The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th, European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c.1760 in opposition to the then-dominant Baroque and Rococo styles. Each neo-classicism selects some models among the range of classics that are available to it. They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity, the Rococo art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Woods The Ruins of Palmyra. While the movement is described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism. The case of the main champion of late Neoclassicism, demonstrates this especially well. The revival can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology, the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were important in shaping this movement in both architecture and the visual arts. With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout Europe, Neoclassicism in each art implies a particular canon of a classical model.
In English, the term Neoclassicism is used primarily of the arts, the similar movement in English literature. This, which had been dominant for decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable. Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar, in music, the period saw the rise of classical music, and Neoclassicism is used of 20th-century developments. Ingress coronation portrait of Napoleon even borrowed from Late Antique consular diptychs and their Carolingian revival, much Neoclassical painting is more classicizing in subject matter than in anything else. A fierce, but often very badly informed, dispute raged for decades over the merits of Greek and Roman art, with Winckelmann. The work of artists, who could not easily be described as insipid, combined aspects of Romanticism with a generally Neoclassical style. Unlike Carstens unrealized schemes, the etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesi were numerous and profitable and his main subject matter was the buildings and ruins of Rome, and he was more stimulated by the ancient than the modern.
Neoclassicism in painting gained a new sense of direction with the success of Jacques-Louis Davids Oath of the Horatii at the Paris Salon of 1785. Despite its evocation of republican virtues, this was a commission by the royal government, David managed to combine an idealist style with drama and forcefulness. David rapidly became the leader of French art, and after the French Revolution became a politician with control of government patronage in art
Doge's Palace, Genoa
The Doges Palace is a historical building in Genoa, northern Italy. Once the home of the Doges of Genoa, it is now a museum and it is situated in the heart of the city, with two different entrances and façades, the main one on Piazza Matteotti, and the second one on Piazza De Ferrari. The first parts of the Palace were built between 1251 and 1275, during the period of the Republican history of Genoa, while the Torre Grimaldina was completed in 1539. To this, in 1294, a tower of the Fieschi family was added, the palace was restored in the 1590s by Andrea Ceresola. Around 1655, the Ducal Chapel was frescoed by Giovanni Battista Carlone, in 1777 it was subject to a fire, and was subsequently rebuilt in Neoclassicist style by Simone Cantoni. On the main floor, the so-called Piano Nobile, are the halls of the Maggior and Minor Consiglio. The Palace of the Doges was restored in 1992, in occasion of the celebrations of Christopher Columbus and the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America. In July 2001 the Palace hosted the G8 Summit, which was attended by the leaders of Canada, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, official Website of the Palace of the Doges of Genoa
A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, plaza, most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, music concerts, political rallies, and other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores. At their center is often a fountain, monument, many of those with fountains are actually called fountain square. In urban planning, a city square or urban square is an open area in a city. Red Square in Moscow was originally used as a marketplace and became the stage for Soviet military parades. Similarly, Beijings Tiananmen Square was the scene of both communist parades and anti-government protests, john-F. -Kennedy-Platz was the site of the West Berlin town hall and John F. Kennedys famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech. New York Citys Times Square as well as Bryant Park, Washington, D. C.
s National Mall, trafalgar Square in London does the same for the United Kingdom. Saint Peters Square in Vatican City, the enclave within Rome. Yonge-Dundas Square in Toronto is a renowned and famous square in Canada, nathan Phillips Square is a popular square in front of Torontos landmark City Hall. Hviezdoslavovo námestie is one of the squares in Bratislava and a centre of a social life. Dam Square in Amsterdam for the Netherlands, Main Market Square in Kraków, Market Place in Warsaw and Wrocław Main Square for Poland. The City Hall Square, Copenhagen for Denmark, praça do Comércio, in Lisbon, was formerly known as the Terreiro do Paço. It was destroyed after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake but was rebuilt, the symmetrical buildings around the square hold government bureaus and ministries. Wenceslas Square is one of the city squares in the New Town of Prague. In Mainland China, Peoples Square is a designation for the central town square of modern Chinese cities. These squares are the site of government buildings and other public buildings, the probably best-known and largest such square in China is Tienanmen Square.
