Bunge is a settlement on the Swedish island of Gotland. It is situated in the northernmost part of Gotland, southwest of Fårösund, formerly a socken, on 1 January 2016, it was reconstituted into the administrative area Bunge District. Bunge is the name of the socken, now district and it is the name of the small village surrounding the medieval Bunge Church, sometimes referred to as Bunge kyrkby. It is situated on the north coast of Gotland, Bunge has a private airfield, the Bunge Airbase. The hangar and the airfield are listed buildings, gotlands most noted open-air museum is the Bunge museum. The museum has farms from three centuries and is very active in practical old industry such as recreating tar kilns. Bunge skolmuseum, en skildring av skolväsendet i Bunge från tiden före folkskolestadgan 1842 fram till 1920-talets skola, objects from Bunge at the Digital Museum by Nordic Museum
Swedish National Heritage Board
The Swedish National Heritage Board is a Swedish government agency responsible for World Heritage Sites and other national heritage monuments and historical environments. It is governed by the Ministry of Culture, the goals of the agency are to encourage the preservation and protection of historic environments and to promote the respect for and knowledge of historic environments. The National Heritage Board was founded in 1630, on the 20 May that year, Johannes Bureus who was a prominent rune researcher and King Gustavus Adolphus private teacher, was appointed the first riksantikvarien. Bureus teachings had made the king interested in ancient monuments and national sites and artifacts. Together with a priest and a student, Bureus went on a journey though Sweden to draw and document runestones, collect old coins, law books, letter. In 1666, Johan Hadorph the seventh National Antiquarian, established the Placat och Påbudh, Om Gamble Monumenter och Antiquiteter, aside from laws of the Vatican City, it was the first antiquities regulation in Europe.
The decree made it possible to protect ancient monuments and sites from treasure hunters and vandalism, public interest in ancient monuments and their protection subsided after the time of the Swedish Empire in the 1720s. In 1780, most of the collections owned by the government were handed over to the National Library. In 1768, the remainder of the objects were placed in the care of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters and Antiquities, with the National Antiquarian as the academys secretary. During the 18th century, there was a new interest in science as well as Neoclassicism. Some renewal of the studies was brought about when Johan Gustaf Liljegren became National Antiquarian in 1826, among the projects he started was an organized inventory of objects and sites and archaeological excavations were done at Birka and Visby. A new antiquities regulation was created in 1867. It stated that any violation of an ancient monument was a criminal offence, while the Heritage Boards collection of historical objects was still in Stockholm, several additional positions within the area of heritage preservation were instituted during the 20th century.
Sigurd Curman created a central head agency with a number of County Antiquarians to head all the county museums in Sweden, the County Antiquarians coordinated their work with the National Heritage Board, which function as an independent government agency since 1938. Part of the collections are today under the Statens historiska museer. The Antikvarisk-topografiska arkivet and the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters and these departments are housed in the Eastern Stable at the Swedish History Museum in Stockholm. These were separated into two agencies, the National Heritage Board and the National Historical Museums, in 1998, on 2 June 2005, the government decided to relocate a major part of the National Heritage Boards activeties from Stockholm to Gotland. The move was made to compensate for the loss of jobs on the island when the Swedish military closed down all permanent garrisons there, the National Heritage Board moved to the newly built facilities at the old A7 military compound in Visby, in 2008
The Manx runestones were made by the Norse population on the Isle of Man during the Viking Age, mostly in the 10th century. Despite its small size, the Isle of Man stands out with many Viking Age runestones, in 1983 numbering as many as 26 surviving stones, which can be compared to 33 in all of Norway. So many of them may appear on the Isle of Man because of the merging of the immigrant Norse runestone tradition with the local Celtic tradition of raising high crosses. In addition, the church contributed by not condemning the runes as pagan, but instead it encouraged the recording of people for Christian purposes. Sixteen of the bear the common formula, N. put up this cross in memory of M. There are two slabs incised with Anglo-Saxon runes at Maughold and this runestone is a stone cross that is located in the church Andreas. The inscription is in runes and it commemorates a father. Ik, fauþur, sin, in, kari, biarnar f, þenna ept Ófeig, fǫður sinn, en Gautr gerði, sonr Bjarnar frá Kolli. This in memory of Ófeigr, his father, but Gautr made and this stone cross is located in the church Andreas.
