The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i. e. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles, the Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. The sea was known as Archipelago, but in English this words meaning has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and, generally. In ancient times, there were various explanations for the name Aegean, a possible etymology is a derivation from the Greek word αἶγες – aiges = waves, hence wavy sea, cf. αἰγιαλός, hence meaning sea-shore. The Venetians, who ruled many Greek islands in the High and Late Middle Ages, popularized the name Archipelago, in some South Slavic languages the Aegean is often called White Sea. The Aegean Sea covers about 214,000 square kilometres in area, the seas maximum depth is 3,543 metres, east of Crete. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters, with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south, Antikythera, Kasos, many of the Aegean Islands, or chains of islands, are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland.
One chain extends across the sea to Chios, another extends across Euboea to Samos, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Aegean Sea as follows, On the South. In the Dardanelles. A line joining Kum Kale and Cape Helles, the dense Mediterranean water sinks below the Black Sea inflow to a depth of 23–30 metres, flows through the Dardanelles Strait and into the Sea of Marmara at velocities of 5–15 cm/s. The Black Sea outflow moves westward along the northern Aegean Sea, Aegean Sea Intermediate Water – Aegean Sea Intermediate Water extends from 40–50 m to 200–300 metres with temperatures ranging from 11–18 °C. Aegean Sea Bottom Water – occurring at depths below 500–1000 m with a uniform temperature. The current coastline dates back to about 4000 BC, before that time, at the peak of the last ice age sea levels everywhere were 130 metres lower, and there were large well-watered coastal plains instead of much of the northern Aegean. When they were first occupied, the islands including Milos with its important obsidian production were probably still connected to the mainland.
The present coastal arrangement appeared c.7000 BC, with post-ice age sea levels continuing to rise for another 3,000 years after that, the subsequent Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean Sea have given rise to the general term Aegean civilization. In ancient times, the sea was the birthplace of two ancient civilizations – the Minoans of Crete and the Mycenean Civilization of the Peloponnese, arose the city-states of Athens and Sparta among many others that constituted the Athenian Empire and Hellenic Civilization. Plato described the Greeks living round the Aegean like frogs around a pond, the Aegean Sea was invaded by the Persians and the Romans, and inhabited by the Byzantine Empire, the Bulgarians, the Venetians, the Genoese, the Seljuq Turks, and the Ottoman Empire. The Aegean was the site of the democracies, and its seaways were the means of contact among several diverse civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean. Many of the islands in the Aegean have safe harbours and bays, in ancient times, navigation through the sea was easier than travelling across the rough terrain of the Greek mainland
Vehicle registration plates of Greece
Greek vehicle registration plates are composed of three letters and four digits per plate. The letters represent the district that issues the plates while the numbers begin from 1000 to 9999, similar plates with digits beginning from 1 to 999 are issued for motorcycles which exceed 50 cc. With the exception of Athens and Thessaloniki, all districts are represented by the first 2 letters, the final letter in the sequence changes in Greek alphabetical order after 9,000 issued plates. For example, Patras plates are ΑΧΑ-1000, where ΑΧ represents the Achaia prefecture of which Patras is the capital, when ΑΧΑ-9999 is reached the plates turn to ΑΧΒ-1000 and this continues until ΑΧΧ is finished. Only the letters from the intersection between the Latin and Greek alphabets by glyph appearance are used, namely Α, Β, Ε, Ζ, Η, Ι, Κ, Μ, Ν, Ο, Ρ, Τ, Υ, Χ. This is because Greece is a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. The rule applies in a way in Russia, Belarus and Herzegovina. Combinations used for residents are L-NNNN and are limited.
