A pickup truck or pickup is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate. In Australia and New Zealand, both pickups and coupé utilities are called utes, short for utility vehicle. In South Africa, people of all language groups use the term bakkie, a diminutive of bak, Afrikaans for "bowl" or "container". Once a work tool with few creature comforts, in the 1950s US consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle reasons, by the 1990s, less than 15% of owners reported use in work as the pickup truck's primary purpose. Today in North America, the pickup is used as a passenger car and accounts for about 18% of total vehicles sold in the United States. Full-sized pickups and SUVs are an important source of revenue for GM, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, accounting for more than two-thirds of their global pretax earnings, though the vehicles make up just 16% of North American vehicle production; the vehicles have a high profit margin and a high price, with 40% of Ford F-150s selling for US$40,000 or more.
The term pickup is of unknown origin. It was used by Studebaker in 1913 and by the 1930s, "pick-up" had become the standard term. In the early days of automobile manufacturing, vehicles were sold as a chassis only, third parties added bodies on top. In 1913, the Galion Allsteel Body Company, an early developer of the pickup and dump truck and installed hauling boxes on modified Ford Model T chassis, from 1917 on the Model TT. Seeking part of this market share, Dodge introduced a 3/4-ton pickup with cab and body constructed of wood in 1924. In 1925, Ford followed up with a Model T-based, steel-bodied, half-ton with an adjustable tailgate and heavy-duty rear springs. Billed as the "Ford Model T Runabout with Pickup Body", it sold for US$281. In 1928, it was replaced by the Model A which had a closed-cab, safety-glass windshield, roll-up side windows and three-speed transmission. In 1931, Chevrolet produced its first factory-assembled pickup. Ford Australia produced the first Australian "ute" in 1932.
During the Second World War, the United States government halted the production of owned pickup trucks. In the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle rather than utilitarian reasons. Car-like, smooth-sided, fenderless trucks were introduced, such as the Chevrolet Fleetside, the Chevrolet El Camino, the Dodge Sweptline, in 1957, Ford's purpose-built Styleside. Pickups began to feature comfort items such as air conditioning. Trucks became more passenger oriented with the introduction of crew cabs in the Toyota Stout and the Hino Briska, was introduced in 1962. Dodge followed with a crew cab in 1963, Ford in 1965, General Motors in 1973. In 1963, the U. S. chicken tax directly curtailed the import of the Volkswagen Type 2, distorting the market in favor of American manufacturers. The tariff directly affected any country seeking to bring light trucks into the U. S. and "squeezed smaller Asian truck companies out of the American pickup market." Over the intervening years, Detroit lobbied to protect the light-truck tariff, thereby reducing pressure on Detroit to introduce vehicles that polluted less and that offered increased fuel economy.
The US government's 1973 Corporate Average Fuel Economy policy sets higher fuel-economy requirements for cars than pickups. CAFE led to the replacement of the station wagon by the minivan, the latter being in the truck category, which allowed it compliance with less-strict emissions standards; this same idea led to the promotion of sport utility vehicles. Pickups, unhindered by the emissions controls regulations on cars, began to replace muscle cars as the performance vehicle of choice; the Dodge Warlock appeared in Dodge's "adult toys" line, along with the Macho Power Wagon and Street Van. The 1978 gas guzzler tax, which taxed fuel-inefficient cars while exempting pickup trucks, further distorted the market in favor of pickups. Furthermore, until 1999, light trucks were not required to meet the same safety standards as cars and 20 years most still lagged behind cars in the adoption of safety features. In the 1980s, the compact Mazda B-series, Isuzu Faster, Mitsubishi Forte appeared. Subsequently, American manufacturers built their own compact pickups for the domestic market: the Ford Ranger, the Chevrolet S-10.
Minivans make inroads into the pickups' market share. In the 1990s, pickups' market share was further eroded by the popularity of SUVs. While the Ford F-150 has been the best-selling vehicle in the United States since 1982, the Ford F-150, or indeed any full-sized pickup truck, is a rare sight in Europe, where high fuel prices and narrow city roads make it difficult to use daily. In America, pickups are favored by a cultural attachment to the style, low fuel prices, taxes and regulations that distort the market in favor of domestically built trucks; as of 2016, the IRS offers tax breaks for business use of "any vehicle equipped with a cargo area... of at least six feet in interior length, not accessible from the passenger compartment". In Europe, pickups represent less than 1% of light vehicles sold, the most popular being the Ford Ranger with 27,300 units sold in 2015. Other models include the Renault Alaskan, the Toyota Hilux; the NOx law and other differing regulations prevent pickups from being imported to Japan, but the Japanese Domestic Market Mitsubishi Triton was available for a limited time.
The most-recent pickup truck on sale in Japan is Toyota Hilux. In China the Great Wall Wingle is exported to Australia. In Thailand pickups manufactured for local sale and export include the Isuzu D-Max
L'Ascension-de-Patapédia is a municipality in Quebec, Canada. Being surrounded by large tracts of boreal forest, the place is economically dependent on the forestry industry, as well as some hunting and fishing tourism. While the geographic township of Patapédia was proclaimed in 1881, it was not until 1937 that the village was founded; that same year the Parish of L'Ascension-de-Notre-Seigneur was established. In 1968, the Municipality of L'Ascension-de-Patapédia was incorporated, named after the parish and the township. List of municipalities in Quebec municipalité de L’Ascension-de-Patapédia, Matapédia et les Plateaux region
Scavenger is the fourth album by The Walkabouts released September 1, 1991 on Sub Pop Records. It received national exposure in the United States through NPR; the album is available in various forms from Amazon.com and as digital download from iTunes Store in the US and the United Kingdom among others. Scavenger was produced by Gary Smith and features guest appearances by Brian Eno and Natalie Merchant. Source: AllMusicAll songs written by The Walkabouts, except where noted. All lyrics written except where noted. "Dead Man Rise" – 3:27 "Stir the Ashes" – 3:45 "The Night Watch" – 3:28 "Hangman" – 4:59 "Where the Deep Water Goes" – 3:11 "Blown Away" – 3:43 "Nothing Is a Stranger" – 4:18 "Let's Burn Down the Cornfield" – 2:51 "River Blood" – 3:03 "Train to Mercy" – 9:27The album was recorded at Steve Larsons Studios in Seattle during September and October 1990. Mixing was done in October 1990 at The Carriage House, Connecticut. "River Blood" was remixed by Matt Lane in December 1990 at The Carriage House.
Additional recordings were done in New York. The album was mastered at the Skyline Studios; the WalkaboutsGlenn Slater – organ, synthesizer, accordion Grant Eckman – drums Carla Torgerson – vocals, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, cello Michael Wells – bass Chris Eckman – vocals, electric guitarsAdditional musicianBrian Eno – synthesizer, backup vocals on "Train to Mercy" Natalie Merchant – harmony vocals on "Where the Deep Water Goes" Larry Barrett – mandolin on "Where the Deep Water Goes" Gary Smith – tambourine on "Dead Man Rise" and "Stir the Ashes", Deepwater synthesizer on "Where the Deep Water Goes", Morricone keyboard on "Blown Way" Steve Haigler – sleigh bells on "Train to Mercy"Bravura String Quartetstrings on "Train to Mercy" Dave Beck – cello Steven Toda – violin Gregg Rice – violin Sam Williams – violaTechnical personnelGary Smith – production, mixing on "River Blood" Ed Brooks – engineering Steve Haigler – mixing Jim Haviland – recording technician Bruce Calder – additional recording Sam Hofstedt – engineering assistant Matt Lane – mixing assistant, mixing on "River Blood" Greg Calbi – masteringAdditional personnelJane Higgins – design Tony Kroes – design, paintings Charles Peterson – color photo Chris Peters – paintings Jason Ankeny writing in a positive review for AllMusic said: "like its predecessors, refines the Walkabouts' sound as the band's scope broadens."