Edward Neville da Costa Andrade FRS was an English physicist and poet. He told The Literary Digest his name was pronounced "as written, i.e. like air raid and substituted for air." In the scientific world Andrade is best known for work that first determined the wavelength of a type of gamma radiation, proving it was far higher in energies than X-rays known at the time. In popular culture he was best known for his appearances on The Brains Trust. Edward Neville Andrade was a Sephardi Jew, was a descendant of Moses da Costa Andrade. Da Costa Andrade was a feather merchant in London's East End; the surname "Andrade" might be of Portuguese origin. Edward Neville studied for a doctorate at the University of Heidelberg and had a brief but productive spell of research with Ernest Rutherford at Manchester in 1914, they carried out diffraction experiments to determine the wavelengths of gamma-rays from radium, were the first to be able to quantitate these, thereby showing that they were shorter than the wavelengths of then-known X-ray radiation, produced by "Roentgen tubes".
He joined the Royal Artillery during the First World War, became Professor of Physics at the Ordnance College in Woolwich in 1920. He was Quain Professor of Physics at University College, London from 1928 to 1950, Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution for three years, until opposition to his attempts to reform the RI led to a vote of no confidence in him by members of the RI, following which he resigned. In 1943 Andrade was invited to deliver the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures on Vibrations and Waves in 1950 he developed the lectures further and presented the series on Waves and Vibrations. Andrade was a broadcaster, coming to fame during the War on BBC radio's The Brains Trust; the Structure of the Atom Engines The Mechanism of Nature Simple Science with Julian Huxley More Simple Science with Julian Huxley An Approach to Modern Physics Sir Isaac Newton A Brief History of the Royal Society Physics for the Modern World Rutherford and the Nature of the Atom His papers are held by the University of Leicester E N da C Andrade: Some Personal Reminiscences Oral History interview transcript with Edward Andrade 18 December 1962, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives
Sir Arthur William Rucker was a British physicist. Rucker gained his BA at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1871, was a Fellow there from 1871 to 1876, he was Professor of Physics at Yorkshire College, Leeds from 1874 to 1885, at the Royal College of Science from 1886 to 1901, when he left to become Principal of the University of London. He received the honorary degree Doctor of Science from the University of Cambridge in May 1902, from the University of Oxford in June 1902, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1884. He jointly gave the Royal Society's Bakerian Lecture in 1889, was awarded the Royal Society's Royal Medal in 1891: "For his researches on liquid films, his contributions to our knowledge of terrestrial magnetism", he served as Secretary of the Royal Society from 1896 to 1901, was knighted in 1902. In 1889 Rucker was invited to deliver the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture on electricity. In the general election of 1885, Rucker stood as the Liberal candidate for the newly created Leeds North constituency.
He was narrowly defeated by the Conservative candidate William Jackson by 4,494 votes to 4,237. The following year, Rucker stood again in the general election of 1886 as a candidate for the Liberal Unionist Party. In that election, where Rucker stood in the Pudsey constituency in West Yorkshire, he lost to the Liberal candidate Briggs Priestley by 5,207 votes to 4,036, his first wife died in 1878 and he married Thereza, a daughter of Nevil Story-Maskylene, in 1892. Entry for Rucker in the Royal Society's Library and Archive catalogue's details of Fellows Obituary: Sir Arthur Rucker, Geographical Review, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 309–309 Sir Arthur William Rucker, picture from Science and Society Picture Library
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, England. In 1851, Prince Albert built his vision for a cultural area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall, Royal Colleges, the Imperial Institute. In 1907, Imperial College was established by Royal Charter, bringing together the Royal College of Science, Royal School of Mines, City and Guilds College. In 1988, the Imperial College School of Medicine was formed through a merger with St Mary's Hospital Medical School. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Imperial College Business School; the main campus is located with a new innovation campus in White City. The college has a research centre at Silwood Park, teaching hospitals throughout London. Imperial is organised through faculties of natural science, engineering and business, its emphasis is on the practical application of technology. With more than 140 countries represented on campus and 59% of students from outside the UK, the university has a international community.
In 2018–19, Imperial is ranked 8th globally in the QS World University Rankings, 9th in the THE World University Rankings, 24th in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 8th in Reuters Top 100: World's Most Innovative Universities. Student and researcher affiliations include 14 Nobel laureates, 3 Fields Medalists, 1 Turing Award winner, 74 Fellows of the Royal Society, 87 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering, 85 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences; the college's origins can be traced back as far as the founding of the Royal College of Chemistry on Hanover Square in 1845, with the support of Prince Albert and parliament. Following some financial trouble, this was absorbed in 1853 into the newly formed Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts, located on Jermyn Street; the school was renamed the Royal School of Mines a decade later. The medical school has roots in many different school across London, the oldest of which dates back to 1823, with the foundation of the teaching facilities at the West London Infirmary at Villiers Street.
