click links in text for more info


Physalis is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family, which grow in warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Most of the species, of which there may be 75–90, are indigenous to the Americas. Cultivated species and weedy annuals have been introduced worldwide. A notable feature is the formation of a large papery husk derived from the calyx, which or encloses the fruit; the fruit is small and orange, similar in size and structure to a small tomato. At least 46 species are endemic to the country of Mexico. Many Physalis species are called groundcherries. One name for Physalis peruviana is Inca berry. Other names used to refer to the fruit are poha berries, golden berries. Physalis are herbaceous plants growing to 0.4 to 3 m tall, similar to the common tomato, a plant of the same family, but with a stiffer, more upright stem. They can be either perennial. Most require full sun and warm to hot temperatures; some species are sensitive to frost, but others, such as the Chinese lantern, P. alkekengi, tolerate severe cold when dormant in winter.

These plants grow in most soil types and do well in poor soils and in pots. They require moisture until fruiting. Plants are susceptible to many of the common tomato diseases and pests, other pests such as aphids, spider mites, the false potato beetle attack them. Propagation is by seed; some species require pollen from other plants to bear fruit. Not all Physalis species bear edible fruit. Select species are cultivated for their edible fruit, however; some species, such as the Cape gooseberry and tomatillo have been bred into many cultivars with varying flavors, from tart to sweet to savory. Physalis fruit are rich in cryptoxanthin; the fruit can be used like the tomato. Once extracted from its husk, it can be used in salads; some varieties are added to desserts, used as flavoring, made into fruit preserves, or dried and used like raisins. They can be used in pie filling. Ground cherries are called Poha in the Hawaiian language, poha jam and preserves are traditional desserts made from Physalis plants grown on the Hawaiian Islands.

The Cape gooseberry is common in many subtropical areas. Its use in South Africa near the Cape of Good Hope inspired its common name. Other species of commercial importance include the tomatillo; some nations, such as Colombia, have a significant economic trade in Physalis fruit. Physalis is cultivated in India, where it is known as Tipari or Rashbari, Tepari and Mottaampuli having other names in other Indian languages; some species are grown as ornamental plants. For example, the hardy Physalis alkekengi has edible small fruits but is most popular for its large, bright orange to red husks. In Chinese medicine, Physalis species are used to treat such conditions as abscesses, coughs and sore throat. Smooth groundcherry is classified as a hallucinogenic plant, its cultivation for other than ornamental purposes is outlawed in the US state of Louisiana under State Act 159; the extinct Dacian language has left few traces, but in De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides, a plant called Strychnos alikakabos is discussed, called kykolis by the Dacians.

Some have considered this plant to be Physalis alkekengi, but the name more refers to ashwagandha. As of 2005, about 75 to 90 species were in the genus. Species include: Physalis acutifolia Sandw. – sharp-leaved groundcherry, Wright groundcherry Physalis alkekengi L. – Chinese lantern, Japanese lantern, bladder-cherry, winter-cherry, hōzuki Physalis angulata L. – cut-leaved groundcherry, lance-leaved groundcherry, camapu Physalis angustifolia Nutt. – coastal groundcherry Physalis arenicola Kearney – cypress-headed groundcherry Physalis carpenteri Riddell ex Rydb. – Carpenter's groundcherry Physalis caudella Standl. – southwestern groundcherry Physalis chenopodifolia Physalis cinerascens A. S. Hitchc. – small-flowered groundcherry Physalis clarionensis Physalis cordata Mill. – heart-leaved groundcherry Physalis coztomatl Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal Physalis crassifolia Benth. – thick-leaved groundcherry, yellow nightshade groundcherry Physalis foetens Poir. – tropical groundcherry Physalis grisea Martínez – strawberry-tomato Physalis hederifolia A.

Gray – ivy-leaved groundcherry Physalis heterophylla Nees – clammy groundcherry Physalis hispida Cronq. – prairie groundcherry †Physalis infinemundi Wilf et al. 2017 fossil from the Ypresian of Argentina Physalis latiphysa Waterfall – broad-leaved groundcherry Physalis longifolia Nutt. – common groundcherry, long-leaved groundcherry Physalis longiloba Physalis mimulus Physalis minima L. – pygmy groundcherry, native gooseberry Physalis missouriensis Mackenzie & Bush – Missouri groundcherry Physalis mollis Nutt. – field groundcherry Physalis noronhae Physalis peruviana L. – cape gooseberry, Peruvian groundcherry, Inca berry, poha Physalis philadelphica Lam. – tomatillo, Mexican groundcherry, Mexican tomato, tomate de cáscara, tomate de fresadilla, tomate milpero, tomate verde Physalis pruinosa L. – strawberry groundcherry Physalis pubescens L. – golden strawberry, Chinese lant

