A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
A security guard is a person employed by a public or private party to protect the employing party’s assets from a variety of hazards by enforcing preventative measures. Security guards do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, looking for signs of crime or other hazards, taking action to minimize damage, reporting any incidents to their clients and emergency services, as appropriate. Security officers are uniformed to represent their lawful authority to protect private property. Security guards are governed by legal regulations, which set out the requirements for eligibility and the permitted authorities of a security guard in a given jurisdiction; the authorities permitted to security guards vary by subnational jurisdiction. Security officers are hired by a range of organizations, including businesses, government departments and agencies and not-for-profit organizations; until the 1980s, the term watchman was more applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe where there was no form of law enforcement.
This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security officers are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function. Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the "detect, deter and report" methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests, but have the authority to make a citizen's arrest, or otherwise act as an agent of law enforcement, for example, at the request of a police officer or sheriff. A private security officer's responsibility is protecting their client from a variety of hazards. Security personnel enforce company rules and can act to protect lives and property, they sometimes have a contractual obligation to provide these actions. In addition to basic deterrence, security officers are trained to perform specialized tasks such as arrest and control, operate emergency equipment, perform first aid, CPR, take accurate notes, write detailed reports, perform other tasks as required by the client they are serving.
All security officers are required to go through additional training mandated by the state for the carrying of weapons such as batons and pepper spray. Some officers are required to complete police certification for special duties; the number of jobs is expected to grow in the U. S. with 175,000 new security jobs expected before 2016. In recent years, due to elevated threats of terrorism, most security officers are required to have bomb-threat training and/or emergency crisis training those located in soft target areas such as shopping malls and any other area where the general public congregate. One major economic justification for security personnel is that insurance companies will give substantial rate discounts to sites which have a 24-hour presence. For a high risk or high value property, the discount can exceed the money being spent on its security program. Discounts are offered because having security on site increases the odds that any fire will be noticed and reported to the local fire department before a total loss occurs.
The presence of security officers tends to diminish "shrinkage", employee misconduct and safety rule violations, property damage, or sabotage. Many casinos hire security officers to protect money when transferring it from the casino to the casino's bank. Security personnel may perform access control at building entrances and vehicle gates. Security officers are called upon to respond to potential hazards and to assist in serious emergencies by securing the scene to prevent further loss or damage, summoning emergency responders to the incident, helping to redirect foot traffic to safe locations, by documenting what happened on an incident report to give their client an idea of how to prevent similar situations from occurring. Armed security officers are contracted to respond as law enforcement until a given situation at a client location is under control and/or public authorities arrive on the scene. Patrolling is a large part of a security officer's duties, as most incidents are prevented by being looked for instead of waiting for them to occur.
These patrols are logged by use of a guard tour patrol system, which require regular patrols. Until the most used form used to be mechanical clock systems that required a key for manual punching of a number to a strip of paper inside with the time pre-printed on it, but electronic systems have risen in popularity due to their light weight, ease of use, a
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it. The word is used as an informal shorthand term for some crimes against property, such as burglary, larceny, robbery, library theft, fraud. In some jurisdictions, theft is considered to be synonymous with larceny. Someone who carries out an act of or makes a career of theft is known as a thief; the act of theft is known by other terms such as stealing and filching. Theft is the name of a statutory offence in California, Canada and Wales, Hong Kong, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, the Australian states of South Australia, Victoria; the actus reus of theft is defined as an unauthorized taking, keeping, or using of another's property which must be accompanied by a mens rea of dishonesty and the intent permanently to deprive the owner or rightful possessor of that property or its use. For example, if X goes to a restaurant and, by mistake, takes Y's scarf instead of her own, she has physically deprived Y of the use of the property but the mistake prevents X from forming the mens rea so no crime has been committed at this point.
