click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pi Kappa Alpha

Pi Kappa Alpha known as PIKE, is a college fraternity founded at the University of Virginia in 1868. The fraternity has over 225 chapters and colonies across the United States and abroad with over 15,500 undergraduate members over 300,000 lifetime initiates; the fraternity's vision statement is "To set the standard of integrity, achievement for our members, host institutions, the communities in which we live." Pi Kappa Alpha was founded on March 1, 1868, at 47 West Range at the University of Virginia by six graduate students: Robertson Howard, Julian Edward Wood, James Benjamin Sclater Jr. Frederick Southgate Taylor, Littleton Waller Tazewell and William Alexander. On March 1, 1869 one year after the Alpha chapter at the University of Virginia was formed, the Beta chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha was founded at Davidson College. Theta chapter, at Rhodes College, took over the responsibilities of Alpha chapter when the Fraternity was in decline in its infancy. John Shaw Foster, a junior founder from Theta chapter, helped to reestablish Alpha chapter at the University of Virginia.

Theta chapter is the longest continual running chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha, having been founded in 1878. After a decade of decline, Pi Kappa Alpha was "re-founded" as part of the Hampden–Sydney Convention, held in a dorm room at Hampden–Sydney College; the four delegates to the Hampden–Sydney Convention are referred to as the Junior Founders. Pi Kappa Alpha was not organized as a sectional fraternity, however by constitutional provision it became so in 1889, it remained a southern fraternity until the New Orleans Convention in 1909 when Pi Kappa Alpha declared itself a national organization. Like many other social fraternities at the time, Pi Kappa Alpha limited its membership to white men; the race restriction was removed in 1964. Its rituals are based on Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Shield & Diamond is the official quarterly publication of Pi Kappa Alpha, it was first printed in December 1890 by Robert Adger Smythe, the Grand Secretary and Treasurer, under the name The Pi Kappa Alpha Journal.

The name was changed to Shield & Diamond in 1891. Pike University is the name used for all of the fraternity's leadership programs; the program is administered by the fraternity's professional staff. Founded in 1948 as a 501 tax exempt organization for charitable, literary & educational purposes. Events held by the university include International Convention, the Academy, the Chapter Executives Conference, several regional Leadership Summits. Pike University grants more than $100,000 in scholarships each year. In 1948, Pi Kappa Alpha established and chartered the "Pi Kappa Alpha Memorial Foundation" as a 501 organization; the foundation grants $350,000 in grants to undergraduate members each year. It provides funding to the fraternity and its chapters for leadership programs and chapter house facilities; the foundation grants initiation fee scholarships to undergraduates inducted into Phi Beta Kappa, Omicron Delta Kappa, Order of Omega, Phi Kappa Phi, Tau Beta Pi honoraries. The Pike Foundation maintains and operates the Memorial Headquarters in Memphis, Tennessee.

This facility houses professional staffs, the Harvey T. Newell Library, the Freeman Hart Museum; the building is a war memorial built in 1988 to recognize the military services of members who died in the line of duty. A Gold Star Memorial was dedicated on August 1, 2008. In 1976, Samuel Mark Click, a pledge at Texas Tech University, was killed participating in a scavenger hunt as part of a hazing event, he was trying to collect a letter, under a railroad tie when he was hit by a train. In 1988, three Pi Kappa Alpha members at Florida State University were charged in the sexual battery of a freshman female student; the victim was left in the hallway of another fraternity house. The case made national headlines for weeks; the fraternity members all struck plea deals, the fraternity was banned from the school for twelve years. Pi Kappa Alpha was allowed to return to the school in 2000 despite strong protests. In 1988, several members of Pi Kappa Alpha were arrested for a sexual assault that took place at Stetson University.

In 2002, Albert Santos, a pledge at the University of Nevada at Reno, drowned in a lake participating in a hazing ritual. He and several pledges were told to swim in a lake in their underwear but Santos could not swim; the fraternity was banned from the campus after his death. Santos' family sued the fraternity for negligence. In 2007, the chapter at the University of Central Florida was shut down after the fraternity racked up more than 20 misconduct and hazing violations. In 2008, 10 Pike members were arrested at Tulane University for pouring boiling hot water on pledges; the chapter was accused of drugging and sexually assaulting several female students at the fraternity's annual bacchanal. Florida International University suspended the fraternity in 2013 after the discovery of photos on Facebook of hazing and drug deals, as well as sexually explicit photos of women taken without their consent; the UNC-Charlotte chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha was suspended after student placed in IC for alcohol-related hazing in 2013.