Until 2003, taxis used L-NNNN, the plate was aligned with the prefecture, when number plates were introduced to Greece, they were numbered and in the late 1950s the system was L-NNN and LL-NNN. The letters were Greek letters and Latin letters, respectively, in 1956, the system was NNNNNN. In 1972, they became lettered and the system was LL-NNNN while trucks used L-NNNN, in 1983, the system was LLL-NNNN and the first two letters are prefecture letters. In 2004, the euroband was added, the first 2 of 3 letters of a licence plate usually represent the prefecture where the car was registered. Π. — Disabled in war ΔΟΚ — Test plates ΔΣ — Corps Diplomatique or foreign delegation Ε. Α. or ΕΛ. ΑΣ. — Hellenic Police ΛΣ — Coast Guard ΞΑ — Foreign missions ΕΣ — Hellenic Army ΠΑ — Hellenic Air Force ΠΝ — Hellenic Navy ΠΣ — Fire Guard ΠΚ — President of the Government, i. e
Aetolia-Acarnania is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece and the administrative region of West Greece. A combination of the regions of Aetolia and Acarnania, it is the countrys largest regional unit. Its capital is Missolonghi for historical reasons, with its biggest city, the area is now connected with the Peloponnese peninsula via the Rio-Antirio Bridge. The surrounding regional units take in Arta in Epirus, a narrow length bordering Karditsa of Thessaly, Evrytania to the northeast, Mountains dominate the north, northeast and southeast, especially the Acarnanian Mountains. The longest and main river is the Acheloos, which ends as a delta in wetlands to the southwest on a fertile valley. The second longest is Evinos, others include the Ermitsa, the Inachos, the regional unit excludes the islands lying to its west, since they belong to the Kefalonia and Ithaca regional units. There is one reservoir and a lake in its central part, lakes include the Amvrakia, the Lysimachia and Trichonida, and artificial lakes and reservoirs include Kastraki, the largest lake in Greece since its creation in 1970, and Stratos.
Two lagoons are found in the part of the regional unit, the Messolongi. Its climate tends toward hot summers and mild winters in the low-lying areas. At the highest elevations, summers are cool, and snow, during the Ottoman period, between the 16th century until the Greek War of Independence, the region was called Karleli and formed a province in the Rumelia Eyalet. Evrytania separated from the prefecture in 1948, in the 20th century, ferry services between Rio and the Peloponnese began. And in the 1950s and the 1960s ferry services began to incorporate vehicles, following World War II and the Greek Civil War a number of buildings needed to be repaired. A drawbridge linking the island of Lefkada began in the 1960s, two more dams were added, the Stratos Hydroelectric Dam in the 1980s and another in the late-1980s. The following years, GR-5 bypassed Messolonghi and Agrinion and GR-38 became connected with paved road with Eurytania, in the late-1980s, the by-pass of Naupaktos began construction but after paving the road, the signs did not appear and until 1998, it was left unopened.
In 1999, the road was re-repaired and finally opened to traffic, in 2000, the construction of the Rio-Antirio or the Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge connecting the Peloponnese began construction and was opened to traffic in August 2004. A railway formally served the places from Kryoneri and Agrinio and served with the ferry with Rio, in the 1980s, the service came to an end and was the next on the list of prefectures not connected with rail. Greek National Road 5/E55, SE, S, Cen, N Greek National Road 38, Cen
Lamia is a city in central Greece. The city dates back to antiquity, and is today the capital of the unit of Phthiotis. One account says that the city was named after the figure of Lamia, the daughter of Poseidon. Another holds that it is named after the Malians, the inhabitants of the surrounding area, in the Middle Ages, Lamia was called Zetounion, a name first encountered in the 8th Ecumenical Council in 869. It was known as Girton under Frankish rule following the Fourth Crusade, in Turkish, it was sometimes called Izdin or İzzeddin. The city was known as Zeitoun. Archaeological excavations have shown the site of Lamia to have inhabited since at least the Bronze Age. The city was fortified in the 5th century BC, and was contested by the Macedonians and Aetolians until the Roman conquest in the early 2nd century BC. After Alexander the Greats death in 323 BC, the Athenians, the regent of Macedon, took refuge behind the substantial walls of the city. The war ended with the death of the Athenian general Leosthenes, Lamia prospered afterwards, especially in the 3rd century BC under Aetolian hegemony, which came to an end when Manius Acilius Glabrio sacked the city in 190 BC.
Little is known of the history after. In Late Antiquity, the city was the seat of a bishop, suffragan of Larissa, the Synecdemus of Hierocles includes Lamia among the 16 cities of the province of Thessaly. The city was occupied by Slavs in the 7th century, and re-appears only in 869/70 under the name of Zetounion, following the Fourth Crusade, the city was captured by the Frankish crusaders. Initially, it was given as a fief to the Knights Templar, under Frankish rule, it was the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, probably a suffragan of the Latin Archbishop of Neopatras. 1218/20, or perhaps shortly after 1223, the two towns were captured by Epirote forces. It thereby again became a Catholic see, the Catalans held the city from 1318 until 1391, and passed to the Acciaioli Dukes of Athens. The fortress was razed by the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I in 1394, after the disastrous Battle of Ankara in 1402, the weakened Ottomans were forced to return some territories, including the region of Zetounion, to Byzantine rule.
The Turks besieged the city for two years sometime before 1415, but the Byzantines resisted successfully, sometime between 1424 and July 1426, the city had been once more conquered by the Turks
Malians (Greek tribe)
The Malians were a Greek tribe that resided at the mouth of the river Spercheios in Greece. The Malian Gulf is named after them, in the western valley of the Spercheios, their land was adjacent to the Aenianes. In the town of Anthele, the Malians had an important temple of Demeter, in 426 BCE, the Malians asked Sparta for help in their war against the Oetaeans. The Spartans founded the town Heraclea Trachis in place of Trachis, in the following decades, the Malians were under the hegemony of Sparta until they revolted against Sparta in the Corinthian War. In this war, they lost their land south of the Spercheios, Herakleia Trachis was given to the Oitaians, the Malians betrayed Sparta in the battle of Thermopylae, helping the Persians surround the greek army. Together with the Oitaians and the Ainians, the Malians became members of the Corinthian League and, in 235 BCE, in 189 BCE they were joined to Achaea Phthiotis and since that time the Malians were regarded as Thessalians
Larissa (regional unit)
Larissa is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Thessaly and its capital is the city of Larissa. Larissa is the second largest regional unit in Greece, exceeded only by Aetolia-Acarnania and it covers about one-third of Thessaly. The tallest mountain in Greece, Mount Olympus is situated in the part of the regional unit. Mount Ossa is situated in the east, at the Aegean coast, the lower stretch of the river Pineios flows through the Vale of Tempe, between Olympus and Ossa. The northern part is covered forests, but most of the regional unit is fertile land. Larissa has a mainly Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters, winter is harsher in the mountains areas, notably the north and Mount Olympus. Larissa is often the warmest area in Greece in summer and the coldest in winter, the highest temperature ever recorded was 45.4 °C and the coldest was -21.6 °C. Τhe city experiences very often temperatures over 40 °C, the regional unit Larissa is subdivided into 7 municipalities.
These are, Agia Elassona Farsala Kileler Larissa Tempi Tyrnavos Larissa was created as a prefecture in 1882, as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Larissa was created out of the former prefecture Larissa. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, Province of Larissa Province of Tyrnavos Province of Agia Province of Elassona Province of Farsala Note, Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece, they were abolished in 2006. The area of Larissa was home to the Pelasgians until they merged into the broeader Greek culture, the area was invaded and was ruled by the Kingdom of Macedonia a few centuries later, and was conquered by the Roman Republic after the Third Macedonian War. The Roman imperial period was followed by Byzantine rule, which was in turn succeeded by the Ottoman Empire, parts of Thessaly revolted during the Greek War of Independence, but Thessaly remained under Ottoman Turkish rule.
