Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Canadian province of British Columbia; the island is 460 kilometres in length, 100 kilometres in width at its widest point, 32,134 km2 in area. It is the largest island on the West Coast of the Americas; the southern part of Vancouver Island and some of the nearby Gulf Islands are the only parts of British Columbia or Western Canada to lie south of the 49th Parallel. This area has one of the warmest climates in Canada, since the mid-1990s has been mild enough in a few areas to grow subtropical Mediterranean crops such as olives and lemons. Vancouver Island had a population in 2016 of 775,347. Nearly half of that population live in the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria. Other notable cities and towns on Vancouver Island include Nanaimo, Port Alberni, Parksville and Campbell River. Victoria, the capital city of British Columbia, is located on the island, but the larger city of Vancouver is not – it is on the North American mainland, across the Strait of Georgia from Nanaimo.
Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The island was explored by Spanish expeditions in the late 18th century, it was named Quadra's and Vancouver's Island in commemoration of the friendly negotiations held in 1792 by Spanish commander of the Nootka Sound settlement, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, by British naval captain George Vancouver, during the Nootka Crisis. Bodega y Quadra's name was dropped from the name, it is one of several North American locations named after George Vancouver, who explored the Pacific Northwest coast between 1791 and 1794. Vancouver Island is the world's 43rd largest island, Canada's 11th largest island, Canada's second most populous island after the Island of Montreal, it is the largest Pacific island anywhere east of New Zealand. Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years; the groupings, by language, are the Kwakwaka'wakw, Nuu-chah-nulth, various Coast Salish peoples.
Kwakwaka'wakw territory includes northern and northwestern Vancouver Island and adjoining areas of the mainland, the Nuu-chah-nulth span most of the west coast, while the Coast Salish cover the southeastern Island and southernmost extremities along the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Their cultures are connected to the natural resources abundant in the area; the Kwakwaka'wakw today number about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and the mainland. They are known as Kwakiutl in English, from one of their tribes, but they prefer their autonym Kwakwaka'wakw, their indigenous language, part of the Wakashan family, is Kwak'wala. The name Kwakwaka'wakw means "speakers of Kwak'wala"; the language is now spoken by less than 5% of the population—about 250 people. Today 17 separate tribes make up the Kwakwaka'wakw; some Kwakwaka'wakw groups are now extinct. Kwak'wala is a Northern Wakashan language, a grouping shared with Haisla and Wuikyala. Kwakwaka'wakw centres of population on Vancouver Island include communities such as Fort Rupert, Alert Bay and Quatsino, The Kwakwaka'wakw tradition of the potlatch was banned by the federal government of Canada in 1885, but has been revived in recent decades.
The Nuu-chah-nulth are indigenous peoples in Canada. Their traditional home is on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In pre-contact and early post-contact times, the number of nations was much greater, but as in the rest of the region and other consequences of contact resulted in the disappearance of some groups, the absorption of others into neighbouring groups, they were among the first Pacific peoples north of California to come into contact with Europeans, as the Spanish and British attempted to secure control of Pacific Northwest and the trade in otter pelts, with Nootka Sound becoming a focus of these rivalries. The Nuu-chah-nulth speak a Southern Wakashan language and are related to the Makah of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington State and Ditidaht; the Coast Salish are the largest of the southern groups. They are a loose grouping of many tribes with languages. On Vancouver Island, Coast Salish peoples territory traditionally spans from the northern limit of the Gulf of Georgia on the inside of Vancouver Island and covering most of southern Vancouver Island.
Distinct nations within the Coast Salish peoples on Vancouver Island include the Chemainus, the Comox of the Comox Valley area, the Cowichan of the Cowichan Valley, the Esquimalt, the Saanich of the Saanich Peninsula, the Songhees of the Victoria area and Snuneymuxw in the Nanaimo area. Europeans began to explore the island in 1774, when rumours of Russian fur traders caused Spain to send a number of expeditions to assert its long-held claims to the Pacific Northwest; the first expedition was that of the Santiago, under the command of Juan José Pérez Hernández. In 1775, a second Spanish expedition under the Spanish Peruvian captain Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra was sent. By 1776 Spanish exploration had reached Bucareli Bay including the mouth of the Columbia River between Oregon and Washington, Sitka Sound. Vancouver Island came to the attention of Britain after the third voyage of Captain James Cook, who spent a month during 1778 at Nootka Sound, on the island's western coast. Cook claimed it for Great Britain.
The island's rich fur-trading potential led the fur trader John Meares to set up a single-building trading post near the native village of Yuquot, at the entrance to Nootka Sound. The building was removed by the end of 1788; the island was further explored by Spain in 1789 with Esteban José Martínez, who est
A chromosome is a deoxyribonucleic acid molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle. Chromosomes are visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division. Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once, the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends; the original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids. During metaphase the X-shape structure is called a metaphase chromosome. In this condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study. In animal cells, chromosomes reach their highest compaction level in anaphase during chromosome segregation.
Chromosomal recombination during meiosis and subsequent sexual reproduction play a significant role in genetic diversity. If these structures are manipulated incorrectly, through processes known as chromosomal instability and translocation, the cell may undergo mitotic catastrophe; this will make the cell initiate apoptosis leading to its own death, but sometimes mutations in the cell hamper this process and thus cause progression of cancer. Some use the term chromosome in a wider sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells, either visible or not under light microscopy. Others use the concept in a narrower sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin during cell division, visible under light microscopy due to high condensation; the word chromosome comes from the Greek χρῶμα and σῶμα, describing their strong staining by particular dyes. The term was coined by von Waldeyer-Hartz, referring to the term chromatin, introduced by Walther Flemming; some of the early karyological terms have become outdated.
For example and Chromosom, both ascribe color to a non-colored state. The German scientists Schleiden, Virchow and Bütschli were among the first scientists who recognized the structures now familiar as chromosomes. In a series of experiments beginning in the mid-1880s, Theodor Boveri gave the definitive demonstration that chromosomes are the vectors of heredity, it is the second of these principles, so original. Wilhelm Roux suggested. Boveri was able to confirm this hypothesis. Aided by the rediscovery at the start of the 1900s of Gregor Mendel's earlier work, Boveri was able to point out the connection between the rules of inheritance and the behaviour of the chromosomes. Boveri influenced two generations of American cytologists: Edmund Beecher Wilson, Nettie Stevens, Walter Sutton and Theophilus Painter were all influenced by Boveri. In his famous textbook The Cell in Development and Heredity, Wilson linked together the independent work of Boveri and Sutton by naming the chromosome theory of inheritance the Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory.
Ernst Mayr remarks that the theory was hotly contested by some famous geneticists: William Bateson, Wilhelm Johannsen, Richard Goldschmidt and T. H. Morgan, all of a rather dogmatic turn of mind. Complete proof came from chromosome maps in Morgan's own lab; the number of human chromosomes was published in 1923 by Theophilus Painter. By inspection through the microscope, he counted 24 pairs, his error was copied by others and it was not until 1956 that the true number, 46, was determined by Indonesia-born cytogeneticist Joe Hin Tjio. The prokaryotes – bacteria and archaea – have a single circular chromosome, but many variations exist; the chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola and Candidatus Tremblaya princeps, to more than 14,000,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacterium Sorangium cellulosum. Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia are a notable exception to this arrangement, with bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, containing a single linear chromosome.
Prokaryotic chromosomes have less sequence-based structure than eukaryotes. Bacteria have a one-point from which replication starts, whereas some archaea contain multiple replication origins; the genes in prokaryotes are organized in operons, do not contain introns, unlike eukaryotes. Prokaryotes do not possess nuclei. Instead, their DNA is organized into a structure called the nucleoid; the nucleoid occupies a defined region of the bacterial cell. This structure is, dynamic and is maintained and remodeled by the actions of a range of histone-like proteins, which associate with the bacterial chromosome. In archaea, the DNA in chromosomes is more organized, with the DNA packaged within structures similar to eukaryotic nucleosomes. Certain bacteria contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal DNA; these are circular structures in the cytoplasm that contain cellular DNA and play a role in horizontal gene transfer. In prokaryotes and viruses, the DNA is densely packed and organized.
Picea breweriana, known as Brewer spruce, Brewer's weeping spruce, or weeping spruce, is a species of spruce native to western North America, where it is one of the rarest on the continent, endemic to the Klamath Mountains of southwest Oregon and northwest California. The specific epithet breweriana is in honor of the American botanist William Henry Brewer. DNA analyses have shown that Picea breweriana has a basal position in the Picea clade, suggesting that Picea originated in North America, it grows from 1000 -- 2700 m. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 20–40 m tall, exceptionally 54 m, with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m. The bark is thin and scaly, purple-gray in color; the crown is distinct, distinguished by level branches with vertically pendulous branchlets, each branch forming a'curtain' of foliage. The pendulous foliage only develops; the shoots are orange-brown, with dense short pubescence about 0.2 mm long and rough with pulvini 1–2 mm long. The leaves are borne singly on the pulvini, are needle-like, 15–35 mm long, flattened in cross-section, glossy dark green above, with two bands of white stomata below.
The cones are longer than most other North American spruces, cylindrical, 8–15 cm long and 2 cm broad when closed, opening to 3–4 cm broad. They have smoothly rounded, flexible scales 2 cm long; the immature cones are dark purple. The seeds are black, 3–4 mm long, with a slender, 12–18 mm long pale brown wing. Picea breweriana grows slowly less than 20 cm per year, it occurs on ridgetop sites with heavy winter snow to provide a steady source of meltwater through the spring, but dry in the summer. The harsh ridgetop conditions minimize competition from other much faster-growing trees like Douglas-fir, it is well adapted to cope with heavy snow and ice loads, with tough branches, the drooping branchlets shedding snow readily. Outside its native range, P. breweriana is a valued ornamental tree in gardens in Great Britain and Scandinavia, where it is appreciated for its pendulous foliage. This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Jepson Manual treatment Catalogue of Life: Picea breweriana Picea breweriana on Conifer Country Picea breweriana in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, shrubs. Bark is a nontechnical term, it consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, includes the innermost area of the periderm; the outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm. The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is called the rhytidome. Products derived from bark include: bark shingle siding and wall coverings and other flavorings, tanbark for tannin, latex, poisons, various hallucinogenic chemicals and cork. Bark has been used to make cloth and ropes and used as a surface for paintings and map making. A number of plants are grown for their attractive or interesting bark colorations and surface textures or their bark is used as landscape mulch. What is called bark includes a number of different tissues.
Cork is an external, secondary tissue, impermeable to water and gases, is called the phellem. The cork is produced by the cork cambium, a layer of meristematically active cells which serve as a lateral meristem for the periderm; the cork cambium, called the phellogen, is only one cell layer thick and it divides periclinally to the outside producing cork. The phelloderm, not always present in all barks, is a layer of cells formed by and interior to the cork cambium. Together, the phellem and phelloderm constitute the periderm. Cork cell walls contain suberin, a waxy substance which protects the stem against water loss, the invasion of insects into the stem, prevents infections by bacteria and fungal spores; the cambium tissues, i.e. the cork cambium and the vascular cambium, are the only parts of a woody stem where cell division occurs. Phloem is a nutrient-conducting tissue composed of sieve tubes or sieve cells mixed with parenchyma and fibers; the cortex is the primary tissue of roots. In stems the cortex is between the epidermis layer and the phloem, in roots the inner layer is not phloem but the pericycle.
From the outside to the inside of a mature woody stem, the layers include: Bark Periderm Cork, includes the rhytidome Cork cambium Phelloderm Cortex Phloem Vascular cambium Wood Sapwood Heartwood Pith In young stems, which lack what is called bark, the tissues are, from the outside to the inside: Epidermis, which may be replaced by periderm Cortex Primary and secondary phloem Vascular cambium Secondary and primary xylem. As the stem ages and grows, changes occur that transform the surface of the stem into the bark; the epidermis is a layer of cells that cover the plant body, including the stems, leaves and fruits, that protects the plant from the outside world. In old stems the epidermal layer and primary phloem become separated from the inner tissues by thicker formations of cork. Due to the thickening cork layer these cells die; this dead layer is the rough corky bark that forms around other stems. A secondary covering called the periderm forms on small woody stems and many non-woody plants, composed of cork, the cork cambium, the phelloderm.
The periderm forms from the phellogen. The periderm replaces the epidermis, acts as a protective covering like the epidermis. Mature phellem cells have suberin in their walls to protect the stem from desiccation and pathogen attack. Older phellem cells are dead; the skin on the potato tuber constitutes the cork of the periderm. In woody plants the epidermis of newly grown stems is replaced by the periderm in the year; as the stems grow a layer of cells form under the epidermis, called the cork cambium, these cells produce cork cells that turn into cork. A limited number of cell layers may form interior to the cork cambium, called the phelloderm; as the stem grows, the cork cambium produces new layers of cork which are impermeable to gases and water and the cells outside the periderm, namely the epidermis and older secondary phloem die. Within the periderm are lenticels, which form during the production of the first periderm layer. Since there are living cells within the cambium layers that need to exchange gases during metabolism, these lenticels, because they have numerous intercellular spaces, allow gaseous exchange with the outside atmosphere.
As the bark develops, new lenticels are formed within the cracks of the cork layers. The rhytidome is the most familiar part of bark, being the outer layer that covers the trunks of trees, it is composed of dead cells and is produced by the formation of multiple layers of suberized periderm and phloem tissue. The rhytidome is well developed in older stems and roots of trees. In shrubs, older bark is exfoliated and thick rhytidome accumulates, it is thickest and most distinctive at the trunk or bole of the tree. Bark tissues make up by weight between 10–20% of woody vascular plants and consists of various biopolymers, lignin, suberin and polysaccharides. Up to 40% of the bark tissue is made of lignin which forms an important part of a plant providing stru
Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae. Common names include coastal redwood and California redwood, it is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200 -- more. This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet in height and up to 29.2 feet in diameter at breast height. These trees are among the oldest living things on Earth. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred in an estimated 2,100,000 acres along much of coastal California and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon within the United States; the name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae, which includes S. sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron and Metasequoia. Here, the term redwood on its own refers to the species covered in this article, not to the other two species. Scottish botanist David Don described the redwood as the evergreen taxodium in his colleague Aylmer Bourke Lambert's 1824 work A description of the genus Pinus.
Austrian botanist Stephan Endlicher erected the genus Sequoia in his 1847 work Synopsis coniferarum, giving the redwood its current binomial name of Sequoia sempervirens. Endlicher derived the name Sequoia from the Cherokee name of George Gist spelled Sequoyah, who developed the still-used Cherokee syllabary; the redwood is one of each in its own genus, in the subfamily Sequoioideae. Molecular studies have shown that the three are each other's closest relatives with the redwood and giant sequoia as each other's closest relatives; however and colleagues in 2010 queried the polyploid state of the redwood and speculate that it may have arisen as an ancient hybrid between ancestors of the giant sequoia and dawn redwood. Using two different single copy nuclear genes, LFY and NLY, to generate phylogenetic trees, they found that Sequoia was clustered with Metasequoia in the tree generated using the LFY gene, but with Sequoiadendron in the tree generated with the NLY gene. Further analysis supported the hypothesis that Sequoia was the result of a hybridization event involving Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron.
Thus and colleagues hypothesize that the inconsistent relationships among Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron could be a sign of reticulate evolution among the three genera. However, the long evolutionary history of the three genera make resolving the specifics of when and how Sequoia originated once and for all a difficult matter—especially since it in part depends on an incomplete fossil record; the coast redwood can reach 115 m tall with a trunk diameter of 9 m. It has a conical crown, with horizontal to drooping branches; the bark can be thick, up to 1-foot, quite soft and fibrous, with a bright red-brown color when freshly exposed, weathering darker. The root system is composed of wide-spreading lateral roots; the leaves are variable, being 15–25 mm long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees. On the other hand, they are scale-like, 5–10 mm long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees, with a full range of transition between the two extremes.
They have two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture; the species is monoecious, with seed cones on the same plant. The seed cones are ovoid, 15–32 mm long, with 15–25 spirally arranged scales; each cone scale bears three to seven seeds, each seed 3–4 mm long and 0.5 mm broad, with two wings 1 mm wide. The seeds are open at maturity; the pollen cones are 4 -- 6 mm long. Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid and allopolyploid. Both the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of the redwood are paternally inherited. Coast redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land 750 km in length and 5–47 mi in width along the Pacific coast of North America; the prevailing elevation range is 98–2,460 ft above sea level down to 0 and up to 3,000 ft. They grow in the mountains where precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean is greater; the tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, fog drip is regular.
The trees above the fog layer, above about 2,296 ft, are shorter and smaller due to the drier and colder conditions. In addition, Douglas fir and tanoak crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, due to intense salt spray and wind. Coalescence of coastal fog accounts for a considerable part of the trees' water needs; the northern boundary of its range is marked by groves on the Chetco River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, near the California-Oregon border. The largest populations are in Redwood National and State Parks (Del Norte and Humbo
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are a complex of several state and national parks located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and California's Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks, the combined RNSP contain 139,000 acres, feature old-growth temperate rainforests. Located within Del Norte and Humboldt Counties, the four parks, protect 45% of all remaining coast redwood old-growth forests, totaling at least 38,982 acres; these trees are one of the most massive tree species on Earth. In addition to the redwood forests, the parks preserve other indigenous flora, grassland prairie, cultural resources, portions of rivers and other streams, 37 miles of pristine coastline. In 1850, old-growth redwood forest covered more than 2,000,000 acres of the California coast; the northern portion of that area inhabited by Native Americans, attracted many lumbermen and others turned gold miners when a minor gold rush brought them to the region.
Failing in efforts to strike it rich in gold, these men turned toward harvesting the giant trees for booming development in San Francisco and other places on the West Coast. After many decades of unrestricted clear-cut logging, serious efforts toward conservation began. By the 1920s the work of the Save the Redwoods League, founded in 1918 to preserve remaining old-growth redwoods, resulted in the establishment of Prairie Creek, Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks among others. Redwood National Park was created in 1968, by which time nearly 90% of the original redwood trees had been logged; the National Park Service and the California Department of Parks and Recreation administratively combined Redwood National Park with the three abutting Redwood State Parks in 1994 for the purpose of cooperative forest management and stabilization of forests and watersheds as a single unit. The ecosystem of the RNSP preserves a number of threatened animal species such as the tidewater goby, Chinook salmon, northern spotted owl, Steller's sea lion.
In recognition of the rare ecosystem and cultural history found in the parks, the United Nations designated them a World Heritage Site on September 5, 1980 and part of the California Coast Ranges International Biosphere Reserve on June 30, 1983. Modern day native groups such as the Yurok, Karok and Wiyot all have historical ties to the region, some Native American groups still live in the park area today. Archaeological study shows. An 1852 census determined that the Yurok were the most numerous, with 55 villages and an estimated population of 2,500, they used the abundant redwood, which with its linear grain was split into planks, as a building material for boats and small villages. For buildings, the planks would be erected side by side in a narrow trench, with the upper portions bound with leather strapping and held by notches cut into the supporting roof beams. Redwood boards were used to form a shallow sloping roof. Previous to Jedediah Smith in 1828, no other explorer of European descent is known to have investigated the inland region away from the immediate coast.
The discovery of gold along the Trinity River in 1850 led to a minor secondary rush in California. This brought miners into the area and many stayed on at the coast after failing to strike it rich; this led to conflicts wherein native peoples were placed under great strain, if not forcibly removed or massacred. By 1895, only one third of the Yurok in one group of villages remained; the miners logged redwoods for building. Over 2,000,000 acres of the California and southwestern coast of Oregon were old-growth redwood forest, but by 1910, extensive logging led conservationists and concerned citizens to begin seeking ways to preserve the remaining trees, which they saw being logged at an alarming rate. In 1911, U. S. Representative John E. Raker, of California, became the first politician to introduce legislation for the creation of a redwood national park. However, no further action was taken by Congress at that time. Preservation of the redwood stands in California is considered one of the most substantial conservation contributions of the Boone and Crockett Club.
The Save the Redwoods League was founded in 1918 by Boone and Crockett Club members Madison Grant, John C. Merriam, Henry Fairfield Osborn, future member, Frederick Russell Burnham; the initial purchases of land were made by club member Stephen William Kent. In 1921, Boone and Crockett Club member John C. Phillips donated $32,000 to purchase land and create the Raynal Bolling Memorial Grove in the Humboldt Redwoods State Park; this was timely as U. S. Route 101, which would soon provide nearly unfettered access to the trees, was under construction. Using matching funds provided by the County of Humboldt and by the State of California, the Save the Redwoods League] managed to protect areas of concentrated or multiple redwood groves and a few entire forests in the 1920s; as California created a state park system, beginning in 1927, three of the preserved redwood areas became Prairie Creek Redwoods, Del Norte Coast Redwoods, Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks. A fourth became Humboldt Redwoods State Park, by far the largest of the individual Redwood State Parks, but not in the Redwood National and State Park system.
Because of the
The Pinaceae are trees or shrubs, including many of the well-known conifers of commercial importance such as cedars, hemlocks, larches and spruces. The family is included in the order Pinales known as Coniferales. Pinaceae are supported as monophyletic by their protein-type sieve cell plastids, pattern of proembryogeny, lack of bioflavonoids, they are the largest extant conifer family in species diversity, with between 220 and 250 species in 11 genera, the second-largest in geographical range, found in most of the Northern Hemisphere, with the majority of the species in temperate climates, but ranging from subarctic to tropical. The family forms the dominant component of boreal and montane forests. One species, Pinus merkusii, grows just south of the equator in Southeast Asia. Major centres of diversity are found in the mountains of southwest China, central Japan, California. Members of the family Pinaceae are trees growing from 2 to 100 m tall evergreen, monoecious, with subopposite or whorled branches, spirally arranged, linear leaves.
The embryos of Pinaceae have three to 24 cotyledons. The female cones are large and woody, 2–60 cm long, with numerous spirally arranged scales, two winged seeds on each scale; the male cones are small, 0.5–6.0 cm long, fall soon after pollination. Seed dispersal is by wind, but some species have large seeds with reduced wings, are dispersed by birds. Analysis of Pinaceae cones reveals how selective pressure has shaped the evolution of variable cone size and function throughout the family. Variation in cone size in the family has resulted from the variation of seed dispersal mechanisms available in their environments over time. All Pinaceae with seeds weighing less than 90 mg are adapted for wind dispersal. Pines having seeds larger than 100 mg are more to have benefited from adaptations that promote animal dispersal by birds. Pinaceae that persist in areas where tree squirrels are abundant do not seem to have evolved adaptations for bird dispersal. Boreal conifers have many adaptions for winter.
The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, their downward-drooping limbs help them shed snow, many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing, called "hardening". Classification of the subfamilies and genera of Pinaceae has been subject to debate in the past. Pinaceae ecology and history have all been used as the basis for methods of analyses of the family. An 1891 publication divided the family into two subfamilies, using the number and position of resin canals in the primary vascular region of the young taproot as the primary consideration. In a 1910 publication, the family was divided into two tribes based on the occurrence and type of long–short shoot dimorphism. A more recent classification divided the subfamilies and genera based on the consideration of features of ovulate cone anatomy among extant and fossil members of the family. Below is an example of; the 11 genera are grouped into four subfamilies, based on the microscopical anatomy and the morphology of the cones, wood and leaves: Subfamily Pinoideae: cones are biennial triennial, with each year's scale-growth distinct, forming an umbo on each scale, the cone scale base is broad, concealing the seeds from abaxial view, the seed is without resin vesicles, the seed wing holds the seed in a pair of claws, leaves have primary stomatal bands adaxial or on both surfaces.
Subfamily Piceoideae: cones are annual, without a distinct umbo, the cone scale base is broad, concealing the seeds from abaxial view, seed is without resin vesicles, the seed wing holds the seed loosely in a cup, leaves have primary stomatal bands adaxial or on both surfaces. Subfamily Laricoideae: cones are annual, without a distinct umbo, the cone scale base is broad, concealing the seeds from abaxial view, the seed is without resin vesicles, the seed wing holds the seed in a cup, leaves have primary stomatal bands abaxial only. Subfamily Abietoideae: cones are annual, without a distinct umbo, the cone scale base is narrow, with the seeds visible in abaxial view, the seed has resin vesicles, the seed wing holds the seed in a cup, leaves have primary stomatal bands abaxial only. External stresses on plants have the ability to change the structure and composition of forest ecosystems. Common external stress that Pinaceae experience are herbivore and pathogen attack which leads to tree death.
In order to combat these stresses, trees need to evolve defenses against these stresses. Pinaceae have evolved a myriad of mechanical and chemical defenses, or a combination of the two, in order to protect themselves against antagonists. Pinaceae have the ability to up-regulate a combination of constitutive mechanical and chemical strategies to further their defenses. Pinaceae defenses are prevalent in the bark of the trees; this part of the tree contributes a complex defensive boundary against external antagonists. Constitutive and induced defenses are both found in the bark. Constitutive defenses are the first line of defenses used against antagonists and can include sclerified cells, lignified periderm cells, secondary compounds such as phenolics and resins