In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
William Motter Inge was an American playwright and novelist, whose works feature solitary protagonists encumbered with strained sexual relations. In the early 1950s, he had a string of memorable Broadway productions, including Picnic, which earned him a Pulitzer Prize. With his portraits of small-town life and settings rooted in the American heartland, Inge became known as the "Playwright of the Midwest." Inge was born in Independence, the fifth child of Maude Sarah Gibson-Inge and Luther Clay Inge. Inge attended Independence Community College and graduated from the University of Kansas in 1935 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Speech and Drama. While at the University of Kansas, Inge was a member of the Nu Chapter of Sigma Nu. Offered a scholarship to work on a Master of Arts degree, he moved to Nashville, Tennessee, to attend the George Peabody College for Teachers, but dropped out. Back in Kansas, he worked as a laborer on a Wichita news announcer. From 1937 to 1938 he taught English and drama at Cherokee County Community High School in Columbus, Kansas.
After returning and completing his Master's at Peabody in 1938, he taught at Stephens College, in Columbia, from 1938 to 1943. Inge began as a drama critic at the St. Louis Star-Times in 1943. With Tennessee Williams's encouragement, Inge wrote his first play, Farther Off from Heaven, staged at Margo Jones' Theatre'47 in Dallas, Texas. While a teacher at Washington University in St. Louis in 1946–1949, he wrote Come Back, Little Sheba, it ran on Broadway for 190 performances in 1950, winning Tony Awards for Shirley Booth and Sidney Blackmer. It was while teaching at Washington University that Inge's struggles with alcoholism became more acute and, in 1947, he joined Alcoholics Anonymous, it was through AA that Inge met the wife of a member of his AA group whose name was Lola and, who through name as well as personal characteristics, was the person upon whom one of the lead characters in Come Back, Little Sheba, "Lola", was based. As Come Back, Little Sheba was in a pre-Broadway run in early 1950, Inge was filled with some doubt as to its success, as he expressed in a letter to his sponsor in Alcoholics Anonymous, "If Sheba makes it in Hartford I guess it will go on to Broadway and if it doesn't I suppose I'll be back in St. Louis.
If it does make it to Broadway, I don't know when I'll be back." Inge never had to return to St. Louis. In 1953, Inge received a Pulitzer Prize for Picnic, a play based on women he had known as a small child: When I was a boy in Kansas, my mother had a boarding house. There were three women school teachers living in the house. I was four years old, they were nice to me. I liked them. I saw their attempts, as a child, I sensed every woman’s failure. I began to sense the sorrow and the emptiness in their lives, it touched me. Picnic had a successful Broadway run from February 19, 1953, to April 10, 1954. A film adaptation made in 1955 won two Academy Awards. In 1953 Inge's short play Glory in the Flower was telecast on Omnibus with a cast of Hume Cronyn, Jessica Tandy, James Dean. In 1955 his play Bus Stop premiered. Inge's inspiration of boy-pursuing-girl came a similar situation he'd seen on a bus trip to Kansas City. Nominated for four Tony Awards including Best Play, it was made into a 1956 film starring Marilyn Monroe.
A major regional revival of Bus Stop was held at the Huntington Theatre in Boston in September and October 2010. In 1957 he wrote The Dark at the Top of the Stairs, an expansion of his earlier one-act, Farther Off from Heaven; the play was nominated for five Tony Awards including Best Play, was adapted as a film in 1960. His 1959 play A Loss of Roses, with Carol Haney, Warren Beatty, Betty Field, was filmed as The Stripper, with Joanne Woodward, Richard Beymer, Claire Trevor, a popular Jerry Goldsmith score. Natural Affection had the misfortune to open on Broadway during the 1962 New York City newspaper strike, which lasted from December 8, 1962, until April 1, 1963. Thus, few were aware of the play, fewer bought tickets, it lasted only 36 performances, from January 31, 1963, to March 2, 1963. What theatergoers missed was a drama exploring themes of fragmented families and random violence; as with Truman Capote's In Cold Blood, the inspiration for Natural Affection came from a newspaper account of a meaningless and unmotivated murder.