The German word for square is Platz, which means Place and these have been focal points of public life in towns and cities from the Middle Ages to today
Teatro Carlo Felice
The Teatro Carlo Felice is the principal opera house of Genoa, used for performances of opera, orchestral music, and recitals. It is located on the Piazza De Ferrari, the hall is named for Duke Carlo Felice, and dates from 24 December 1824, when the Most Excellent Department of Theatres was established. On 31 January 1825, local architect Carlo Barabino submitted his design for the house which was to be built on the site of the church of San Domenico. The Dominican monks were moved elsewhere without delay or ceremony, the inaugural performance of Bellinis Bianca e Fernando took place on 7 April 1828, even though the structure and decoration were not quite finished. The auditorium accommodated an audience of about 2,500 in five tiers, a gallery above, the acoustics were considered among the best of the time. For nearly forty years from 1853, Verdi spent the winter in Genoa, in 1892, Genoa commemorated the 400th anniversary of Columbus discovery of America and to celebrate the occasion the Carlo Felice was renovated and redecorated at a cost of 420,000 lire.
Verdi was approached to compose an opera, but he declined the honour. Alberto Franchettis opera Cristoforo Colombo premiered at the Carlo Felice on 6 October 1892, further damage was sustained on 5 August 1943 when incendiary bombs started a backstage fire which destroyed all scenery and wooden fittings, but did not reach the main auditorium. Unfortunately additional damage was caused by looters who stripped the back of the theatre of every possible scrap of metal they could find. Finally, an air raid in September 1944 caused the destruction of the front of the theatre leaving virtually only the outside walls, what had been the most richly beautiful of opera houses had become a skeleton of bare walls and roofless porticos. Reconstruction plans began immediately after the wars close, the first design by Paolo Antonio Chessa was rejected, the second by Carlo Scarpa was approved in 1977 but brought to a halt by his untimely death. Aldo Rossi ultimately provided todays design, in portions of the original facade have been recreated.
The hall officially reopened in June 1991, with a main hall holding up to 2,000 seats and a smaller auditorium holding up to 200 seats
Tramways & Urban Transit
Tramways & Urban Transit, known as Modern Tramway, is a British monthly magazine about tramways and light rail transport, published continuously since 1938. Its content is orientated both to enthusiasts and to persons working in the tram transport field or studying tramways. It has been issued monthly from the beginning, although published in Britain, the magazines coverage is international, and its regular World News column includes detailed news on electric trams and light rail worldwide. With effect from the July 2007 issue, publication was taken over by a newly formed company, LRTA Publishing Ltd, the magazine has been an important source of news and information on European tram developments for transport writers in the United States. Originally titled The Modern Tramway, the magazines first issue was published in January 1938, the title retained the words Modern Tramway for the next 60 years, but with variations. This in turn was replaced by the current title, Tramways & Urban Transit.
This was abbreviated as T&UT until mid-2007 and thereafter as TAUT, some issues include reviews, of books, DVDs, etc. Since 1995, each issue has had 40 pages, counting the front, tAUT’s current editor-in-chief is Simon Johnston, who took over the post in January 2011. The previous editor, Howard Johnston, had held the post since April 1995 and his immediate predecessor, W. J. Wyse, had been the magazines editor for 28 years, since June 1967, a longer period than any other MT or TAUT editor to date. Apart from W. J. Wyse and Howard Johnston, the only editors-in-chief who held the post for more than five years were K. G. Mansell and James Joyce. With effect from the January 1992 issue, concurrent with the change of name to Light Rail & Modern Tramway, the magazines page size was doubled, to A4 size. The number of pages per issue was reduced from 40 to 32 at that time, the number of pages was restored to 40 from the April 1995 issue. The use of illustrations was expanded, as colour printing became less expensive.
List of railway-related periodicals Official website
Trolleybuses in Genoa
The Genoa trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network of the city and comune of Genoa, in the region of Liguria, northern Italy. In operation since 1997, the system currently only one route. Between 2008 and 2012, two routes were being operated, from 1938 to 1973, Genoa was served by a more extensive system, which reached a maximum length of 26.6 km and eight routes in 1964. Genoas first trolleybus system was activated on 13 April 1938, to complement the Genoa tram network, on 30 January 1951, trolleybuses replaced trams on the important uphill bypass. At the time of its greatest extent, the first trolleybus system consisted of nine lines totalling 27 km and its trolleybus routes served only the central areas of the city, as opposed to the tram network, which stretched across Greater Genoa. In subsequent years, the system was gradually reduced, by replacing the trolleybus routes with bus routes. Trolleybuses were reintroduced to Genoa on 26 June 1997, when route 30 was electrified between Foce and Via di Francia, service was operated by a newly built fleet of 20 Breda two-axle trolleybuses.