Known as Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, it was designed to provide medical education for the needs of a university. This was followed in 1834 when Westminster Hospital surgeons started taking students under their care. Established on Dean Street, the school was forced to close in 1847, but was reopened in 1849 with a new specimen museum; the first teaching at St Mary's Hospital hospital in Paddington began in 1851, with St Mary's Hospital Medical School established in 1854. Proceeds from the Great Exhibition of 1851 were designated by Prince Albert to be used to develop a cultural area in South Kensington for the use and education of the public. Within the next 6 years the Victoria and Albert and Science museums had opened, joined by the Natural History Museum in 1881, in 1888 the Imperial Institute; as well as museums, new facilities for the royal colleges were constructed, with the Royal College of Chemistry and the Royal School of Mines moving to South Kensington between 1871 and 1872.
In 1881 the Normal School of Science was established in South Kensington under the leadership of Thomas Huxley, taking over responsibility for the teaching of the natural sciences and agriculture from the Royal School of Mines. The school was granted the name Royal College of Science by royal consent in 1890; as these institutions were not part of universities, they were unable to grant degrees to students, instead bestowed associateships such as the Associateship of the Royal College of Science. The Central Institution of the City and Guilds of London Institute, formed by the City of London's livery companies, was opened on Exhibition Road by the Prince of Wales, founded to focus on providing technical education, with courses starting in early 1885; the institution was renamed the Central Technical College in 1893, becoming a school of the University of London in 1900. At the start of the 20th century there was a concern that Britain was falling behind its key rivals – Germany – in scientific and technical education.
A departmental committee was set up at the Board of Education in 1904, to look into the future of the Royal College of Science. A report released in 1906 called for the establishment of an institution unifying the Royal College of Science and the Royal School of Mines, as well as – if agreement could be reached with the City and Guilds of London Institute – their Central Technical CollegeOn 8 July 1907, King Edward VII granted a Royal Charter establishing the Imperial College of Science and Technology; this incorporated the Royal College of Science. It made provisions for the Central Technical College to join once conditions regarding its governance were met, as well as for Imperial to become a college of the University of London; the college joined the University of London on 22 July 1908, with the Central Technical College joining Imperial in 1910 as the City and Guilds College. The main campus of Imperial College was constructed beside the buildings of the Imperial Institute, the new building for the Royal College of Science having opened across from it in 1906, the foundation stone for the Royal School of Mines building being laid by King Edward VII in July 1909.
As students at Imperial had to study separately for London degrees, in January 1919, students and alumni voted for a petition to make Imperial a university with its own degree awarding powers, independent of the University of London. In response, the University of London changed its regulations in 1925 so that the courses taught only at Imperial would be examined by the university, enabling students to ga
Charles Chree, FRS was a British physicist, an authority on terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity, for 32 years Superintendent of Kew Observatory. Chree was born in Lintrathen, Scotland on 5 May 1860, second son to Rev Charles Chree, he was educated at the Grammar School, Old Aberdeen, the University of Aberdeen where he graduated MA in 1879 and the University of Cambridge where he graduated as Sixth Wrangler. Chree was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1897, his candidacy citation listing his achievements as: "Author of the following memoirs, of many others on analogous subjects - 1. Effects of pressure on the Magnetisation of Cobalt, Phil Trans: 1890 2. Conduction of heat in liquids, Proc: R. Soc: 1887. 3. Stresses and strains in isotropic, solid ellipsoids, Proc: R. Soc: 1895. 4. A solution of the equations Equilibrium of elastic solids etc, Camb: Phil: Trans: XV. 5. On some compound vibrating systems, Camb: Phil: Trans: XV. 6. Changes in dimensions of solids due to given systems of forces.
Camb: Phil: Trans: XV. 7. The isotropic elastic sphere and spherical shell, Camb: Phil: Trans: XV. 8. Forced vibrations in isotropic, solid spheres, spherical shells. Camb: Phil. Trans XVI. 9. Rotating, solid cylinders of elliptic section. Phil: Mag. 1892. 10. Contribution to the theory of the Robinson Cap auxmomoter. Phil: Mag: 1895. 11. Longitudinal vibrations of aeolotropic bars with one axis of material symmetry. Quar: Journ: Math: 1890. 12. Isotropic, elastic solids of nearly spherical form. Amer: Journ: Mathem: XVI". Chree was awarded the James Watt medal by the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1905, he was President of the Physical Society of London between 1908 and 1910. Chree won the Royal Society Hughes Medal in 1919 "for his researches in terrestrial magnetism". Chree served as president of the Royal Meteorological Society from 1922 to 1923, he was appointed Superintendent of Kew Observatory in 1893, a post he retained until 1925, a remarkably long period of 32 years. During his tenure of office he was responsible for testing thousands of chronometers, watches and other scientific instruments, success in which tests gained the award of a "Kew Certificate".
Chree received degrees of D. Sc. from Cambridge in 1895 and LL. D. from Aberdeen in 1898. The Chree Medal and Prize of the Institute of Physics was named for him; the awards were renamed in 2008. He died on Sunday 12 August 1928 in Sussex, he was unmarried. Works by or about Charles Chree at Internet Archive O'Connor, John J..
