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The piccolo is a half-size flute, a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute, but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written; this gave rise to the name ottavino, which the instrument is called in the scores of Italian composers. It is called flauto piccolo or flautino. Piccolos are now manufactured in the key of C. In the early 20th century, piccolos were manufactured in D♭ as they were an earlier model of the modern piccolo, it was for this D♭ piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever". In the orchestral setting, the piccolo player is designated as "piccolo/flute III", or "assistant principal"; the larger orchestras have designated this position as a solo position due to the demands of the literature. Piccolos are orchestrated to double the violins or the flutes, adding sparkle and brilliance to the overall sound because of the aforementioned one-octave transposition upwards.

In concert band settings, the piccolo is always used and a piccolo part is always available. The piccolo had no keys, should not be confused with the fife, which traditionally was one-piece, had a smaller bore and produced a more strident sound; the Swiss piccolo is used in conjunction with marching drums in traditional formations at the Carnival of Basel, Switzerland. It is a myth that one of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, premiered in December 1808. Although neither Joseph Haydn nor Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart used it in their symphonies, some of their contemporaries did, including Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Franz Xaver Süssmayr and Michael Haydn. Mozart used the piccolo in his opera Idomeneo. Opera orchestras in Paris sometimes included small transverse flutes at the octave as early as 1735 as existing scores by Jean-Philippe Rameau show. Although once made of wood, glass or ivory, piccolos today are made from plastic, brass, nickel silver, a variety of hardwoods, most grenadilla.

Finely made piccolos are available with a variety of options similar to the flute, such as the split-E mechanism. Most piccolos have a conical body with a cylindrical head, like the Baroque flute and flutes before the popularization of the Boehm bore used in modern flutes. Unlike other woodwind instruments, in most wooden piccolos, the tenon joint that connects the head to the body has two interference fit points that surround both the cork and metal side of the piccolo body joint. There are a number of pieces for piccolo alone, by such composers as Samuel Adler, Miguel del Aguila, Robert Dick, Michael Isaacson, David Loeb, Stephen Hough, Polly Moller, Vincent Persichetti, Karlheinz Stockhausen. Repertoire for piccolo and piano, many of which are sonatas have been composed by Miguel del Águila, Robert Baksa, Robert Beaser, Rob du Bois, Howard J. Buss, Eugene Damare, Pierre Max Dubois, Raymond Guiot, Lowell Liebermann, Peter Schickele, Michael Daugherty, Gary Schocker. Concertos have been composed for piccolo, including those by Lowell Liebermann, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Todd Goodman, Martin Amlin, Will Gay Bottje, Bruce Broughton, Valentino Bucchi, Avner Dorman, Jean Doué, Michael Easton, Egil Hovland, Guus Janssen, Daniel Pinkham and Jeff Manookian.

Additionally, there is now a selection of chamber music. One example is Stockhausen's Zungenspitzentanz, for piccolo and two euphoniums, with optional percussionist and dancer. Another is George Crumb's Madrigals, Book II for soprano and percussion. Other examples include a trio for piccolo and piano'Was mit den Tränen geschieht' by Stephen Hough, the Quintet for Piccolo and String Quartet by Graham Waterhouse and Malambo for piccolo, double bass, piano by Miguel del Aguila. Published trios for three piccolos include Quelque Chose canadienne by Nancy Nourse and Bird Tango by Crt Sojar Voglar for three piccolos with piano. Petrushka's Ghost for eight piccolos by Melvin Lauf, Jr. and Una piccolo sinfonia for nine piccolos by Matthew King are two more examples. Gippo, Jan; the Complete Piccolo: A Comprehensive Guide to Fingerings and History, second edition, foreword by Laurie Sokoloff. Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser Company, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59806-111-6 The Woodwind Fingering Guide, with piccolo fingerings

Philippa Black

Philippa Margaret Black is a New Zealand academic specialising in geology mineralogy and metamorphic petrology. She earned a MSc and PhD in geology, her PhD focused on the Tokatea Reef in the hills behind Coromandel township. She got an MA in History, she was appointed a professor at the University of Auckland in 1986 and headed the department for 15 years. Between 1993 and 1997, Black was president of the Royal Society of New Zealand, the first woman to hold the role. In the 1996 Queen's Birthday Honours, she was appointed a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to science. In 2013, after her retirement, she was elected Companion to the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand. Profile on ResearchGate

Carlos Guitarlos

Carlos Guitarlos is a Mexican-American guitarist. He first gained attention in Top The Rhythm Pigs, his dramatic life has taken in cult stardom in Los Angeles, homelessness, an unexpected return to recording in the new millennium. Ayala grew up in the northeast Los Angeles community of Cypress Park, he talked his mother into buying him a guitar at 10, learned the basics from an older brother. He had a good ear, noting that by the time he was 13, he could play anything. After graduating from high school, Ayala played in some undistinguished bands, he spent most of his twenties writing songs and practicing. In 1980, at age 30, he got a job as a doorman at the downtown Hong Kong Café, working with his guitar strapped around his neck, it was there. A musician both men knew introduced the doorman as “Carlos Guitarlos,” and it stuck; this rock and R&B band emerged in 1980 from the Los Angeles punk/roots music scene. Music writer Chris Morris dubbed them "L. A. punk's house band." As lead guitarist, Ayala was the key component of the group.

Morris described the pair as "imposing, heavy-drinking, talented."During their heyday in the early 1980s, they attracted many famous guest stars to their gigs. One of the big names who joined the group on stage was Tom Waits; as a result, Carlos Guitarlos played on two tracks of the 1983 Waits album Swordfishtrombones. However, Top Jimmy & The Rhythm Pigs crumbled. Internal volatility, fueled by Ayala, was a major reason. Morris noted that Ayala was "truculent...frequently deranged." In 1988, an "increasingly erratic" Ayala followed daughter to San Francisco. An undiagnosed case of diabetes worsened his problems, he wound up homeless in the Mission District. He displayed a sign reading "Will Play for Fame or Fortune." Yet his talent was still visible: the San Francisco Bay Guardian named him "Best Street Musician" in a 1994 survey. Ayala gave up alcohol after Koncek died in 2001. After being hospitalized for congestive heart failure shortly thereafter, he turned his life around with the help of a nephew.

He proceeded to put out an album called Mission Blues that year. The Los Angeles Times caught up with Carlos in April 2003, devoting a feature to him called "The Ballad of Carlos Guitarlos" which started on that day's front page. Living in a $35-a-day residence hotel room, Carlos was playing at a BART plaza in the Mission District with "unmistakably sophisticated" technique and "an old gravelly blues voice cracked." After wondering who he was and what a guy with his chops was doing there, the back story unfolded. A second album, Straight from the Heart, followed, it was recorded with old friends and fellow members of the L. A. punk scene: John Doe, Mike Watt, Dave Alvin. On display were skills as a songwriter in multiple styles, in addition to his guitar playing; the Times of London called it a roots-rock masterpiece. Ayala traveled to England in 2004 and 2005 for performances, attracting featured press coverage, his third album, Hell Can Wait, came out in 2005. Guests included David Hidalgo, Marcy Levy, Gene Taylor.

In 2007, he guested on Let Us Now Praise Sleepy John by Peter Case. A 2014 feature called "The Legend of Carlos Guitarlos" focused on him at home in Highland Park on his 64th birthday, he was playing as part of the Carlos Guitarlos Trio and had self-released a 2010 album, The Innocent Remains. A former bandmate with The Rhythm Pigs, Richard Aeilts, noted. Aeilts offered a succinct description: a sensitive soul buried within a hardscrabble Highland Park Chicano who doesn't speak Spanish. Carlos Guitarlos Music - home page Carlos Guitarlos page at

2011 NRL Under-20s season

The 2011 NRL Under-20s season was the fourth season of the National Rugby League's Under-20s competition. The competition, known commercially as the 2011 Toyota Cup due to sponsorship from Toyota, was for under-20s players; the draw and structure of the competition mirrored that of the 2011 NRL Telstra Premiership season. QF = Qualifying Finals SF = Semi Finals PF = Preliminary Finals GF = Grand Final QF = Qualifying Finals SF = Semi Finals PF = Preliminary Finals GF = Grand Final On 30 August 2011, the 2011 Toyota Cup Team of the Year was announced; the team included 15 first time winners including coach John Ackland, while Dane Gagai and Dale Finucane had been named in the 2010 Team of the Year. Kenneath Bromwich and Jesse Bromwich, a member of the 2009 Team of the Year, became the first brothers to be selected in a Team of the Year. - Official site of the NYC, National Youth Competition

Anna Litvinenko

Anna Victoria Litvinenko is a British figure skater and 2017 Team GB member. She is a five-time junior medallist at the British national championships and has most notably competed at the 2015 ISU Junior Grand Prix in the United States, the 2016 ISU Junior Grand Prix in Slovenia, the 2016 ISU CS Warsaw Cup, the 2017 ISU Junior Grand Prix in Latvia, the 2017 ISU CS Finlandia Trophy, the 2018 ISU Junior Grand Prix in Lithuania and the 2018 CS Inge Solar Memorial – Alpen Trophy. In 2017 she was named Youth Sports Personality of the Year by Sport Godalming. Litvinenko is coached by Veronika Bogomolova at the Guildford IFSC in England. Litvinenko began ice skating in 2008 after receiving ice skates as a present, she began skating internationally in 2011, first skated at the British national championships in the 2012-13 season reaching number 1 in the national rankings at the advanced novice level in 2013. At the junior level, Litvinenko's international debut was at the 2014 Merano Cup, where she was placed 11th.

In the 2015-16 season, she went on to achieve podium positions at both the Tirnavia Edea Ice Cup and the Golden Bear of Zagreb. She debuted in the ISU Junior Grand Prix series in the 2015-16 season, placing 20th in the United States. In the 2016-17 season, she was placed 20th in Slovenia, she was placed on podium positions at the British national championships in five consecutive seasons: she was awarded the silver medal in the 2014-15 season and bronze medals in the 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 seasons. She was selected to represent Great Britain at the 2017 European Youth Olympic Winter Festival in Erzurum, Turkey, she has placed first at the Tirnavia Ice Cup in both the 2017-18 and 2018-19 seasons. At the senior level, Litvinenko made her international debut at the 2016 Denkova-Staviski Cup, where she was awarded the bronze medal, she came in 8th place at the 2017 Skate Helena competition. In the 2016-17 season, she debuted in the ISU Challenger Series, she was placed 6th in the British national championships in the same season.

She was placed 15th in Finland and 23rd in Austria in the ISU Challenger Series in the 2017-18 and 2018-19 seasons respectively. She was placed 7th in the British national championships in the 2018-19 season. CS: Challenger Series.

Open Fire (Ronnie Montrose album)

Open Fire was the first instrumental album from Ronnie Montrose which explored jazz and acoustic concepts in the vein of Blow by Blow by Jeff Beck. Ronnie dropped hints in previous Montrose albums. Songs like "Whaler" and "One And a Half" from Warner Brothers Presents... Montrose! and "Tuft-Sedge" and "Merry-Go-Round" from Jump On It contained various acoustic and string elements that showed Ronnie was looking to branch out from his hard rock persona. Ronnie reunited with friend Edgar Winter who produced the album and played piano and keyboards as well. Ronnie welcomed Montrose alumni Jim Alcivar on keyboards and Alan Fitzgerald on bass and were joined by drummer Rick Shlosser who appeared with Ronnie on Van Morrison's Tupelo Honey; the album begins with "Openers," an orchestral piece similar in style to The Planets by Gustav Holst, which blends into "Open Fire," the closest thing to a straight-ahead rocker on this disc with an unmistakable Ronnie Montrose lead guitar sound. "Mandolinia" begins with a pulsating Moog sequencer bass followed by layers of mandolin sounds and guitars.

"Town Without Pity" is a slick cover that replaces Gene Pitney's vocals with a blistering lead guitar by Ronnie and backed by fine piano work by Edgar Winter and more orchestration by Bob Alcivar. "Leo Rising" is an acoustic guitar piece. "Heads Up" and "Rocky Road" are two examples of jazz fusion. "My Little Mystery" features more acoustic guitar with Edgar Winter manning the harpsichord and another excellent use of Bob Alcivar's orchestra resulting in a Baroque ending. The album ends fittingly with a song titled "No Beginning/No End." Starting off with Moogish special effects by Jim Alcivar, Ronnie coasts in with some smooth acoustic guitar work and follows this by incorporating another soaring lead and leading to a rousing finish. On the strength of this effort, Montrose was invited to perform with accomplished jazz and jazz fusion drummer Tony Williams. On July 27, 1978, Montrose joined Williams, Brian Auger, Mario Cipollina and special guest Billy Cobham on drums for a show in Tokyo as the "Tony Williams All Stars".

The setlist included "Rocky Road", "Heads Up" and "Open Fire" and the "Open Fire" performance appears on The Joy of Flying by Tony Williams. Side One"Openers" - - 2:54 "Open Fire" - - 3:53 Ronnie Montrose - guitar, theremin Alan Fitzgerald - bass Rick Schlosser - drums "Mandolinia" - - 3:14 Ronnie Montrose - guitar, mandocello Jim Alcivar - sequencer programming Edgar Winter - bass synthesizer Rick Schlosser - drums "Town Without Pity" - - 3:17 Ronnie Montrose - guitar Edgar Winter - piano Alan Fitzgerald - bass Rick Schlosser - drums "Leo Rising" - - 3:49 Ronnie Montrose - guitar Jim Alcivar - ondes MartenotSide Two "Heads Up" - - 3:39 Ronnie Montrose - guitar Alan Fitzgerald - bass Rick Schlosser - drums "Rocky Road" - - 4:23 Ronnie Montrose - guitar Edgar Winter - piano Alan Fitzgerald - bass Rick Schlosser - drums "My Little Mystery" - - 4:40 Ronnie Montrose - guitar Edgar Winter - harpsichord "No Beginning/No End" - - 5:54 Ronnie Montrose - guitar Jim Alcivar - Moog synthesizer, effects Edgar Winter - piano Alan Fitzgerald - bass Rick Schlosser - drums Ronnie Montrose – guitar, mandolin, mandocello Edgar Winter - piano, Moog sequencer bass Jim Alcivar - Moog synthesizer, sequencer programming Alan Fitzgerald – bass Rick Shlosser – drums Bob Alcivar - orchestra arrangement, conductor Produced by Edgar Winter Engineered by Dick Bogert Ronnie Montrose.