But if she realises the mistake when she gets home and could return the scarf to Y, she will steal the scarf if she dishonestly keeps it. Note that there may be civil liability for the torts of trespass to chattels or conversion in either eventuality. Section 322 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for theft in Canada: 322; every one commits theft who fraudulently and without colour of right takes, or fraudulently and without colour of right converts to his/her use or to the use of another person, whether animate or inanimate, with intent to deprive, temporarily or the owner of it, or a person who has a special property or interest in it, of the thing or of his property or interest in it. Sections 323 to 333 provide for more specific instances and exclusions: theft from oyster beds theft by bailee of things under seizure exception when agent is pledging goods theft of telecommunications service possession of device to obtain telecommunication facility or service theft by or from person having special property or interest theft by person required to account theft by person holding power of attorney misappropriation of money held under direction exception for ore taken for exploration or scientific research In the general definition above, the Supreme Court of Canada has construed "anything" broadly, stating that it is not restricted to tangibles, but includes intangibles.
To be the subject of theft it must, however: be property of some sort. Because of this, confidential information cannot be the subject of theft, as it is not capable of being taken as only tangibles can be taken, it cannot be converted, not because it is an intangible, but because, save in exceptional far‑fetched circumstances, the owner would never be deprived of it. However, the theft of trade secrets in certain circumstances does constitute part of the offence of economic espionage, which can be prosecuted under s. 19 of the Security of Information Act. For the purposes of punishment, Section 334 divides theft into two separate offences, according to the value and nature of the goods stolen: If the thing stolen is worth more than $5000 or is a testamentary instrument the offence is referred to as Theft Over $5000 and is an indictable offence with a maximum punishment of 10 years imprisonment. Where the stolen item is not a testamentary instrument and is not worth more than $5000 it is known as Theft Under $5000 and is a hybrid offence, meaning that it can be treated either as an indictable offence or a less serious summary conviction offence, depending on the choice of the prosecutor.if dealt with as an indictable offence, it is punishable by imprisonment for not more than 2 years, and, if treated as a summary conviction offence, it is punishable by 6 months imprisonment, a fine of $2000 or both.
Where a motor vehicle is stolen, Section 333.1 provides for a maximum punishment of 10 years for an indictable offence, a maximum sentence of 18 months on summary conviction. Article 2 of the Theft Ordinance provides the general definition of theft in Hong Kong: A person commits theft if he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it, it is immaterial whether the appropriation is made with a view to gain, or is made for the thief’s own benefit. Theft is a crime with related articles in the Wetboek van Strafrecht. Article 310 prohibits theft, defined as taking away any object that belongs to someone else, with the intention to appropriate it illegally. Maximum imprisonment is 4 years or a fine o
Passive fire protection
Passive fire protection is an integral component of the components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread, such as by fire-resistant walls and doors. PFP systems must comply with the associated listing and approval use and compliance in order to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes. Fire protection in a building, offshore facility or a ship is a system that includes: Active fire protection can include manual or automatic fire detection and fire suppression. Passive fire protection includes compartmentalization of the overall building through the use of fire-resistance rated walls and floors. Organization into smaller fire compartments, consisting of one or more rooms or floors, prevents or slows the spread of fire from the room of fire origin to other building spaces, limiting building damage and providing more time to the building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach an area of refuge. Fire prevention includes minimizing ignition sources, as well as educating the occupants and operators of the facility, ship or structure concerning operation and maintenance of fire-related systems for correct function, emergency procedures including notification for fire service response and emergency evacuation.
The aim for fire protection systems is demonstrated in fire testing the ability to maintain the item or the side to be protected at or below either 140 °C or ca. 550 °C, considered the critical temperature for structural steel, above which it is in jeopardy of losing its strength, leading to collapse. This is based, in most countries, on the basic test standards for walls and floors, such as BS 476: Part 22: 1987, BS EN 1364-1: 1999 & BS EN 1364-2: 1999 or ASTM E119. Smaller components, such as fire dampers, fire doors, etc. follow suit in the main intentions of the basic standard for walls and floors. Fire testing involves live fire exposures upwards of 1100 °C, depending on the fire-resistance rating and duration one is after. More items than just fire exposures are required to be tested to ensure the survivability of the system under realistic conditions. To accomplish these aims, many different types of materials are employed in the design and construction of systems. For instance, common endothermic building materials include calcium silicate board and gypsum wallboard.