During the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, the area was invaded by the Ottomans. The northern portions of the prefecture, the Tempe Valley and Mount Olympus, were taken by Greece during the First Balkan War in 1912-1913, the economy increased since the annexation in 1881 and after 1913 for the north. After the Greco-Turkish War in Asia Minor of 1920-1922, refugees were relocated to the Prefecture, several villages were created for them across the prefecture. During World War II, the area was a scene of partisan activity
In Greek mythology, Achilles was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad. His mother was the immortal nymph Thetis, and his father, Achilles’ most notable feat during the Trojan War was the slaying of the Trojan hero Hector outside the gates of Troy. Although the death of Achilles is not presented in the Iliad, other sources concur that he was killed near the end of the Trojan War by Paris, legends state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel. Alluding to these legends, the term Achilles heel has come to mean a point of weakness, Achilles name can be analyzed as a combination of ἄχος grief and λαός a people, nation. In other words, Achilles is an embodiment of the grief of the people, Achilles role as the hero of grief forms an ironic juxtaposition with the conventional view of Achilles as the hero of κλέος kleos. Laos has been construed by Gregory Nagy, following Leonard Palmer, to mean a corps of soldiers, a muster.
With this derivation, the name would have a meaning in the poem, when the hero is functioning rightly, his men bring grief to the enemy. The poem is in part about the misdirection of anger on the part of leadership, R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name. The name Achilleus was a common and attested name among the Greeks soon after the 7th century BC. It was turned into the female form Ἀχιλλεία attested in Attica in the 4th century BC and, in the form Achillia, Achilles was the son of the Nereid Thetis and Peleus, the king of the Myrmidons. Zeus and Poseidon had been rivals for the hand of Thetis until Prometheus, for this reason, the two gods withdrew their pursuit, and had her wed Peleus. Thetis, although a daughter of the sea-god Nereus, was brought up by Hera. According to the Achilleid, written by Statius in the 1st century AD, and to no surviving previous sources, however, he was left vulnerable at the part of the body by which she held him, his heel. It is not clear if this version of events was known earlier, in another version of this story, Thetis anointed the boy in ambrosia and put him on top of a fire, to burn away the mortal parts of his body.
She was interrupted by Peleus and abandoned both father and son in a rage, none of the sources before Statius makes any reference to this general invulnerability. To the contrary, in the Iliad Homer mentions Achilles being wounded, in Book 21 the Paeonian hero Asteropaeus, son of Pelagon and he cast two spears at once, one grazed Achilles elbow, drawing a spurt of blood. Peleus entrusted Achilles to Chiron the Centaur, on Mt. Pelion, Achilles consuming rage is at times wavering, but at other times he cannot be cooled. Thetis foretold that her sons fate was either to gain glory and die young, or to live a long, Achilles chose the former, and decided to take part in the Trojan war
Karditsa (regional unit)
Karditsa is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Thessaly and its name is derived from its capital Karditsa, a small city of approximately 40,000 people. Karditsa borders the regional units of Trikala to the north, Larissa to the east, Phthiotis to the southeast, Evrytania to the south, Aetolia-Acarnania to the southwest and Arta to the west. The main rivers are Megdovas in the south, the Pineios in the north, the Plastiras Dam and Lake Plastiras, located to the west of the city of Karditsa, supply water to the plains and the central part of Greece. Located in south-western Thessaly, it is primarily an agricultural area, farmlands dominate the central and the eastern part, which belongs to the Thessalian Plain. The western and southern part of the unit is mountainous. The Agrafa region, straddling the border with Evrytania, is known for its resistance against Ottoman rule. The regional unit Karditsa is subdivided into 6 municipalities and these are, Argithea Karditsa Lake Plastiras Mouzaki Palamas Sofades Karditsa was created as a prefecture in 1899, and again in 1947.