Operation of the new system was suspended from June 2000 to December 2002. Only a few later, in May 2003, a four-year suspension of trolleybus service on the western part of the system, west of Piazza delle Fontane Marose in the city centre. This was a result of the conversion of Via Balbi from a two-way to a one-way street, the latter required the permanent diversion of route 30s eastbound routing to follow Via Gramsci, and some time passed before the new eastbound routing was fitted with overhead trolley wiring. In the meantime, trolleybus service operated as route 30-barrato, while diesel buses served the full route 30, trolleybus service west of the city centre was reactivated on 13 February 2007. On 5 May 2008, an extension west from Via di Francia to Sampierdarena entered service, route 30, which had been running from Foce to Via di Francia, was curtailed at its east end, to Stazione Brignole, no longer running to Foce. Route 30 operated Monday to Saturday at that time, but in January 2010, because route 30-barrata includes one turn not equipped with overhead trolley wires, it is operated by motorbuses, and consequently route 20 became the only trolleybus route still operating.
Fiat 635 F, served from 1939 to 1973, alfa Romeo 500/F, served from 1939 to 1956. SPA 34C, served from 1940 to 1973, isotta Fraschini F2, served from 1940 to 1965. Fiat 656 F, served from 1941 to 1965, fiat 668 F, served from 1950/53 to 1973. Lancia Esatau, served from 1953 to 1963, served from 1939/40 to 1963. Alfa Romeo 110 AF, served from 1944 to 1963, alfa Romeo 110 AF, served from 1948/49 to 1972
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was used in Ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures. Some noteworthy examples of porticos are the East Portico of the United States Capitol, the portico adorning the Pantheon in Rome, porticos are sometimes topped with pediments. Bologna, Italy, is famous for its porticos, in total, there are over 45 km of arcades, some 38 in the city center. The longest portico in the world, about 3.5 km, in Bologna, porticos stretch for 18 km. Palladio was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings, in the UK, the temple-front applied to The Vyne, Hampshire was the first portico applied to an English country house. A pronaos is the area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple. Roman temples commonly had an open pronaos, usually with only columns and no walls, the word pronaos is Greek for before a temple. In Latin, a pronaos is referred to as an anticum or prodomus, the different variants of porticos are named by the number of columns they have.
The style suffix comes from the Greek στῦλος, the tetrastyle has four columns, it was commonly employed by the Greeks and the Etruscans for small structures such as public buildings and amphiprostyles. Roman provincial capitals manifested tetrastyle construction, such as the Capitoline Temple in Volubilis, the North Portico of the White House is perhaps the most notable four-columned portico in the United States. Hexastyle buildings had six columns and were the standard façade in canonical Greek Doric architecture between the archaic period 600–550 BC up to the Age of Pericles 450–430 BC. With the colonization by the Greeks of Southern Italy, hexastyle was adopted by the Etruscans, Roman taste favoured narrow pseudoperipteral and amphiprostyle buildings with tall columns, raised on podiums for the added pomp and grandeur conferred by considerable height. The Maison Carrée at Nîmes, France, is the best-preserved Roman hexastyle temple surviving from antiquity, octastyle buildings had eight columns, they were considerably rarer than the hexastyle ones in the classical Greek architectural canon.
The best-known octastyle buildings surviving from antiquity are the Parthenon in Athens, built during the Age of Pericles, and the Pantheon in Rome. The destroyed Temple of Divus Augustus in Rome, the centre of the Augustan cult, is shown on Roman coins of the 2nd century AD as having built in octastyle. The decastyle has ten columns, as in the temple of Apollo Didymaeus at Miletus, the temple of Venus and Rome, built by Hadrian in Rome about 130 A. D. was decastyle, the only known example in Roman architecture. Classical architecture List of classical architecture terms Hypostyle Loggia Stoa Greek architecture, Encyclopædia Britannica,1968 Stierlin, From Mycenae to the Parthenon, TASCHEN,2004, Editor-in-chief Angelika Taschen, Cologne, ISBN 3-8228-1225-0 Stierlin, Henri
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015,594,733 people lived within the administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious past, part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006. The citys rich history in notably its art, music. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of north-west Italy, is one of the countrys major economic centres. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the citys prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, the Genoa area has been inhabited since the fifth or fourth millennium BC.