During fire testing of concrete floor slabs, water can be seen to boil out of a slab. Gypsum wall board loses all its strength during a fire; the use of endothermic materials is proven to be sound engineering practice. The chemically bound water inside these materials sublimes. During this process, the unexposed side cannot exceed the boiling point of water. Once the hydrates are spent, the temperature on the unexposed side of an endothermic fire barrier tends to rise rapidly. Too much water can be a problem, however. Concrete slabs that are too wet, will explode in a fire, why test laboratories insist on measuring water content of concrete and mortar in fire test specimens, before running any fire tests. PFP measures can include intumescents and ablative materials; the point is, that whatever the nature of the materials, they on their own bear no rating. They must be organised into systems, which bear a rating when installed in accordance with certification listings or established catalogues, such as DIN 4102 Part 4 or the Canadian National Building Code.
Passive fire protection measures are intended to contain a fire in the fire compartment of origin, thus limiting the spread of fire and smoke for a limited period of time, as determined the local building code and fire code. Passive fire protection measures, such as firestops, fire walls, fire doors, are tested to determine the fire-resistance rating of the final assembly expressed in terms of hours of fire resistance. A certification listing provides the limitations of the rating. Contrary to active fire protection measures, passive fire protection means do not require electric or electronic activation or a degree of motion. Exceptions to that particular rule of thumb are fire dampers and fire door closers, which must move and shut in order to work, as well as all intumescent products, which swell, thus move, in order to function; as the name suggests, passive fire protection remains inactive in the coating system until a fire occurs. There are two types of PFP: intumescent fire protection and vermiculite fire protection.
In vermiculite fire protection, the structural steel members are covered with vermiculite materials a thick layer. This is a cheaper option as compared to an intumescent one, but is crude and aesthetically unpleasant. Moreover, if the environment is corrosive in nature the vermiculite option is not advisable, as there is the possibility of water seeping into it, there it is difficult to monitor for corrosion. Intumescent fireproofing is a layer of paint, applied along with the coating system on the structural steel members; the thickness of this intumescent coating is dependent on the steel section used. For calculation of DFT a factor called Hp/A, referred to as "section factor" and expressed in m−1, is used. Intumescent coatings are applied as an intermediate coat in a coating system; because of the low thickness of this intumescent coating, nice finish, anti-corrosi
High-voltage transformer fire barriers
High-voltage transformer fire barriers, or transformer firewalls, transformer ballistic firewalls, transformer blast walls, are outdoor countermeasures against cascading failures in a national electric grid. The purpose of these barriers, like common fire barriers in building construction, is compartmentalisation of transformer fires, as well as transformer and bushing explosions where the fuel source of both fires and explosions is the transformer oil. Without compartmentalisation, one ruptured transformer could start its neighbouring transformer on fire and thus create a domino effect that can affect the surrounding electric grid during peak times. High-voltage transformer fire barriers are located in electrical substations, but may be attached to buildings, such as valve halls or manufacturing plants with large electrical distribution systems, such as pulp and paper mills. Outdoor transformer fire barriers that are attached at least on one side to a building are referred to as wing walls.
At times, high-voltage transformers can be located outside and sometimes inside of buildings, requiring higher fire-resistance ratings than other fire compartments in a building. The primary North American document that deals with outdoor high-voltage transformer fire barriers is NFPA 850. NFPA 850 outlines that outdoor oil-insulated transformers should be separated from adjacent structures and from each other by firewalls, spatial separation, or other approved means for the purpose of limiting the damage and potential spread of fire from a transformer failure; the following may be used in place of or in addition to transformer fire barriers, depending on the design goals. They are not however, compensatory measures against ballistic attacks or other sabotage. Transformers may be placed far enough apart, given available space, such that the rupture of one may not affect its neighbouring transformer. Fire protection water spray systems are used to cool a transformer to prevent damage if exposed to radiation heat transfer from a fire involving oil released from another transformer that has failed.
Transformer oil is available in different levels of ignitability, including those approved by FM Global FM Data Sheet 5-4 indicates different levels of protection depending on the type of fluid used. Alternatives include, but are not limited to, esters and silicone oil. Electronic measures by means of strategic instrumentation may be used to detect and prevent surges leading to fires. Arc fault Cascading failure Countermeasure Critical infrastructure protection Electric grid Electric grid security Electrical power distribution Fire test Firewall North American Electric Reliability Corporation Passive fire protection Transformer
A building code is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission from a local council; the main purpose of building codes is to protect public health and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are intended to be applied by architects, interior designers and regulators but are used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers and others. Codes regulate the construction of structures where adopted into law. Examples of building codes began in ancient times. In the USA the main codes are the International Commercial or Residential Code, electrical codes and plumbing, mechanical codes.
Fifty states and the District of Columbia have adopted the I-Codes at the state or jurisdictional level. In Canada, national model codes are published by the National Research Council of Canada; the practice of developing and enforcing building codes varies among nations. In some countries building codes are developed by the government agencies or quasi-governmental standards organizations and enforced across the country by the central government; such codes are known as the national building codes. In other countries, where the power of regulating construction and fire safety is vested in local authorities, a system of model building codes is used. Model building codes have no legal status unless adopted or adapted by an authority having jurisdiction; the developers of model codes urge public authorities to reference model codes in their laws, ordinances and administrative orders. When referenced in any of these legal instruments, a particular model code becomes law; this practice is known as adoption by reference.
When an adopting authority decides to delete, add, or revise any portions of the model code adopted, it is required by the model code developer to follow a formal adoption procedure in which those modifications can be documented for legal purposes. There are instances. At some point in time all major cities in the United States had their own building codes. However, due to increasing complexity and cost of developing building regulations all municipalities in the country have chosen to adopt model codes instead. For example, in 2008 New York City abandoned its proprietary 1968 New York City Building Code in favor of a customized version of the International Building Code; the City of Chicago remains the only municipality in America that continues to use a building code the city developed on its own as part of the Municipal Code of Chicago. In Europe, the Eurocode is a pan-European building code that has superseded the older national building codes; each country now has National Annexes to localize the contents of the Eurocode.
In India, each municipality and urban development authority has its own building code, mandatory for all construction within their jurisdiction. All these local building codes are variants of a National Building Code, which serves as model code proving guidelines for regulating building construction activity. Building codes have a long history; the earliest known written building code is included in the Code of Hammurabi, which dates from circa 1772 BC. The book of Deuteronomy in the Hebrew Bible stipulated that parapets must be constructed on all houses to prevent people from falling off. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, able to spread so through the densely built timber housing of the city, the Rebuilding of London Act was passed in the same year as the first significant building regulation. Drawn up by Sir Matthew Hale, the Act regulated the rebuilding of the city, required housing to have some fire resistance capacity and authorised the City of London Corporation to reopen and widen roads.
The Laws of the Indies were passed in the 1680s by the Spanish Crown to regulate the urban planning for colonies throughout Spain's worldwide imperial possessions. The first systematic national building standard was established with the London Building Act of 1844. Among the provisions, builders were required to give the district surveyor two days' notice before building, regulations regarding the thickness of walls, height of rooms, the materials used in repairs, the dividing of existing buildings and the placing and design of chimneys and drains were to be enforced and streets had to be built to minimum requirements; the Metropolitan Buildings Office was formed to regulate the construction and use of buildings throughout London. Surveyors were empowered to enforce building regulations, which sought to improve the standard of houses and business premises, to regulate activities that might threaten public health. In 1855 the assets and responsibilities of the office passed to the Metropolitan Board of Works.