As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Karditsa was created out of the former prefecture Karditsa, the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below and its economy and agriculture boomed during that period, Karditsa was administered as the Trikala–Karditsa prefecture until 1947. It was affected by World War II and the Greek Civil War which saw many buildings destroyed and inhabitants left homeless, the prefecture was rebuilt and received electricity and motorised transport, while emigration began in the 1950s, when construction of Lake Plastiras was added. Television arrived in the 1970s and the 1980s for its villages, the population was 121,775 in 2001. The Public Market of Karditsa is one of UNESCOs protected cultural monuments, There is a Police Academy. Anagennisi Karditsa - Karditsa - second division A. O, Karditsa - Karditsa - fourth division Iraklis Sofades - Sofades Tavropos - Karditsa - fourth division There are a number of highways E75 and the main railway from Volos to Meteora crosses Thessaly.
The region is linked to the rest of Europe through International Airport of Central Greece located in Nea Anchialos in a small distance from Karditsa. Greek National Road 30, NW, Cen
Kallidromo is a mountain in southeastern Phthiotis and northeastern Phocis, in Central Greece. Its maximum elevation is 1,399 m, the Kallidromo lies south of the Malian Gulf, east of Mount Oeta and north of the Cephissus valley. The strategic site of Thermopylae lies north of the mountain, the village of Drymaia is on the mountain. Nearby places are Mendenitsa to the northeast and Amfikleia to the south, the Motorway 1 passes north of the mountain. The railway from Athens to Lamia and Thessaloniki passes south and west of the mountain
Mount Oeta is a mountain in Central Greece. A southeastern offshoot of the Pindus range, it is 2,152 m high, since 1966, the core area of the mountain is a national park, and much of the rest has been declared a protected area under Natura 2000. Mount Oeta is located on the boundaries of the prefectures of Phocis in the south, to the east, Oeta is defined by the gorge of the Asopos river, which forms its boundary with the neighbouring Mount Kallidromo. The southern slopes of Oeta are very gentle, bordering with the mountains Vardousia to the southwest, on its western slope, Oeta is separated from Mount Goulina by the valley of the river Vistriza, ancient Inachos. Three major rivers spring forth from the mountain and Asopos from the east, the streams of the southern slope flow into the river Mornos. The mountains tallest peak, has a height of 2,152 metres, while the second-tallest is that of Greveno at 2,117 metres. With an area of 7,000 hectares, of which 3,370 form the zone and 3,630 the periphery.
Any human activity that impacts the environment in whatsoever way is forbidden within the national parks boundaries. The area of the park has furthermore been declared a Special Area of Conservation as part of the Natura 2000 Network. The Gorgopotamos Gorge has declared a SAC, and together with the national park. Oeta has two wildlife refuges, where hunting is forbidden, the Skasmeni Frantzi – Dyo Vouna area on the slopes. The national park and protected areas are overseen by the Management Body of Mt Oiti National Park, in Greek mythology, Oeta is chiefly celebrated as the scene of Heracles death, and Roman authors even gave the demi-god the epithet Oetaeus. Another version of the claims that Zeus threw a lightning bolt on the site of Heracles death. The temple complex remained in use until late Roman times, in historical times, the area of Oeta belonged to southern Thessaly, forming its southernmost district, that of Oetaea. A city called Oeta was said to have founded by Amphissus, son of Apollo and Dryope.
Further north, Hypate/Hypata, modern Ypati, was the city of the Aenianes. The women of Hypate were associated with witchcraft in Antiquity, the sorceresses Mycale and Agaonice, called the Pharmacidae, even in more recent times, the precipice of Anemotrypa near the town was said to be the haunt of the crone Lyousa Armagou. Hypate is still mentioned in the 6th century by the historian Procopius of Caesarea, who recorded repairs to its walls by Emperor Justinian I, and in the Synecdemus
Achaea Phthiotis or simply Phthiotis was a historical region of ancient Greece. It lay in southeastern Thessaly, between Mount Othrys and the shore of the Pagasetic Gulf. Inhabited by perioikoi, it was not a part of Thessaly proper but a Thessalian dependency. From 363 BC it came under Boeotian control, but split away during the Lamian War and it has given its name to the modern prefecture of Phthiotis. The Phthiotis Prefecture however lies to the south of the historical region, historical Phthiotis is today part of Magnesia Prefecture