The play centers on Chicago department-store buyer Sue Barker. While troubled teen Donnie, Sue's illegitimate son, has been away at reform school, she has entered into a relationship with Cadillac salesman Bernie Slovenk. With Donnie's unexpected return to her Chicago apartment, conflicts escalate, Donnie finds himself on an emotional precipice; the closing five minutes of the play introduces a new character, a young woman Donnie meets in the apartment hallway. He invites her into the apartment and, without warning, kills her as the curtains close; the Broadway production, directed by Tony Richardson, benefited from composer John Lewis's made-to-order background music, provided via tape recordings, rather than live performance, worked in the same fashion as a film score. In 2005 a successful revival of Natural Affection was mounted at Chicago's The Artistic Home. Directed by John Mossman, it was named one of the year's best productions by the Chicago Tribune. Inge's The Last Pad premiered in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1972.
Titled The Disposal, the world premiere of
Reta Shaw was an American character actress known for playing strong, working women in film and on many of the most popular television programs of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States. She may be best remembered as the housekeeper, Martha Grant, on the television series The Ghost & Mrs. Muir and as the cook, Mrs. Brill, in the 1964 film Mary Poppins. Reta Shaw was born in South Paris, Maine, on Friday, September 13, 1912, to Edna M. and Howard Walker Shaw. Her father was an orchestra leader. Shaw's younger sister was actress Marguerite Shaw; the daughter and granddaughter of women who believed in spiritualism, Shaw once told a newspaper interviewer that she had been "brought up on a ouija board."She was a graduate of the Leland Powers School of the Theater in Boston, Massachusetts. Shaw's first credited appearance on the Broadway stage was in 1947's It Takes Two, she appeared in Virginia Reel and on Broadway in a comedic role as Mabel in the original production of The Pajama Game in 1954, as well as in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and Annie Get Your Gun, the last on tour with Mary Martin.
She had featured roles in several motion pictures, including Picnic, The Pajama Game, Mary Poppins, The Ghost And Mr. Chicken, Bachelor in Paradise and Escape to Witch Mountain, she appeared in the first season of The Ann Sothern Show in the role of Flora Macauley, the overbearing wife of Jason Macauley, played by Ernest Truex. She appeared in Pollyanna in 1960 as Tillie Langerlof. In the 1960-61, she played the housekeeper Thelma on The Tab Hunter Show, she played a housekeeper in Me. In 1961, Shaw was cast as Cora in the episode "Uncle Paul's New Wife" of Pete and Gladys, starring Harry Morgan and Cara Williams. In that installment, Uncle Paul is played by a semi-regular on the series. Shaw appears in a 1962 episode of the series Outlaws with Barton MacLane, she plays a comic role for The Lucy Show as a grandmother who sits on a $500 bill that Lucy lost and soon after sits on Lucy's hand in the episode "Lucy Misplaces $2,000". Thereafter, she guest starred in the CBS anthology series The Lloyd Bridges Show.
She appears too as the bar hostess Tenney in the 1964 episode "The Richard Bloodgood Story" of the series Wagon Train. Shaw's character of Bertha/Hagatha, a matronly witch, is a recurring character on TV's Bewitched and performs as Miss Gormley in an episode of The Brian Keith Show. Shaw plays escaped convict Big Maude Tyler in "Convicts at Large", an episode of CBS's The Andy Griffith Show, she appears in season four of the comedy series as Eleanora Poultice, the educated voice teacher of Barney Fife. She guest-stars as well as Aunt Clara in the 1965 episode "Return from Outer Space") of Lost in Space. In the 1966 feature film The Ghost and Mr. Chicken Shaw portrays Mrs. Halcyon Maxwell. On television, she was seen on Mister Peepers, Armstrong Circle Theater, Alfred Hitchcock Presents and The Millionaire, she appeared on The Dick Van Dyke Show as an unemployment office worker. In 1965, she appeared in an episode of My Three Sons, she played. That particular episode was Uncle Charley's first appearance.
In 1966, she appeared in a bit part on That Girl as a department-store organist. In 1966, she appeared as Bessie, an undercover agent, in the episode of I Spy titled "Lisa". Shaw co-stars on the sitcom Mrs. Muir where she played housekeeper Martha Grant; the show took place in the fictional fishing village of Schooner Bay, Maine while Shaw was born in South Paris, Maine. Shaw appeared on an episode in season 4 of I Dream of Jeannie titled "Jeannie and the Wild Pipchicks", in which she played a strict dietician who has her innermost inhibition released. In The Odd Couple, she appeared as a nanny, a former army colonel in the episode "Maid for Each Other", which aired on November 23, 1973. In 1973 she played country nurse Ozella Peterson in the Emergency! Episode "Snakebite". In 1974, on Happy Days, she played the babysitter Mrs. McCarthy in the episode titled "Breaking Up Is Hard to Do", her final performance came in the 1975 film Escape to Witch Mountain in the role of Mrs. Grindley, owner of the orphanage where Tia and Tony are sent after the death of their foster parents.