In ancient times this area was frequented and inhabited by Ligures, Phocaeans and Etruscans. The city cemetery, dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BC, testifies to the occupation of the site by the Greeks, but the fine harbour probably saw use much earlier, perhaps by the Etruscans. In the 5th century BC was founded the first oppidum at the foot of the today called the Castle Hill which now is inside the medieval old town. The ancient Ligurian city was known as Stalia, so referred to by Artemidorus Ephesius and Pomponius Mela, Ligurian Stalia was overshadowed by the powerful Marseille and Vada Sabatia, near modern Savona. Stalia had an alliance with Rome through a foedus aequum in the course of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians accordingly destroyed it in 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the Carthaginian Wars ended in 146 BC. it received municipal rights, the original castrum thenceforth expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory.
Trades included skins and honey, goods were shipped to the mainland, up to major cities like Tortona and Piacenza. Among the archeological remains from the Roman period, an amphitheatre was found, another theory traces the name to the Etruscan word Kainua which means New City and still another from the Latin word ianua, related to the name of the God Janus, meaning door or passage. The latter is in reference to its position at the centre of the Ligurian coastal arch. The Latin name, oppidum Genua, is recorded by Pliny the Elder as part of the Augustean Regio IX Liguria, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Ostrogoths occupied Genoa
Augusto Rivalta was an Italian sculptor. Rivalta was born in Alessandria, Italy to Genoese parents, in 1859, he moved to Florence, but soon swept up in the patriotic events, he volunteered for the Genovese Carabiniere, and took part in the campaigns. He was wounded during the conflict and he returned to Florence, where he studied with Aristodemo Costoli, and joined the studio of Giovanni Duprè. Among his first designs was for a monument to Count Cavour in Turin, while the jury sided with Rivalta, the commission was given to the more established Duprè. Rivaltas statue was placed in the courtyard of the Banca Nazionale in Florence, because he took part in the Risorgimento Rivalta was able to obtain commissions for memorials of many of its leaders including Garibaldi, Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II. He completed the Monument to Madama Trachil in the cemetery of Nizza Monferrato and he completed a Giovan Battista Niccolini once found in the Museum Capodimonte. He sculpted one of the bas-reliefs at the base of the Monument to Cavour in Turin and he completed the monument to the Garibaldi fighter, Savi.
He completed a number of busts, and the statue of Vittorio Emanuele II for Livorno. In 1870, he became professor of sculpture at the Florentine Academy where one of his students was Pompeo Coppini, media related to Augusto Rivalta at Wikimedia Commons
The Genoa Metro is a light metro consisting of a single line that connects the centre of Genoa, Italy with the suburb of Rivarolo Ligure, to the north-west of the city centre. The service is managed by Azienda Mobilità e Trasporti, which provides public transport for the city of Genoa. It is a 7.1 kilometres long 1,435 mm double-track line and is electrified at 750 volts DC and it has a direct connection with the underground suburban station under Trenitalias mainline railway station, Principe. The first section, opened on 13 June 1990 in time for the football World Cup, was 2. 5-kilometre between the stations of Brin and Dinegro. The line was extended to Principe in 1992, to San Giorgio-Caricamento in 2003, to De Ferrari in 2005, Brin Dinegro Principe Darsena San Giorgio Sarzano/SantAgostino De Ferrari Brignole List of metro systems Paolo Gassani, Genova verso la metropolitana leggera. Media related to Genoa Metro at Wikimedia Commons AMT Genoa - Metro official website Unofficial site and forum about Genoa underground and public transport Genoa at UrbanRail. net
Ian Allan Publishing
Ian Allan Publishing is a UK publisher, established in 1942, which specialised in transport books. It was founded by Ian Allan, the result was his first book, ABC of Southern Locomotives. This proved to be a success, leading to the emerging of trainspotting as a national hobby, the company has grown from a small producer of books for train enthusiasts and spotters to a large transport publisher. The headquarters is at the end of Shepperton railway station in Surrey. At the end of 2016, the announced that they were withdrawing from railway publishing. Crécy Publishing acquired these titles, including the Oxford and abc imprints, Ian Allan Publishing has acquired several companies and imprints. Midland Publishing was acquired in 1999, the Midland imprint provides a range of specialist, highly illustrated titles, covering military aviation subjects from World War II to the present day. In civil aviation, comprehensive works of reference are published frequently, Classic Publications, a publisher of aviation titles, was added in 2002, bringing another imprint widely considered important in the World War II aviation market.
