best tracks from the album, their discography. Yuki Sugioka from Hot Express was positive, commending the song's composition, Nakata's production skills, labelled it "widely enjoyable" and "catchy". A staff editor from Channel Ai was positive in their review, awarding the song four-and-a-half stars out of five, they labelled the track the group's best single in 2008, went on to say, "So, the song is different from the others. Change is good... for a while though."

However, the editor did criticize the group's solo performance during the verse sections. An Amazon staff member highlighted the song as one of the best tracks from the album. A Japanese website, Goo Ranking, hosted a poll for their audience to vote for the best Perfume song; as a result, "Dream Fighter" was ranked at numbe