Shaw married only once, to actor William Forester. Before their divorce, they had Kathryn Anne Forester. In 1982 Shaw died at age 69 from emphysema in California, she was cremated and her remains interred in a niche in the Columbarium of Remembrance at Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Hollywood Hills Cemetery. Reta Shaw on IMDb Reta Shaw at the Internet Broadway Database Reta Shaw at Find a Grave
Marilyn Pauline "Kim" Novak is a retired American film and television actress. She began her film career in 1954 after signing with Columbia Pictures. There she starred among them the well received Picnic, she starred in such films as The Man with the Golden Arm and Pal Joey. However, she is best known today for her performance as Madeline Elster/Judy Barton in Alfred Hitchcock's thriller Vertigo with James Stewart. Novak enjoyed box-office success and starred opposite several prominent leading men of the era, including Fred MacMurray, William Holden, Frank Sinatra, Tyrone Power, Kirk Douglas, Laurence Harvey. Although still only in her mid-30s, Novak withdrew from acting in 1966, has only sporadically worked in films since, she appeared in The Mirror Crack'd, had a regular role on the primetime series Falcon Crest. After a disappointing experience during the filming of Liebestraum, she permanently retired from acting, stating she had no desire to return, her contributions to world cinema have been honored with two Golden Globe Awards, an Honorary Golden Bear Award, a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame among others.
She works as a visual artist. Novak was born in Chicago, Illinois on February 13, 1933, she is the daughter of Blanche Novak. Both her parents were of Czech descent, her father was a history teacher who took a job as a freight dispatcher on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad during the Depression, her mother was a factory worker, she was raised Catholic. She attended William Penn Elementary, Farragut High School, Wright Junior College, she won two scholarships to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, during the summer break in her last semester of junior college, Novak went on a cross-country tour modeling for a refrigerator company at trade shows. While stopping by Los Angeles, Novak was crowned "Miss Deepfreeze" by the refrigerator company. While there and two other models stood in line to be extras in two RKO films: The French Line, starring Jane Russell and Son of Sinbad. There she was discovered by an agent. From the beginning of her career, she wanted to be an original and not another stereotype.
Therefore, she fought with Harry Cohn, over the changing of her name. He suggested the name "Kit Marlowe", arguing, "Nobody's gonna go see a girl with a Polack name!", but she insisted on keeping her name, saying, "I'm Czech, but Polish, Czech, no matter, it's my name!" The two sides settled on the name "Kim Novak" as a compromise. Columbia intended for Novak to be their successor to Rita Hayworth, their biggest star of the 1940s, whose career had declined. Novak's first role for the studio was in the film noir Pushover, in which she received third billing below Fred MacMurray and Philip Carey, she co-starred in the romantic comedy Phffft as Janis, a character who finds Robert Tracey "real cute". Both films were reasonably successful at the box office, Novak received favorable reviews for her performances. In her third feature film, 5 Against the House, a gritty crime drama, she received equal billing with Guy Madison, it was only a minor box-office success. She played Madge Owens in the film version of Picnic, from the William Inge play, co-starring William Holden and Rosalind Russell.
Its director, Joshua Logan, felt. Picnic was a resounding critical and box-office triumph, Novak won a Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer, she was nominated for BAFTA Film Award for Best Foreign Actress, but did not win. She appeared as a mystery guest on the game show What's My Line? on February 5, 1956, to promote the film's opening at the Radio City Music Hall. Director Otto Preminger cast her in The Man with the Golden Arm, in which she played Frank Sinatra's sultry ex-girlfriend. In a cast which included Eleanor Parker, Novak received praise for being one of the film's bright spots, the film was a box-office hit Novak's next project, The Eddy Duchin Story, cast her as Marjorie Oelrichs, the wife of pianist Eddy Duchin, played by Tyrone Power; because the two leads did not get along during filming, Novak nearly considered backing out of the production, but decided against it. At the time of its release, the film was a critical and box-office hit, with many suggesting that Novak's advertisements for No-Cal diet soda contributed positively to the film's success.