In 2014 a county judge dismissed charges against three members, found the fourth not guilty. The university found the fraternity guilty of hazing, suspended its charter for eight years. In 2010, the chapter at Cornell University was placed on suspension for four years “due to its history of alcohol and hazing-related infractions over several years, which culminated in a Jan. 22, 2010, incident involving high-risk drinking," according to the Cornell Chronicle. The chapter was suspended again in March 2017 for violating university r

T. J. Clemmings

Trevor Anthony "T. J." Clemmings is an American football offensive tackle for the Chicago Bears of the National Football League. He played college football at Pittsburgh, he was drafted by the Minnesota Vikings in the fourth round of the 2015 NFL Draft. He has played for the Washington Redskins and Oakland Raiders. A native of Teaneck, New Jersey, Clemmings attended the since-defunct Paterson Catholic High School in Paterson, New Jersey, where he led the Cougars to back-to-back Non-Public Group I state championships, he started out playing basketball in high school on a team that included future NBA player Kyle Anderson and switched sports despite his mother's concerns about the risks of injury in football. Despite playing only two seasons of football at Paterson Catholic, he earned status as the top overall prospect in the state of New Jersey; as a senior, he helped lead his team to a perfect 11-0 record en route to the title. For the season, he collected seven sacks and seven forced fumbles.

Following his senior season, he was named North Jersey Defensive Player of the Year, All-New Jersey, All-New Jersey Non-Public, All-Passaic County and All-BPSL. He established himself as a Division I prospect in basketball and received scholarship offers from Big East schools Providence and Seton Hall after he spearheaded a defense that notched five shutouts and yielded just 41 points on the year. In track & field, Clemmings notched a top-throw of 12.90 meters in the shot put as a senior in 2009. Regarded as a four-star recruit by Rivals.com, Clemmings was ranked as the state's No. 2 prospect and the country's No. 16 strongside defensive end. Scout.com rated him the No. 1 overall player in New Jersey and the nation's No. 6 defensive end prospect, as well as the country's No. 38 player overall. He was selected to PrepStar "Dream Team" and was rated one of the country's top 50 overall prospects by PrepStar. In June 2009, Clemmings committed to the University of Pittsburgh to play college football.

Clemmings played defensive end his first three years at Pittsburgh. As a true freshman he appeared in eight games. After being redshirted in 2011, Clemmings played in eight games in 2012 with six starts, finishing with 20 tackles. Prior to the 2012 BBVA Compass Bowl, he was switched from defensive end to offensive tackle. In 2013, he became a full-time offensive started all 13 games at right tackle. Clemmings returned as a starter in 2014. Clemmings entered the draft process as one of the top prospects in his position and a first round selection, but fell on draft boards because of a report that surfaced in the week leading up to the 2015 NFL Draft saying he had a stress fracture in his foot. At the 2015 NFL Combine, Clemmings was the best of all offensive linemen with a vertical jump of 32.5 inches and a 4.54 20-yard shuttle. He showcased his strength by benching 225 pounds 22 times. Clemmings was selected by the Minnesota Vikings in the fourth round of the 2015 NFL Draft, he was the tenth offensive tackle selected in the draft.

He signed a four-year, $2,804,955 deal. Clemmings tied a franchise rookie record by starting all 16 games after the Vikings lost veteran starter Phil Loadholt at right tackle for the entire season due to an achilles injury, he joined an offensive line that helped running back Adrian Peterson lead the NFL in rushing with 1,485 yards and posted the fourth-ranked rushing attack in the league. After starting left tackle Matt Kalil was placed on injured reserve on September 21, 2016, Clemmings was announced as the starter for the rest of the season. On September 2, 2017, Clemmings was waived by the Vikings. Clemmings was claimed off waivers by the Washington Redskins on September 3, 2017, he was placed on injured reserve on November 2017 with an ankle injury. On September 1, 2018, Clemmings was waived by the Redskins. On September 2, 2018, Clemmings was claimed off waivers by the Oakland Raiders, he was placed on injured reserve on November 2018 with a knee injury. On May 31, 2019, Clemmings was signed by the Chicago Bears.