The City of Baltimore passed its first building code in 1859. The Great Baltimore Fire occurred in February, 1904. Subsequent changes were made that matched other cities. In 1904, a Handbook of the Baltimore City Building Laws was published, it served as the building code for four years. Soon, a formal building code was drafted and adopted in 1908. In Paris, under the reconstruction o
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces. For example, a solid piece of metal being bent or pounded into a new shape displays plasticity as permanent changes occur within the material itself. In engineering, the transition from elastic behavior to plastic behavior is called yield. Plastic deformation is observed in most materials metals, rocks, foams and skin. However, the physical mechanisms that cause plastic deformation can vary widely. At a crystalline scale, plasticity in metals is a consequence of dislocations; such defects are rare in most crystalline materials, but are numerous in some and part of their crystal structure. In brittle materials such as rock and bone, plasticity is caused predominantly by slip at microcracks. In cellular materials such as liquid foams or biological tissues, plasticity is a consequence of bubble or cell rearrangements, notably T1 processes. For many ductile metals, tensile loading applied to a sample will cause it to behave in an elastic manner.
Each increment of load is accompanied by a proportional increment in extension. When the load is removed, the piece returns to its original size. However, once the load exceeds a threshold – the yield strength – the extension increases more than in the elastic region. Elastic deformation, however, is an approximation and its quality depends on the time frame considered and loading speed. If, as indicated in the graph opposite, the deformation includes elastic deformation, it is often referred to as "elasto-plastic deformation" or "elastic-plastic deformation". Perfect plasticity is a property of materials to undergo irreversible deformation without any increase in stresses or loads. Plastic materials that have been hardened by prior deformation, such as cold forming, may need higher stresses to deform further. Plastic deformation is dependent on the deformation speed, i.e. higher stresses have to be applied to increase the rate of deformation. Such materials are said to deform visco-plastically.
The plasticity of a material is directly proportional to the ductility and malleability of the material. Plasticity in a crystal of pure metal is caused by two modes of deformation in the crystal lattice: slip and twinning. Slip is a shear deformation which moves the atoms through many interatomic distances relative to their initial positions. Twinning is the plastic deformation which takes place along two planes due to a set of forces applied to a given metal piece. Most metals show more plasticity. Lead shows sufficient plasticity at room temperature, while cast iron does not possess sufficient plasticity for any forging operation when hot; this property is of importance in forming and extruding operations on metals. Most metals are hence shaped hot. Crystalline materials contain uniform planes of atoms organized with long-range order. Planes may slip past each other along their close-packed directions, as is shown on the slip systems page; the result is a permanent change of shape within the plastic deformation.
The presence of dislocations increases the likelihood of planes. On the nanoscale the primary plastic deformation in simple face centered cubic metals is reversible, as long as there is no material transport in form of cross-glide; the presence of other defects within a crystal may entangle dislocations or otherwise prevent them from gliding. When this happens, plasticity is localized to particular regions in the material. For crystals, these regions of localized plasticity are called shear bands. Microplasticity is a local phenomenon in metals, it occurs for stress values where the metal is globally in the elastic domain while some local areas are in the plastic domain. In amorphous materials, the discussion of "dislocations" is inapplicable, since the entire material lacks long range order; these materials can still undergo plastic deformation. Since amorphous materials, like polymers, are not well-ordered, they contain a large amount of free volume, or wasted space. Pulling these materials in tension opens up these regions and can give materials a hazy appearance.
This haziness is the result of crazing, where fibrils are formed within the material in regions of high hydrostatic stress. The material may go from an ordered appearance to a "crazy" pattern of stretch marks; some materials those prone to martensitic transformations, deform in ways that are not well described by the classic theories of plasticity and elasticity. One of the best-known examples of this is nitinol, which exhibits pseudoelasticity: deformations which are reversible in the context of mechanical design, but irreversible in terms of thermodynamics. In the case of iron, the martensitic phase transformation from bcc to hcp phases induces significant work hardening; these materials plastically deform when the bending moment exceeds the plastic moment. This applies to open cell foams; the foams can be made of any material with a plastic yield point which includes rigid polymers and metals. This method of modeling the foam as beams is only valid if the ratio of the density of the foam to the density of the matter is less than 0.3.
This is. In closed cell foams, the yield strength is increased if the material is under tension because of the membrane that spans the face of the cells. Soils clays, display a significant amount of inelasticity