It is engraved with runes, and it is dated to c. It was erected in memory of a wife, English translation, Sandulfr the Black erected this cross in memory of Arinbjǫrg his wife. Referred to as Thorwalds Cross, this cross is found in the church Andreas. Only attribution to the one who raised the stone—Þorvaldr—remains of the message inscribed on the cross and it has been badly damaged since it was recorded. The stone depicts a human holding a spear downward at a wolf, his right foot in its mouth. Rundata dates it to 940, while Pluskowski dates it to the 11th century and this depiction has been interpreted as the Norse pagan god Odin, with a raven or eagle at his shoulder, being consumed by the wolf Fenrir during the events of Ragnarök. Next to the image is a depiction of a large cross and these combined elements have led to the cross as being described as syncretic art, a mixture of pagan and Christian beliefs. Andy Orchard comments that the bird on Odins shoulder may be either Huginn or Muninn, latin transliteration, þurualtr ÷ ÷ Old Norse transliteration, Þorvaldr reisti kross þe.
This stone cross is located in the church Andreas and it is engraved with short-twig runes and it is dated to the 10th century
In Norse mythology, Loptr, or Hveðrungr is a god or jötunn. Loki is the son of Fárbauti and Laufey, and the brother of Helblindi, by the jötunn Angrboða, Loki is the father of Hel, the wolf Fenrir, and the world serpent Jörmungandr. By his wife Sigyn, Loki is the father of Narfi and/or Nari, by the stallion Svaðilfari, Loki is the mother—giving birth in the form of a mare—to the eight-legged horse Sleipnir. In addition, Loki is referred to as the father of Váli in Prose Edda, though this refers to Odin as the father of Váli twice. Lokis relation with the gods varies by source, Loki sometimes assists the gods, Loki is a shape shifter and in separate incidents he appears in the form of a salmon, a mare, a fly, and possibly an elderly woman named Þökk. Lokis positive relations with the end with his role in engineering the death of the god Baldr. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, the goddess Skaði is responsible for placing a serpent above him while he is bound, Loki may be depicted on the Snaptun Stone, the Kirkby Stephen Stone, and the Gosforth Cross.
Lokis origins and role in Norse mythology, which scholars have described as that of a trickster god, have been much debated by scholars. Loki has been depicted in or is referenced in a variety of media in popular culture. The etymology of the name Loki has yet to be solved and it may be related to Old Norse luka, meaning close, shut. The name Hveðrungr is used in reference to Loki, occurring in names for Hel, in the Poetic Edda, Loki appears in the poems Völuspá, Lokasenna, Þrymskviða, Reginsmál, Baldrs draumar, and Hyndluljóð. In stanza 35 of the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá, a völva tells Odin that, among other things, she sees Sigyn sitting very unhappily with her bound husband, Loki. In stanza 54, after consuming Odin and being killed by Odins son Víðarr, the poem Lokasenna centers around Loki flyting with other gods, Loki puts forth two stanzas of insults while the receiving figure responds with a single stanza, and another figure chimes in. The poem begins with an introduction detailing that Ægir, a figure associated with the sea, is hosting a feast in his hall for a number of the gods.