Offered a choice for her next project, she selected the biopic Jeanne Eagels, in which she portrayed the stage and silent-screen actress, addicted to heroin. Co-starring Jeff Chandler, the film was a fictional account of Eagels' life. Eagels' family sued. After appearing in a series of successful movies, Novak became one of the biggest box-office draws of 1957 and 1958. Columbia placed her in a film adaptation of Pal Joey, based on the 1940 novel and Broadway play, both written by John O'Hara. Playing Linda English, a naive showgirl, she again co-starred opposite Frank Sinatra and Rita Hayworth. Released in October, the film received favorable reviews; the movie was a box-office hit and has been considered one o
Susan Elizabeth Strasberg was an American stage and television actress, the daughter of the drama coach Lee Strasberg. She was nominated for a Tony Award. Strasberg was born in New York City to theatre director and drama coach Lee Strasberg of the Actors Studio and former actress Paula Strasberg, her brother, John, is an acting coach. Her father was born in what is now Ukraine, her mother in New York City, they were both from Jewish families. Strasberg attended the Professional Children's School, spent time at both The High School of Music & Art and the High School of Performing Arts, she did some modelling. At age 14, Strasberg appeared on off-Broadway in Maya in 1953, her TV debut was in "Catch a Falling Star," an episode of Goodyear Playhouse directed by Delbert Mann the same year. She was in Romeo and Juliet for Kraft Theatre, playing Juliet, episodes of General Electric Theater and Omnibus, she had a regular role in a short lived sitcom, The Marriage, playing the daughter of Hume Cronyn and Jessica Tandy.
It was the first network show broadcast in color. Strasberg made her film debut in The Cobweb, she followed it with a praised performance as a teenager in Picnic, playing the younger sister of Kim Novak. Strasberg originated the title role in the Broadway production of The Diary of Anne Frank, directed by Garson Kanin, which ran for 717 performances from 1955 to 1957. Brooks Atkinson wrote that she was "a slender, enchanting young lady with a heart-shaped face, a pair of burning eyes, the soul of an actress." Strasberg was nominated for a Tony Award at the age of 18 and became the youngest actress to star on Broadway with her name above the marquee title. In 1955 she appeared twice soon after on the cover of Newsweek. During her run on the show she did The Cradle Song with Helen Hayes on TV; the success of the play led to numerous film offers. She decided on the lead in Stage Struck, directed by Sidney Lumet, it was a remake of Morning Glory with Katharine Hepburn. According to one obituary, "It had seemed as if the beautiful, dark-haired actress might have an impact equal to that made by Jean Simmons and Audrey Hepburn as ingenues."Strasberg was not cast in the George Stevens film version of Anne Frank.
Several reasons have been suggested for this: that Stevens did not want to deal with the influence of Strasberg's mother and that Stevens saw Strasberg at the end of the play's run when her performance had become tired. Strasberg did not test for the role. Strasberg's next appearance on Broadway was in Time Remembered by Jean Anouilh with Richard Burton and Helen Hayes, it ran for 248 performances. Strasberg continued to guest star on TV shows like Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse, Play of the Week, Our American Heritage, she was in the cast of the New York City Centre production of William Saroyan's The Time of Your Life that played at the Brussels World Fair in 1958. It was filmed for Armchair Theatre. Strasberg appeared in Sean O'Casey's The Shadow of a Gunman for Jack Garfein alongside members of the Actors Studio. Brooks Atkinson said she had "willowy freshness". In 1959 she toured with Franchot Tone in Cleopatra, she went to Europe to star in the Italian–Yugoslav Holocaust film Kapò, nominated for an Academy Award as its year's Best Foreign Language Film.
Strasberg based herself in Italy for the next few years. "I wanted to see what it was like when I was alone," she said. She traveled to England to make Scream of Fear for Hammer Films, in Italy did Disorder with Louis Jourdan and the Hollywood film Hemingway's Adventures of a Young Man. Strasberg returned to the US to appear on Broadway in The Lady of the Camellias directed by Franco Zeffirelli; the director said Strasberg had the qualities of being "romantic, classical, contemporary." The show only ran 13 performances. Strasberg began to concentrate on television, guest-starring on Dr Kildare, Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre, Breaking Point, Burke's Law, The Rogues, she made The High Bright Sun in England went back to TV: Run for Your Life, The Legend of Jesse James, The Big Valley and The Invaders. She made Chubasco with Jones, did some counterculture movies: The Trip for Roger Corman, as the wife of Peter Fonda, Psych-Out with Jack Nicholson, she did The Name of the Game Is Kill!, The Brotherhood and The Sisters.