Every Heartbeat

"Every Heartbeat" is a 1991 single by American Christian singer Amy Grant. It was released as the third single from the Heart in Motion album, though it was the second from the album to be released to mainstream pop radio. After the unexpected major success of Grant's previous single, "Baby Baby," which topped both the United States' Billboard Hot 100 and Adult Contemporary charts, there seemed the question on how to follow it up; the chosen single. 1, it still managed to make the No. 2 spot on the Hot 100 and the Adult Contemporary chart for one and six weeks respectively. In both cases Every Heartbeat was kept from the top spot by Bryan Adams' song " I Do It for You". Charlie Peacock wrote the song's music and chorus lyrics, with Grant and Wayne Kirkpatrick composing the remaining lyrics. In 2004, Sixpence None The Richer covered "Every Heartbeat" on the album Full Circle: A Celebration of Songs and Friends, which commemorated Charlie Peacock's 20-year anniversary as a solo recording artist.

Mark Lowry parodied the song with the title "Every Teacher". In 2014, the song was included on Grant's remix compilation album titled In Motion: The Remixes. A digital remix EP was released on iTunes in support of the album which charted at No. 13 on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs chart. In 1992 Kids Incorporated covered "Every Heartbeat" in the Season 8 episode "Old Friends". A music video was produced to promote the single; the video was directed by D. J. Webster, edited by Scott C. Wilson. Actress Musetta Vander is featured in it. Original Album Version - 3:30 Edited Version 7-inch Body and Soul Mix* 12-inch Body and Soul Mix* 7-inch Heart and Soul Mix* 12-inch Heart and Soul Mix* 7-inch Piano Mix* 12-inch Piano Mix* Moto Blanco Club Mix - 5:32 Moto Blanco Instrumental - 5:30 Moto Blanco Radio Edit - 3:24 "Every Heartbeat" "Every Heartbeat" "Every Heartbeat" "Every Heartbeat" "Every Heartbeat" "Every Heartbeat" 3:24 "Every Heartbeat" 5:30 "Every Heartbeat" 5:30 7-inch Body and Soul Mix* Amy Grant: lead vocal Chris McHugh: drums Tommy Sims: bass Jerry McPherson: guitar Charlie Peacock: keyboards and programming Robbie Buchanan and Blair Masters: additional keyboards Mike Haynes: trumpet Mark Douthit: saxophone Barry Green: trombone Horn arrangements by Chris McDonald and Charlie Peacock Background vocals by Chris Eaton, Kim Fleming, Vicki Hampton and Amy Grant Daniel Abraham: *Additional Production and Remix

Portugal and the Iran–Iraq War

Portugal's involvement in the Iran–Iraq War includes Portugal supplying both Iran and Iraq with arms, playing a role in the Iran–Contra affair. From 1981 to 1986 75% of Portuguese arms exports went to the Middle East—most of it, directly or indirectly, to Iran or Iraq. On 12 November 1980 a joint Defense and Foreign Ministry declaration, joining the United States' embargo, declared that Portugal would not sell or ship weapons to Iran. On 4 December 1980 the 1980 Camarate air crash saw a small private aircraft carrying Portuguese Prime Minister Francisco de Sá Carneiro and Defense Minister Adelino Amaro da Costa crash in Camarate, Lisbon. Initial investigations concluded the incident was an accident, but parliamentary investigations found evidence of a bomb beneath the cockpit. In 2004 the VIIIth parliamentary inquiry into the affair, headed by Nuno Melo concluded in its unanimous final report that the incident had been caused by an explosive device on the aircraft. Melo told the Xth enquiry in 2013 to investigate the role of arms sales to Iran and the Army's "Fundo de Defesa do Ultramar" slush fund, saying that da Costa had asked the Army about arms sales to Iran on 2 December 1980, that on 5 December, the day after his death, the Army had issued an order illegally declaring arms sales to be under its jurisdiction, not the Defence Minister's.

Portugal became a major arms supplier to Iraq, selling 3.5bn escudos' worth in 1982 and 6bn in 1983. With Iraq's increasing difficulties keeping up payments for Portuguese arms, on 29 September 1983 the Portuguese government of Mário Soares secretly authorised sales to Iran. Several months Portugal's President Ramalho Eanes expressed surprise at learning at the presence at Lisbon Airport of an Iranian aircraft carrying arms. Security arrangements for an Iran Air jumbo jet were such that Iraqi diplomats in Lisbon learned of them. In 1984 Portugal sold Iran 1.5bn escudos' worth of arms, making it Portugal's second-largest customer after Iraq. The Portuguese Expresso revealed in January 1987 that in 1984–86 $8.3m of Portuguese arms had been supplied to the Nicaraguan Contras by US officials involved in Iran–Contra. The arms amounted to 1,900 tons of arms and ammunition, including 1,500 tons shipped in 1985. Sales were arranged by the Lisbon-based Defex Portugal, an importer/exporter of arms, which showed the Portuguese government end-user certificates certifying supply to Guatemala.

Expresso said that Portugal had been a transit point for Israeli and Eastern Bloc weapons destined for the Contras, identifying 15 flights of arms from Israel going through Lisbon airport. In November 1985 an attempt to ship Israeli-sourced HAWK missiles to Iran via Portugal failed after the aircraft carrying them took off without having obtained landing rights there, was forced to turn back; the New York Times said in January 1987 that "A senior Administration official said that Portugal had been serving as a primary transshipment point for arms to the contras." 1980 Camarate air crash

Edmund Piesse

Edmund Stephen Roper Piesse was an Australian politician who represented Western Australia in the Senate from 1950 until his death. He was a member of the Country Party. Piesse was born in the son of Arnold Edmund Piesse. Three of his uncles and a first cousin were members of parliament in Western Australia. Piesse attended Guildford Grammar School in Perth, before returning to Katanning as a farmer and grazier, he was a company director. In 1949 he was elected to the Senate, he held the seat until his death by his own hand in 1952. He gassed himself at a rifle range near his home of Katanning, his father committed suicide. Bill Robinson was appointed to replace him

Paul Hilton (politician)

Paul Jerome Remigius Hilton was an Australian politician, a member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland from 1935 until 1963 representing the seat of Carnarvon, a minister in both the Hanlon and Gair Ministries. Hilton was born to Richard Hilton, a school teacher, his wife Agnes, he was educated at the state school in Allora and in 1915 got a job as a pay clerk for Queensland Railways, moving to Toowoomba and Stanthorpe by 1921. He served as an NCO in the militia but was rejected for overseas service for World War I. In 1922, he married Esther Mary Clifford in the town of Gatton, he became involved with many public bodies in Stanthorpe at this time. Hilton first ran for the seat of Carnarvon at the 1932 election before winning it at the 1935 election, he became a supporter of the Industrial Groups and the Catholic Social Studies Movement organised by B. A. Santamaria, as well as being a member of the Order of St. Francis, he supported the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul and was the organiser of the Queensland Cancer Research Fund.

On 10 May 1950 he was appointed to the Hanlon Ministry, serving as Secretary for Public Works and Local Government. The portfolio of Local Government was abolished on 1 May 1952, he otherwise served in these roles until the 1956 election, he became Secretary of Lands and Irrigation, relinquishing his old portfolios to Colin McCathie. On 26 April 1957, Hilton along with Premier Vince Gair and most of the rest of the Ministry were expelled from the Australian Labor Party, joined the new Queensland Labor Party with which they contested the 1957 election. Hilton won under this banner at the 1957 and 1960 elections, led the QLP for his final term before losing to Henry McKechnie of the Country Party at the 1963 election, he retired to Esther Street, Ekibin in Brisbane's inner southern suburbs, died there on 18 August 1965. He was buried in Nudgee Cemetery. Waterson, D. B. Biographical register of the Queensland Parliament, 1930-1980 Canberra: ANU Press Hughes, Colin A.. D.. Voting for the Queensland Legislative Assembly, 1890-1964.

Canberra: Australian National University. ISBN 0-7081-0301-4. Former Members

United States lightship Columbia (WLV-604)

United States lightship Columbia is a lightship located in Astoria, United States of America. Columbia was moored near the mouth of the Columbia River. Commissioned in 1951, Columbia was the fourth and final lightship stationed at the mouth of the Columbia River. Built by Rice Brothers Shipyard in Boothbay, Columbia was launched with her sister-ship, Relief; the new WLV-604 replaced the aging vessel LV-93, in service on the Columbia River since 1939. The Columbia River lightships guided vessels across the Columbia River Bar and an area known as the Graveyard of the Pacific from 1892 until 1979. Columbia was the final lightship to be decommissioned on the U. S. West coast, she was replaced by an automated navigational buoy soon after. The buoy has since been retired; because of its importance, the Coast Guard had a permanent 18 man crew stationed on board, consisting of 17 enlisted men and one warrant officer who served as ship's captain. Everything the crew needed had to be on board. In the winter, weeks of rough weather prevented any supplies from being delivered.

Life on board the lightship was marked by long stretches of monotony and boredom intermixed with riding gale-force storms. The crew worked two with ten men on duty at all times. In 1978, Columbia was added to the National Register of Historic Places, it was removed from the Register in 1983 due to relocation from its historic location. She was returned to the Register in 1989 when she was declared a National Historic Landmark, listed under the name Lightship WAL-604, "Columbia". WLV-604 is now located at the Columbia River Maritime Museum, alongside the navigational buoy that replaced her in 1979. List of lighthouses on the Oregon Coast Columbia Bar Media related to US Lightship Columbia at Wikimedia Commons Sunset Empire Amateur Radio Club station: W7BU, Lightship COLUMBIA museum. Historic American Engineering Record No. OR-159, "Lightship Columbia, Columbia River Maritime Museum, Clatsop County, OR", 5 photos, 4 data pages, 1 photo caption page