The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by felt hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that does not allow variation in volume. An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame.

Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings. The hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency; these vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air. When the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord. Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully or a performer presses or strikes the keys.

Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard. This means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble; the black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano; the grand piano is used for Classical concerto solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice.

Upright pianos are widely used in elementary and secondary schools, music school practice rooms, in smaller churches. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many types of musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.

The piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dulcimers, which were used since the


KOLY-FM is a radio station licensed to serve Mobridge, South Dakota. The station is owned by James River Broadcasting, it airs a Hot Adult Contemporary music format. All three Mobridge James River Broadcasting stations share studios at 118 3rd St. East, in Mobridge; the KOLY AM and FM transmitters and the 581 foot tower are east of town, on Highway 12. The station was assigned the KOLY-FM call letters by the Federal Communications Commission on March 25, 1980. In 2006, sports director Pat Morrison celebrated 50 years on the air at KOLY-AM/FM as the voice of Mobridge High School. KOLY-FM official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KOLY Radio-Locator information on KOLY Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KOLY

Marma, Dhanbad

Marma is a census town in Nirsa CD block in Dhanbad Sadar subdivision of Dhanbad district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Marma is located at 23.76°N 86.73°E / 23.76. Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the area. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map; the region shown in the map is a part of the undulating uplands bustling with coalmines. While the Damodar flows along the southern boundary, the Barakar flows along the eastern boundary. Both the rivers form the boundary with West Bengal. Panchet Dam and Maithon Dam, along with their reservoirs, are prominently visible in the map; the entire area is covered in Nirsa. In Nirsa CD block 69% of the population live in rural areas and 31% live in urban areas; the official website of the district has announced the formation of two new CD blocks – Egarkund and Kaliasole carved out of Nirsa CD block. As of July 2019, there is no further information about the new CD blocks. BCCL operates Chanch/ Victoria Area within the region shown in the map.

ECL operates Mugma Area within the region shown in the map. As per the 2011 Census of India, Marma had a total population of 4,640 of which 2,411 were males and 2,221 were females. Population below 6 years was 699; the total number of literates in Marma was 2,669. As of 2001 India census, Marma had a population of 4,607. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Marma has an average literacy rate of 50%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 59%, female literacy is 40%. In Marma, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Marma has an area of 2.119 km2. It is 36 km from the district headquarters Dhanbad. There is a railway station at Mugma 2 km away. Buses are available in the town, it has both covered and open drains. The two major sources of protected water supply are uncovered wells and hand pumps. There are 40 road light points. Amongst the educational facilities, it has 1 primary school, 1 middle school, 1 secondary school and 1 senior secondary school, it is a centre of the fire bricks industry