Ian Allan Publishings trade representation is provided by Amalgamated Book Services for its own imprints, in addition to the above Ian Allan owns the imprint Lewis Masonic. Lewis Masonic produces the ritual used by UGLE lodges and chapters. Despite the title, the magazine covers products of all manufacturers, Railways Illustrated, a monthly publication targeting enthusiasts. Modern Railways, previously Trains illustrated combined with Locomotive and Carriage & Wagon Review, modern Locomotives Illustrated, previously Locomotives Illustrated Railway World Buses formerly Buses Illustrated Buses Focus is a spin-off from Buses magazine. Bus and Coach Preservation was first published in 2001 under the Ian Allan banner following a merger of two previous titles and this now bi-monthly journal covers the world of historic transport. It has been established for over 20 years, Aircraft Illustrated was first published in 1968. It covered up to date news and features on civil aviation, airliners, in 2009 the magazine changed its focus to classic aircraft exclusively and was renamed Classic Aircraft.
Combat Aircraft provides in-depth coverage of the men and the machines at the forefront of the undertaken in today’s combat zones. Model Railway Constructor A history of the company and of its publications down to 1967 appeared in the November 1967 edition of their pmagazine Railway World and those magazines still in print were acquired by Key Publishing in March 2012. Through the Lewis Masonic imprint, the company publishes the quarterly masonic magazine The Square
An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin eques, meaning knight, deriving from equus, meaning horse. A statue of a horse is strictly an equine statue. A full-sized equestrian statue is a difficult and expensive object for any culture to produce, Equestrian statuary in the West goes back at least as far as Archaic Greece. Found on the Athenian acropolis, the sixth century BC statue known as the Rampin Rider depicts a kouros mounted on horseback, a number of ancient Egyptian and Persian reliefs show mounted figures, usually rulers, though no free standing statues are known. The Chinese Terracotta Army has no mounted riders, though cavalrymen stand beside their mounts, the Regisole was a bronze classical or Late Antique equestrian monument of a ruler, highly influential during the Italian Renaissance but destroyed in 1796 in the wake of the French Revolution. It was originally erected at Ravenna, but removed to Pavia in the Middle Ages, a fragment of an equestrian portrait sculpture of Augustus has survived.
Equestrian statues were not very frequent in the Middle ages, there are some examples, like the Bamberg Horseman, located in Bamberg Cathedral. Another example is the Magdeburg Reiter, in the city of Magdeburg, there are a few roughly half-size statues of Saint George and the Dragon, including the famous ones in Prague and Stockholm. The Scaliger Tombs in Verona include Gothic statues at less than lifesize, a well-known small bronze in Paris may be a contemporary portrait of Charlemagne, although its date and subject are uncertain. Leonardo da Vinci had planned an equestrian monument to the Milanese ruler. The The Wax Horse and Rider is a model for an equestrian statue of Charles dAmboise. Titians equestrian portrait of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor of 1548 applied the form again to a ruler, taccas studio would produce such models for the rulers in France and Spain. His last public commission was the equestrian bronze of Philip IV, begun in 1634. The near life-size equestrian statue of Charles I of England by Hubert Le Sueur of 1633 at Charing Cross in London is the earliest large English example, which was followed by many.
The Bronze Horseman is an equestrian statue, on a huge base, of Peter the Great of 1782 by Étienne Maurice Falconet in Saint Petersburg. Mills was the first American sculptor to overcome the challenge of casting a rider on a rearing horse, the resulting sculpture was so popular he repeated it, for Washington, D. C. New Orleans and Nashville, cyrus Edwin Dallin made a specialty of equestrian sculptures of American Indians, his Appeal to the Great Spirit stands before the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The Robert Gould Shaw Monument in Boston, Massachusetts is a famous relief including an equestrian portrait, as the 20th century progressed, the popularity of the equestrian monument declined sharply, as monarchies fell, and the military use of horses virtually vanished