In the late 1960's & 1970s Strasberg did TV: The Big Valley, The Virginian, Lancer, The Name of the Game, The F. B. I. CBS Playhouse, Marcus Welby, M. D; the Streets of San Francisco, Night Gallery, McCloud, Alias Smith & Jones, The Sixth Sense, Assignment Vienna, The Wide World of Mystery, The Evil Touch, Owen Marshall, Counselor at Law, The Rockford Files, Mannix. "I did mediocre things because that way I didn't have to test myself," she said later. "I had a tremendous need not to shame my father."She did occasional TV movies like Hauser's Memory, Mr. and Mrs. Bo Jo Jones and... And Millions Die! and the occasional feature like Ternos Caçadores, The Legend of Hillbilly John, Orson Welles' The Other Side of the Wind. Strasberg had a regular role on the series Toma, she guested on Police Surgeon, McMillan & Wife, Ellery Queen,Kate McShane, Medical Story and Harry O. Strasberg had the lead i
Raymond Thomas Bailey was an American actor on the Broadway stage and television. He is best known for his role as wealthy banker Milburn Drysdale in the television series The Beverly Hillbillies. Bailey was born in San Francisco, the son of William and Alice Bailey; when he was a teenager he went to Hollywood to become a movie star. He found it was harder than he had thought and took a variety of short-term jobs, he worked for a time as a day laborer at a movie studio in the days of silent pictures, but was fired for sneaking into a mob scene while it was being filmed. He worked for a while as a stockbroker and a banker. Having no success receiving movie roles of any kind, Bailey went to New York City where he had no better success obtaining roles in theatre, he began working as a merchant seaman and sailed to various parts of the world, including China, the Philippines and the Mediterranean. While docked in Hawaii, he worked on a pineapple plantation, acted at the community theatre and sang on a local radio program.
In 1938, he decided to try Hollywood again. His luck changed for the better when he began getting some bit parts in movies, but after the United States entered World War II he again served in the United States Merchant Marine; when the war was over he returned to Hollywood and began getting bigger character roles. In the early 1950s, Bailey was cast in many character roles in television series, such as Alfred Hitchcock Presents,Tales of Tomorrow, Crusader, My Friend Flicka, Tightrope, State Trooper, Coronado 9, Johnny Ringo. Other appearances were on The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show, Private Secretary, Playhouse 90, The Rifleman, Bat Masterson, The Jack Benny Program, Yancy Derringer, Bourbon Street Beat, 77 Sunset Strip, The Twilight Zone, The Man and the Challenge, One Step Beyond, The Untouchables, Have Gun-Will Travel, The Tab Hunter Show and Gladys, The Donna Reed Show, Bachelor Father, Going My Way, twice on Mister Ed. Bailey made two guest appearances on Perry Mason, playing banker Mr. Hilliard in "The Case of the Caretaker's Cat," and Dr. Bell in "The Case of the Injured Innocent."
During its 1960–1961 season, he had a regular role on My Sister Eileen and guest-starred on Pat O'Brien's ABC sitcom Harrigan and Son. He appeared in the 1962–1963 season as Dean McGruder on CBS's The Many Loves Of Dobie Gillis. Bailey appeared in four Broadway plays, as Howard Haines in Last Stop, playing an unknown man in The Bat, A. J. Alexander in Sing Till Tomorrow, Captain Randolph Southard in The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial, which starred Henry Fonda. Bailey's film roles include playing a member of the board in the comedy/romance Sabrina starring Humphrey Bogart, Audrey Hepburn and William Holden, he played a plantation owner in Band of Angels starring Clark Gable, Sidney Poitier and Yvonne De Carlo. He played in the low-budget horror classic and had a small role in Irwin Allen's Five Weeks in a Balloon. In The Beverly Hillbillies, Nancy Kulp portrayed Bailey's loyal and by-the-book secretary, Miss Jane Hathaway. Banker Drysdale managed the millions of dollars in oil money royalties in the bank account of country gentleman Jed Clampett.
Mr. Drysdale would be required to talk with Clampett about how strange "city life" and "city folk" are. On occasions when Mr. Clampett was considering withdrawing all his funds and returning to the country, the miserly Mr. Drysdale would panic and work to try keep the family in Beverly Hills. Bailey began visibly displaying symptoms of Alzheimer's disease during the final episodes of The Beverly Hillbillies, he made only two film appearances after the show's 1971 cancellation — the Disney features Herbie Rides Again and The Strongest Man in the World — before retiring in 1975 due the effects of the disease. In his final years, Bailey divided his time between a condo and a houseboat in Laguna Niguel, California, he kept in touch with former co-star Nancy Kulp but was a recluse. Raymond Bailey died of a heart attack on April 1980, aged 75, in Irvine, California, his body was cremated and his ashes were scattered at sea. He was survived by his wife, Gaby Aida George, was an uncle of actor William Sylvester.
Film portal Television portal Raymond Bailey on IMDb Raymond Bailey at the Internet Broadway Database Raymond Bailey at AllMovie Raymond Bailey at Find a Grave
Labor Day in the United States of America is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September. It honors the American labor movement and the contributions that workers have made to the strength, prosperity and well-being of the country, it is the Monday of the long weekend known as Labor Day Weekend. It is recognized as a federal holiday. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, trade unionists proposed that a day be set aside to celebrate labor. "Labor Day" was promoted by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, which organized the first parade in New York City. In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty states in the United States celebrated Labor Day. Canada's Labour Day is celebrated on the first Monday of September. More than 80 countries celebrate International Workers' Day on May 1 – the ancient European holiday of May Day.
Lastly, several countries have chosen neither date for their Labour Day. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, different groups of trade unionists chose a variety of days on which to celebrate labor. In the United States, a September holiday called. Alternate stories of the event's origination exist. According to one early history of Labor Day, the event originated in connection with a General Assembly of the Knights of Labor convened in New York City in September 1882. In connection with this clandestine Knights assembly, a public parade of various labor organizations was held on September 5 under the auspices of the Central Labor Union of New York. Secretary of the CLU Matthew Maguire is credited for first proposing that a national Labor Day holiday subsequently be held on the first Monday of each September in the aftermath of this successful public demonstration. An alternative thesis maintains that the idea of Labor Day was the brainchild of Peter J. McGuire, a vice president of the American Federation of Labor, who put forward the initial proposal in the spring of 1882.
According to McGuire, on May 8, 1882, he made a proposition to the fledgling Central Labor Union in New York City that a day be set aside for a "general holiday for the laboring classes". According to McGuire he further recommended that the event should begin with a street parade as a public demonstration of organized labor's solidarity and strength, with the march followed by a picnic, to which participating local unions could sell tickets as a fundraiser. According to McGuire he suggested the first Monday in September as an ideal date for such a public celebration, owing to optimum weather and the date's place on the calendar, sitting midway between the Fourth of July and Thanksgiving public holidays. Labor Day picnics and other public gatherings featured speeches by prominent labor leaders. In 1909 the American Federation of Labor convention designated the Sunday preceding Labor Day as "Labor Sunday", to be dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement; this secondary date failed to gain significant traction in popular culture.
In 1887 Oregon became the first state of the United States to make Labor Day an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty U. S. states celebrated Labor Day. All U. S. states, the District of Columbia, the United States territories have subsequently made Labor Day a statutory holiday. The date of May 1 emerged in 1886 as an alternative holiday for the celebration of labor becoming known as International Workers' Day; the date had its origins at the 1885 convention of the American Federation of Labor, which passed a resolution calling for adoption of the eight-hour day effective May 1, 1886. While negotiation was envisioned for achievement of the shortened work day, use of the strike to enforce this demand was recognized, with May 1 advocated as a date for coordinated strike action; the proximity of the date to the bloody Haymarket affair of May 4, 1886, further accentuated May First's radical reputation. There was disagreement among labor unions at this time about when a holiday celebrating workers should be, with some advocating for continued emphasis of the September march-and-picnic date while others sought the designation of the more politically-charged date of May 1.
Conservative Democratic President Grover Cleveland was one of those concerned that a labor holiday on May 1 would tend to become a commemoration of the Haymarket Affair and would strengthen socialist and anarchist movements that backed the May 1 commemoration around the globe. In 1887, he publicly supported the September Labor Day holiday as a less inflammatory alternative; the date was formally adopted as a United States federal holiday in 1894. Labor Day is called the "unofficial end of summer" because it marks the end of the cultural summer season. Many take their two-week vacations during the two weeks ending Labor Day weekend. Many fall activities, such as school and sports begin about this time. In the United States, many school districts resume classes around the Labor Day holiday weekend. Many begin the week before, making Labor Day weekend the first three-day weekend of the school calendar, while others return the Tuesday following Labor Day, allowing families one final getaway before the school year begins.
Many districts across the Midwest are opting to begin school after Labor Day. In the U. S. state of Virginia, the amusement park industry has succes