He suffered a quadriceps injury in the preseason and was placed on injured reserve on August 27, 2019. Pittsburgh Panthers bio Minnesota Vikings bio Washington Redskins bio

Ecological study

Ecological studies are studies of risk-modifying factors on health or other outcomes based on populations defined either geographically or temporally. Both risk-modifying factors and outcomes are averaged for the populations in each geographical or temporal unit and compared using standard statistical methods. Ecological studies have found links between risk-modifying factors and health outcomes well in advance of other epidemiological or laboratory approaches; the study by John Snow regarding a cholera outbreak in London is considered the first ecological study to solve a health issue. He used a map of deaths from cholera to determine that the source of the cholera was a pump on Broad Street, he had the pump handle removed in 1854 and people stopped dying there. It was only when Robert Koch discovered bacteria years that the mechanism of cholera transmission was understood. Dietary risk factors for cancer have been studied using both geographical and temporal ecological studies. Multi-country ecological studies of cancer incidence and mortality rates with respect to national diets have shown that some dietary factors such as animal products, added sweeteners/sugar, some fats appear to be risk factors for many types of cancer, while cereals/grains and vegetable products as a whole appear to be risk reduction factors for many types of cancer.

Temporal changes in Japan in the types of cancer common in Western developed countries have been linked to the nutrition transition to the Western diet. An important advancement in the understanding of risk-modifying factors for cancer was made by examining maps of cancer mortality rates; the map of colon cancer mortality rates in the United States was used by the brothers Cedric and Frank C. Garland to propose the hypothesis that solar ultraviolet B radiation, through vitamin D production, reduced the risk of cancer. Since many ecological studies have been performed relating the reduction of incidence or mortality rates of over 20 types of cancer to higher solar UVB doses. Links between diet and Alzheimer’s disease have been studied using both geographical and temporal ecological studies; the first paper linking diet to risk of Alzheimer’s disease was a multi-country ecological study published in 1997. It used prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in 11 countries along with dietary supply factors, finding that total fat and total energy supply were correlated with prevalence, while fish and cereals/grains were inversely correlated.

Diet is now considered an important risk-modifying factor for Alzheimer’s disease. It was reported that the rapid rise of Alzheimer’s disease in Japan between 1985 and 2007 was due to the nutrition transition from the traditional Japanese diet to the Western diet. Another example of the use of temporal ecological studies relates to influenza. John Cannell and associates hypothesized that the seasonality of influenza was driven by seasonal variations in solar UVB doses and calcidiol levels. A randomized controlled trial involving Japanese school children found that taking 1000 IU per day vitamin D3 reduced the risk of type A influenza by two-thirds. Ecological studies are useful for generating hypotheses since they can use existing data sets and test the hypothesis; the advantages of the ecological studies include the large number of people that can be included in the study and the large number of risk-modifying factors that can be examined. The term “ecological fallacy” means that risk-associations apparent between different groups of people may not reflect the true association between individuals within those groups.

Ecological studies should include as many known risk-modifying factors for any outcome as possible, adding others if warranted. The results should be evaluated by other methods, for example, Hill’s criteria for causality in a biological system

2008 Canadian commercial seal hunt

Canada's 2008 annual commercial seal hunt in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and around Newfoundland and Nova Scotia began on March 28; the hunting season lasts from mid-November to mid-May, but the hunt occurs in March and April. Canada's seal hunt is the world's largest hunt for marine mammals; some animal rights groups monitored the hunt. They said that it ravaged the seal population. Sealers said it was sustainable and well-managed; the pelts and oil were sold to buyers in Norway and China. The total allowable catch for 2008 was set by the Canadian government at 275,000 harp seals, 8,200 hooded seals, 12,000 grey seals. A new rule in the Marine Mammal Regulations for 2008 required hunters to slit the seal's main arteries under its flippers, after clubbing or shooting a seal; the European Union recommended adding this rule in a report released in December 2007. This was to prevent the seal from having to withstand the pain of being skinned alive; the hunt in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence started on Friday March 28, 2008.

A handful of sealing vessels set out before dawn from the Magdalen Islands. In the first hour of the hunt, only 15 seals were killed; the ice had made it hard for the 16 vessels, carrying 100 hunters, to get near the seals. Most of the hunters in these first days of the hunt were from the Magdalen Islands; the average seal hunt brings in about $1 million annually to the Magdalen Islands. As of March 30, about 1000 had been killed. On March 30, the hunt in the Gulf of St. Lawrence opened for the people from New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia; as of April 18, sealers in the Gulf of St. Lawrence had taken about half of their total allowable catch of 51,500 seals; the biggest part of the 2008 Canadian seal hunt took place off of Newfoundland and Labrador, known as the Front. The hunt in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Front began on April 11 and 12 respectively. Official opening times and license conditions were released on April 7. According to Fisheries Department spokesman Larry Yetman, up to 120 larger boats were heading to the Front on April 12.

As of April 18, sealers on the Front had taken 56% of a total 194,000 seals allowed to be taken in the area. By April 18, longliners on the Front had taken c. 79% of their TAC of 112,000 seals. Small boats on the Front had taken 27% of their TAC of 71,000 seals; the seal hunt for longliners on the Front closed on April 19, 2008. At the time, these were the only groups of hunters close to catching their quota. On March 29, 2008, a 12-metre fishing vessel with six men, L'Acadien II, capsized near Cape Breton. Navy divers searched the waters for four men, sleeping in the lower decks of the vessel. Two men, who were at the upper decks, were rescued on to another fishing boat; the vessel had capsized. The L'Acadien II took part in the seal hunt, had to be towed because of a steering problem; when the vessel had capsized, a Cormorant helicopter and a Hercules aircraft came to aid the rescue. The vessel had since been secured to the side of the Coast Guard's vessel; the navy divers recovered the bodies of three of the missing men on March 29, with one man still missing.

The men who died were from the Magdalen Islands. They have been identified as Bruno Bourque, the boat's owner and captain, Gilles Leblanc, Marc-Andre Deraspe. Still missing but presumed dead was Carl Aucoin. On the evening of March 28, it was reported that two sealing vessels were taking in water, one vessel had mechanical problems, in heavy ice conditions off Cape Breton. Two icebreakers were sent out to help the vessels out of the ice. On March 29, the coast guard and Department of Defence rescued seven people before their vessel, the Annie Marie, was crushed in the ice pack northeast off Cape Breton. On April 14, the vessel Lucy May burnt to the waterline on Newfoundlands's northeast coast, after the crew had been rescued by a Cormorant helicopter. On April 14, the vessel BS Venture had mechanical trouble on Newfoundland's west coast, six men escaped from the vessel before it ran ashore; the men reached land safely in Rocky Harbour in a self-brought speedboat. The vessel White Bay Challenger started to take in water on April 17 because it had been struck by ice while it was being escorted by the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Ann Harvey.

The White Bay Challenger sank. Journalists have a constitutional right to observe the hunt, affirmed under a 1989 Federal Court of Appeal ruling; the federal government have a right to issue observer permits, to prevent the ice from being overcrowded with observers. A Seal Fishery Observation Licence in 2008 cost $25, regulations on, eligible for a license were found in the Marine Mammal Regulations. After noon on March 28, federal fisheries officials issued observer permits for the hunt's opening day to activists and journalists. A couple of hours before the permits were issued, Phil Jenkins of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans said: "We're going to delay the giving out of permits until we can understand what exact level of sealing is going on." When the permits were issued, the International Fund for Animal Welfare managed to fly out to film some scenes. The journalists and the representatives of the Humane Society of the United States were unable to make it to the ice floes because the weather had turned bad during the day, making it hard to fly a helicopter.

DFO spokesman Phil Jenkins said that 60 observer permits had been iss

Sindri Thor Jakobsson

Sindri Thor Jakobsson is a Norwegian swimmer of Icelandic origins. He specialises in the butterfly. Jakobsson is from Iceland, where he swam for Frjálsíþróttafélag ÍBV in the Vestmannaeyjar for Íþróttabandalag Reykjanesbæjar in Reykjanesbær. In the mid-2000s he moved to Norway. After five years living in Bergen, where his club was SK Delfana, he took Norwegian citizenship and renounced his Icelandic citizenship; as of March 2016 he had transferred to Lambertseter Svømmeklubb in Oslo. At an all-ages national championship meet in 2003, he won four events: the 100 metre and 200 metre butterfly, the 400 metre freestyle and the 200 metre medley. At the Icelandic national championships in 2008 he swam the 200 metre butterfly in 2.07.75 and in the 50 metres equalled his personal best time, 0.26.66. In April 2012 Jakobsson was one of two team-mates sharing a room with Alexander Dale Oen at a training camp in Flagstaff, who discovered him dead in the bathroom. At the 2012 European Aquatics Championships he set a Norwegian record of 2.00.96 for the 200 metre butterfly, breaking his own previous record by 24 hundredths of a second.

At the 2013 European Short Course Swimming Championships he set a Norwegian record of 52.34 seconds for the 100 metre butterfly, breaking his own previous record of 53.29 seconds. At the 2014 European Aquatics Championships, for which he was selected despite not having technically qualified, he again broke his own previous Norwegian record for the 200 metre butterfly, with a time of 1.59.80. At the 2015 European Short Course Swimming Championships he broke his own Norwegian record for the 100 metre butterfly with a time of 51.99 seconds, broke it again with 51.77 seconds in the semi-finals. He set a new Norwegian record in the 200 metre medley, 1.56.15. In 2016 he won 13 gold medals, seven individual, at the Norwegian Short Course Championships, again set a new record for the 200 metre butterfly, 1.58.85, at the Bergen Swim Festival. Jakobsson set a Norwegian senior record of 1.58.93 in the 200 metre butterfly at the 2016 European Aquatics Championships, but did not qualify for the 2016 Summer Olympics.