William Edward Ayrton
William Edward Ayrton, FRS was an English physicist and electrical engineer. Ayrton was born in London, the son of Edward Nugent Ayrton, a barrister, educated at University College School and University College, London, he studied under Lord Kelvin at Glasgow. Ayrton’s second wife, Hertha Marks Ayrton, whom he married in 1885, assisted him in his research, became known for her own scientific work on the electric arc and other subjects. In 1899, Ayrton supported Hertha on her way to being elected the first woman member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Royal Society awarded her a Hughes Medal in 1906, their daughter Barbara became a Labour MP, grandson Michael Ayrton, was an artist and sculptor. Ayrton had been married to a cousin, Matilda Chaplin. Chaplin and Ayrton's daughter was the feminist and author Edith Ayrton, wife of Israel Zangwill and mother of Oliver Zangwill. In 1868, Ayrton went to Bengal in the service of the Indian Government Telegraph department, where he invented a method of detecting faults in lines, of great benefit in the maintenance of the overland communications network.
In 1873, Ayrton accepted an invitation from the Japanese government as Chair of Natural Philosophy and Telegraphy at the new Imperial College of Engineering, Tokyo. He advised architect of the College for design of laboratory and demonstration rooms, is credited with introducing the electric arc light to Japan in 1878. On his return to London six years Ayrton became professor of applied physics at the Finsbury College of the City and Guilds of London Technical Institute, and, in 1884, he was chosen professor of electrical engineering, or of applied physics, at the Central Technical College, South Kensington, he published, both alone and jointly with others, a large number of papers on physical, in particular electrical and his name was associated, together with that of Professor John Perry, with the invention of a long series of electrical measuring instruments, including the spiral-spring ammeter, the wattmeter. They worked on railway electrification, produced a dynamometer and the first electric tricycle.
Ayrton is known for his work on the electric searchlight. Ayrton is buried in Brompton Cemetery, he was elected president in 1892 of the Institute of Electrical Engineers. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1881 and awarded their Royal Medal in 1901. Henry Dyer John Milne Anglo-Japanese relations Ayrton shunt Graham Gooday's entry in the New Dictionary of National Biography published in September 2004. Cortazzi, Hugh. Britain and Japan, Biographical Portraits, Volume IV. Japan Library. ISBN 1-903350-14-X. Morris-Suzuki, Tessa; the Technological Transformation of Japan: From the Seventeenth to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42492-5
John Henry Poynting
John Henry Poynting was an English physicist. He was a professor of physics at Mason Science College, from 1880 to 1900, the successor institution, the University of Birmingham until his death. Poynting was the youngest son of a Unitarian minister, he was born at the parsonage of the Monton Unitarian Chapel in Eccles, Lancashire In his boyhood he was educated at the nearby school operated by his father. From 1867 to 1872 he attended Owens College, now the University of Manchester, where his physics teachers included Osborne Reynolds and Balfour Stewart. From 1872 to 1876 he was a student at Cambridge University, where he attained high honours in mathematics after taking grinds with Edward Routh. In the late 1870s he worked in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge under James Clerk Maxwell, he was the developer and eponym of the Poynting vector, which describes the direction and magnitude of electromagnetic energy flow and is used in the Poynting theorem, a statement about energy conservation for electric and magnetic fields.
This work was first published in 1884. He performed a measurement of Newton's gravitational constant by innovative means during 1893. In 1903 he was the first to realise that the Sun's radiation can draw in small particles towards it: this was named the Poynting–Robertson effect, he discovered the torsion-extension coupling in finite strain elasticity. This is now known as the Poynting effect in torsion. Poynting and the Nobel prizewinner J. J. Thomson co-authored a multi-volume undergraduate physics textbook, in print for about 50 years and was in widespread use during the first third of the 20th century. Poynting wrote most of it, he was awarded an honorary MSc in Pure Science in 1901 by Birmingham University. Poynting lived at Edgbaston with his family and servants for some years, he lived at 66 Beaufort Road and died of a diabetic coma, aged 61, at 10 Ampton Road, Edgbaston in 1914. Poynting's most famous student may have been Alfred J. Lotka, inspired by Poynting to apply the ideas of physical chemistry to biology.
Lotka dedicated his classic book on mathematical population biology to Poynting. Craters on Mars and the Moon are named in his honour, as is the main Physics building at the University of Birmingham and the departmental society there, the Poynting Physical Society, he is credited with coining the expression "greenhouse effect" in 1909 to explain how human behaviour might increase global temperatures. 1884 A Comparison of the Fluctuations in the Price of Wheat and in the Cotton and Silk Imports into Great Britain, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Pts. I and II: Static electricity and magnetism London, C. Griffin 1920 Collected Scientific Papers Cambridge University Press Works written by or about John Henry Poynting at Wikisource Media related to John Henry Poynting at Wikimedia Commons
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate