A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny —based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. All life on Earth is part of a single phylogenetic tree. In a rooted phylogenetic tree, each node with descendants represents the inferred most recent common ancestor of those descendants, the edge lengths in some trees may be interpreted as time estimates; each node is called a taxonomic unit. Internal nodes are called hypothetical taxonomic units, as they cannot be directly observed. Trees are useful in fields of biology such as bioinformatics and phylogenetics. Unrooted trees illustrate only the relatedness of the leaf nodes and do not require the ancestral root to be known or inferred; the idea of a "tree of life" arose from ancient notions of a ladder-like progression from lower into higher forms of life. Early representations of "branching" phylogenetic trees include a "paleontological chart" showing the geological relationships among plants and animals in the book Elementary Geology, by Edward Hitchcock.
Charles Darwin produced one of the first illustrations and crucially popularized the notion of an evolutionary "tree" in his seminal book The Origin of Species. Over a century evolutionary biologists still use tree diagrams to depict evolution because such diagrams convey the concept that speciation occurs through the adaptive and semirandom splitting of lineages. Over time, species classification has become more dynamic; the term phylogenetic, or phylogeny, derives from the two ancient greek words φῦλον, meaning "race, lineage", γένεσις, meaning "origin, source". A rooted phylogenetic tree is a directed tree with a unique node — the root — corresponding to the most recent common ancestor of all the entities at the leaves of the tree; the root node serves as the parent of all other nodes in the tree. The root is therefore a node of degree 2 while other internal nodes have a minimum degree of 3; the most common method for rooting trees is the use of an uncontroversial outgroup—close enough to allow inference from trait data or molecular sequencing, but far enough to be a clear outgroup.
Unrooted trees illustrate the relatedness of the leaf nodes without making assumptions about ancestry. They do not require the ancestral root to be inferred. Unrooted trees can always be generated from rooted ones by omitting the root. By contrast, inferring the root of an unrooted tree requires some means of identifying ancestry; this is done by including an outgroup in the input data so that the root is between the outgroup and the rest of the taxa in the tree, or by introducing additional assumptions about the relative rates of evolution on each branch, such as an application of the molecular clock hypothesis. Both rooted and unrooted trees can be either multifurcating. A rooted bifurcating tree has two descendants arising from each interior node, an unrooted bifurcating tree takes the form of an unrooted binary tree, a free tree with three neighbors at each internal node. In contrast, a rooted multifurcating tree may have more than two children at some nodes and an unrooted multifurcating tree may have more than three neighbors at some nodes.
Both rooted and unrooted trees can be either unlabeled. A labeled tree has specific values assigned to its leaves, while an unlabeled tree, sometimes called a tree shape, defines a topology only; the number of possible trees for a given number of leaf nodes depends on the specific type of tree, but there are always more labeled than unlabeled trees, more multifurcating than bifurcating trees, more rooted than unrooted trees. The last distinction is the most biologically relevant. For bifurcating labeled trees, the total number of rooted trees is:!! =! 2 n − 2! for n ≥ 2, where n represents the number of leaf nodes. For bifurcating labeled trees, the total number of unrooted trees is:!! =! 2 n − 3! for n ≥ 3. Among labeled bifurcating trees, the number of unrooted trees with n leaves is equal to the number of rooted trees with n − 1 leaves; the number of rooted trees grows as a function of the number of tips. For 10 tips, there are more than 34 × 10 6
I Don't Want to Be Born is a 1975 British horror film directed by Peter Sasdy and starring Joan Collins, Ralph Bates, Eileen Atkins and Donald Pleasence, which tapped into the 1970s fad for devil-child horror films. The film was marketed as a straight-faced and serious product, as such was comprehensively mauled by critics of the time; however it gained a reputation as a cult film favourite due to its perceived shortcomings and unintentional camp comedy appeal. Lucy is working as a dancer in a sleazy strip joint, her stage act includes a routine with a dwarf named Hercules. One night after the show, she invites Hercules into her dressing-room for a drink, he starts to rub Lucy's neck and shoulders. Lucy feels uncomfortable but tries to pretend nothing is happening, until Hercules makes a sudden lunge for her breasts, causing her to scream out in shock; this alerts the stage manager Tommy, who rushes into the dressing-room and sends Hercules unceremoniously on his way proceeds to make love to Lucy.
As Lucy leaves the club she is confronted by the spurned and humiliated Hercules, who curses her with the words "You will have a baby...a monster! An evil monster conceived inside your womb! As big as I am small and possessed by the devil himself!" Months pass and Lucy has left her stripping days behind, having moved up in the world via marriage to the wealthy Italian Gino Carlesi and now comfortably settled in a grand Kensington townhouse. Lucy goes into hospital to give birth to the baby, it proves to be a protracted and painful delivery as the baby is a hefty 12-pounder. The newborn infant is handed to Lucy, seconds she is sporting a slashed and bleeding cheek. "He scratched me! With his sharp nails!" she exclaims in horror to her obstetrician Dr. Finch, who calmly explains that the baby must have been alarmed at being held too tightly. Lucy and Gino bring the baby home and are welcomed by their efficient, no-nonsense housekeeper Mrs. Hyde. Things get off to a bad start when Mrs. Hyde goes to chuck the baby's chin.
"The little devil bit me!" she says as she displays her crushed finger. She takes an instant dislike to the child, is rewarded with a dead mouse in her cup of tea. Lucy's attempts at maternal bonding are fraught with problems, she is visited by her friend Mandy and is voicing her concerns when they are interrupted by a series of crashings from upstairs. To their horror, they find the baby in his cot but the nursery demolished. Gino's sister Albana, a nun, arrives from her convent in Italy to visit her new nephew. Aware that all is not well, she invites Gino to pray with her for the baby, which results in agonising screams from the nursery. Dr. Finch is consulted, agrees to carry out a series of tests. Lucy meanwhile finds the burdens of motherhood too much to bear alone, employs a nurse to look after the baby. After a near-miss when the nurse's head is pulled underwater while bathing the baby, matters take a deadly turn when she takes him for a walk in the park. Reaching out from his pram, he pushes her with such force that she falls, cracks her head on a lakeside rock, falls unconscious into the water and is drowned.
Lucy pays a visit to Tommy at the strip club. She intimates. "Just ’cause you’ve got some freaky offspring you wanna pin it on me?" he asks. However his curiosity is aroused and he asks to see the "spooky kid". Once at the house he leans over to peer into the baby's cot, only to reel back with a smashed and bloody nose for his trouble; this temporarily pushes the baby up in Lucy's estimation and she gazes lovingly at him, until the face in the cot turns into that of Hercules. One evening Gino plans a romantic night-in to take Lucy's mind off her woes. At the end of a successful evening, he goes to check on the baby, only to find the nursery empty, the window open and odd noises coming from the garden. Going out to investigate, he looks up into a tree, whereupon a noose is thrust around his neck and he is hauled into the air and hanged, his body is stuffed down a drain. The following day Lucy criss-crosses London in a frenzy trying to find her missing husband. Dr. Finch pays an evening call to check on the baby and the distraught Lucy.
After administering a powerful sedative to Lucy, he too hears strange noises. He unwisely steps out into the garden, is decapitated with a spade; the trail of death continues as Lucy stumbles through the house in a groggy haze, pleading for her life to no avail as she is stabbed through the heart with a pair of scissors. Galvanized into action, Albana decides that she must perform an exorcism on the baby. Brandishing a crucifix at him and incanting in Latin, she bravely persists as the room shakes and the baby tears at her vestments. Meanwhile, at the strip club Hercules is on stage, begins to stagger around in pain. Albana touches the crucifix to the baby's head, his demons are cast out at the same time as Hercules falls over dead in front of a stunned audience. I Don't Want to Be Born was a target of critical scorn. A damning review by Andrew Nickolds of Time Out described the film as "derivative and disastrous in every respect: a poor idea... an abominable screenplay by Stanley Price, ludicrous acting... and worst of all, Sasdy's direction.
Every foot of film not concerned with the baby is travelogue at its most banal – extraneous shots of Westminster and
Costa Salafis or Salafyo Costa is an Egyptian movement that aims to challenge religious stereotypes and promote tolerance and cooperation between people from different social and religious backgrounds. The movement was founded in 2011, it is involved in political and Human Rights activism. Costa Salafis was founded in the aftermath of the January 25 Revolution in Egypt by a group of activists, amongst them Mohamed El-Bahrawi, Ezzat Tolba, Mohammad Tolba, Ehab El-Kholy and Ahmed Samir, its members are moderate Salafis but they include liberal Muslims and Christians. The name of the movement was invented by co-founder Mohammad Tolba, after he tried to arrange a meeting at a branch of Costa Coffee in Cairo and was asked by an administrator whether Salafis go to places like Costa; as of June 2014, the movement's Facebook page has more than 246,000 followers, its Twitter account has more than 175,000 followers. The movement was founded on 6 April 2011 following the Constitutional Referendum, when differences between liberal and Islamist groups began to emerge.
The intention of the founders was "to keep the unifying spirit of Tahrir alive", as well as to challenge common stereotypes about Salafis. In the summer of 2011, the movement participated in sit-ins and demonstrations against the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces in Tahrir Square, together with liberal groups such as the April 6 Youth Movement. In October 2011, members of the Costa Salafis took to the streets to defend Copts during the Maspero massacre, when a march for Coptic rights was crushed by the army, and in November 2011, members of the movement participated in the Mohamed Mahmoud protests against military rule. In August 2012, following pardons by President Morsi for several hundred revolutionaries convicted by civilian courts, the Costa Salafis joined the April 6 Youth Movement, the No to Military Trials campaign and other activists in silent sit-ins and human chains to demand the release of all prisoners convicted in military trials. In December 2012, when clashes happened between supporters and opponents of President Morsi following his Constitutional Declaration, the movement called on the Muslim Brotherhood to recognise the liberal opposition and urged them not to mix religion with politics.
On 14 August 2013, when in the aftermath of the military coup against President Morsi, security forces carried out a violent crackdown on sit-ins by supporters of the deposed president, in which hundreds of protesters were killed, the movement announced its withdrawal from the political scene. On 2 September, the movement released a statement in which it explained that it is temporarily withdrawing from the political scene due to the deep divisions and tensions in Egyptian society, "to take a step back until everyone regains their balance", but that it would continue its Human Rights activities "to defend the oppressed, regardless of their political affiliations" and its "social role in helping the needy and the marginalised". On 27 November, after the issuing of a restrictive protest law, the arrest of well-known political activists and harsh jail sentences against female protesters, the Costa Salafis posted the following statement on their Facebook page: "Our protected government, our lofty judiciary and our virtuous police are pushing us hard towards a third revolutionary wave, but stronger than the previous ones.
May God be with Egypt. The revolution continues". Besides its political activities, the movement organises regular medical caravans with Muslim and Christian participants to places where there is mistrust between members of the two religions. Costa Salafis official Facebook page Costa Salafis official Twitter account