In October 2016 he announced his retirement on Facebook. Facebook page

Carska Bara

Carska Bara is the largest individual bog in Serbia, in the municipality of Zrenjanin. Along with the neighboring pond of Stari Begej it forms the Special nature reserve "Carska Bara". Carska Bara is 17 kilometers south of the town of Zrenjanin, in the west-central part of the Serbian section of Banat, near the mouth of the river Begej into the Tisa; the southern border is bounded by the final, navigable section of the Begej before it empties into the Tisa, while to the north are the vast Ečka fishponds, the largest in Serbia and second largest in Europe. Entire bog belongs to the municipality of Zrenjanin. Though it is in the triangle of large cities Belgrade-Novi Sad-Zrenjanin, all settlements in the vicinity of Carska bara are smaller ones, ranging from 1,500 to 6,000 inhabitants; the closest settlements are Perlez, in southern corner, on the Begej, Belo Blato, east of the bog, on the southern shore of Ečka fishpond. In the north are the villages of Lukino Selo, Ečka and Stajićevo, while Knićanin is southwest of it.

Town of Titel is right across the bridge on the Tisa. Gallery of the painting colony of "Ečka" is located on the northern tip of the bog. Human history in the area surrounding Carska bara goes back to 4,000 years BC, with uncovered mounds near Mužlja and Titel. According to legend, the bog, was named after Attila, king of the Huns, but other sources claim that the bog was named that way because of the Austrian emperors which used to hunt in the area. Count László Lukács owned some land in the area, invited members of the Austrian royal family to hunt. Among them were princes Rudolf and Franz Ferdinand; the entire, physically connected wetland of Carska Bara covers an area of 11 km2 and the entire system consists of three ponds connected by the 8 km long canal of Old Begej, a former distributary of the Begej river. It extends 9 km along the Begej; until 1964, the Old Begej was regular part of the Bega river, navigable flowing river. That year, the digging of a new Bega canal began, which became part of the cast Danube–Tisa–Danube Canal system.

Former river named Old Begej and in time became muddy and marshy. Wetland consists of many smaller bodies of water: rivers, canals and ponds, covered with reed beds, willow thickets and rushes and it is known for its color diversity; the central, lake section is known for its blue, clear water, while the surrounding salt marshes have white and yellow waters, all within green woods. Carska Bara consisted of smaller and larger swamps, but in time it turned into a complex of Begej's meanders which are getting shortened and narrowed and the bog gets more and more inclined compared to the river bed; the Begej river is 2 to 3 m deep in this area. Some areas of water are covered in pond algae. Many rare and autochthonous plants live in the wetland, but many imported ones; some representatives of the water plants include water fern, European white water lily, Nuphar lutea, lax-flowered orchid and water farina. Meadow plants are represented by Plumbago, wormwood and meadow sage, marsh plants by flowering rush, yellow flag iris, water mannagrass, common sweet flag, reed, etc.

Altogether, there are some 500 plant species registered in the reserve, including rare or protected species, like yellow pheasant's eye, St John's wort and buttercup. The colonies of old willow groves are preserved, so as the forests of the black poplar and narrow-leafed ash. There are rare specimens of pedunculate oak. Once abundant, the oak was cut, but its number began to grow after the area was protected in 1955; the main invasive species is the water caltrop. It anchors to the bottom of the ponds with its spikes and grows fast, draining large amounts of oxygen from the water; the avoid the massive dying of the fish, the plant is being cut from the bottom. In Carska Bara and nearby Begej river there are 24 different species of fish; the muddy waters are ideal for northern pike. There are colonies of zanders, which thrives in different waters, they remained from the period before 1964, when the Old Begej was a "live river", used for navigation. After being transformed into the oxbow lake, the population of zander remained in it, adapting to the new environment.

Amphibians and reptiles are abundant. Despite being a marshland, in Carska Bara there is a noticeable absence of mosquitos which local biologists attribute to the large number of frogs. Both frogs and tadpoles are feasting of mosquito larvae, while those who manage to hatch are prayed upon by the frogs and 18 species of dragonflies. There are numerous frogs and snakes. Terrapins are protected and considered the "cleaners" of the bog, as none of the other animals are not eating dead fish. Carska Bara is the best known for its abundant bird life, the first ornithological exploration of which began in the late 19th century. There are 240 bird species recorded in the area. There are thriving colonies of cormorants. Other species include buzzards, Eurasian sparrowhawks, common spoonbills, western marsh harrier, Montagu's harrier, red-brea