There, the gods praise Ægirs servers Fimafeng and Eldir, Loki could not bear to hear that, and kills the servant Fimafeng. In response, the gods grab their shields, shrieking at Loki, the gods return to the hall, and continue drinking. Entrance and rejection Loki comes out of the woods, and meets Eldir outside of the hall, Loki greets Eldir with a demand that Eldir tell him what the gods are discussing over their ale inside the hall. Eldir responds that they discuss their weapons and their prowess in war, Loki says that he will go into the feast, and that, before the end of the feast, he will induce quarrelling among the gods, and mix their mead with malice
Old Norse religion
Norse religion refers to the religious traditions of the Norsemen prior to the Christianization of Scandinavia, specifically during the Viking Age. Norse religion is a folk religion and it was the northern variation of the religion practiced in the lands inhabited by the Germanic tribes across most of Northern and Central Europe prior to Roman and Holy Roman incursions. However, it was not formalized nor categorized as a subset of Germanic paganism until it was described by outsiders who came into contact with native practitioners. The Norse - or people of Scandinavia - have always had contact with cultures outside Scandinavia. They were well aware of foreign religions and they traded and sometimes worked as henchmen for other cultures, including the Romans. Most titles bestowed upon Norse religion are the ones which were used to describe the religion in a competitive manner, some of these terms were hedendom, Heathenry or Pagan. A more romanticized name for Norse religion is the medieval Icelandic term Forn Siðr or Old Custom, knowledge about Norse religion has been gathered from archaeological discoveries and from literature produced after the Christianization of Scandinavia.
The literary sources that reference Norse paganism were written after the religion had declined, the vast majority of this came from 13th-century Iceland, where Christianity had taken longest to gain hold because of its remote location. The key literary texts for the study of Norse religion are the Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson, the Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus and the Poetic Edda, by an unknown writer or writers. Saga literature informs us of the not only of the literate elite. Sagas are categorized on the basis of events described in the saga took place. Though Sagas are often mythical in nature, the ambitions are to give a realistic description of past events. Many sites in Scandinavia have yielded information about early Scandinavian culture. The oldest extant cultural examples are petroglyphs or helleristninger/hällristningar and these are usually divided into two categories according to age, hunting-glyphs and agricultural-glyphs. The hunting glyphs are the oldest and are found in Northern Scandinavia.
These finds seem to indicate an existence based on hunting and fishing. These motifs were gradually subsumed by glyphs with more zoomorphic, or perhaps religious, the glyphs from the region of Bohuslän are complemented with younger agricultural glyphs, which seem to depict an existence based more heavily on agriculture. These motifs primarily depict ships and lunar motifs, geometrical spirals and anthropomorphic beings and these finds shows several signs of rituals in a seemingly religious context, including some strong indications of human sacrifice such as the case of the Tollund Man bog body
In Norse mythology, Sleipnir is an eight-legged horse. Sleipnir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from traditional sources. In both sources, Sleipnir is Odins steed, is the child of Loki and Svaðilfari, is described as the best of all horses, the Prose Edda contains extended information regarding the circumstances of Sleipnirs birth, and details that he is grey in color. Sleipnir is generally accepted as depicted on two 8th century Gotlandic image stones, the Tjängvide image stone and the Ardre VIII image stone, scholarly theories have been proposed regarding Sleipnirs potential connection to shamanic practices among the Norse pagans. In modern times, Sleipnir appears in Icelandic folklore as the creator of Ásbyrgi, in works of art, software, in the Poetic Edda, Sleipnir appears or is mentioned in the poems Grímnismál, Sigrdrífumál, Baldrs draumar, and Hyndluljóð. In Grímnismál, Grimnir tells the boy Agnar in verse that Sleipnir is the best of horses, in Sigrdrífumál, the valkyrie Sigrdrífa tells the hero Sigurðr that runes should be cut on Sleipnirs teeth and on the sledges strap-bands.
In Baldrs draumar, after the Æsir convene about the god Baldrs bad dreams, Odin places a saddle on Sleipnir, the list begins with Sleipnir, best is Sleipnir, he is Odins, he has eight legs. In chapter 41, High quotes the Grímnismál stanza that mentions Sleipnir, in chapter 42, Sleipnirs origins are described. Gangleri asks High who the horse Sleipnir belongs to and what there is to tell about it, High expresses surprise in Gangleris lack of knowledge about Sleipnir and its origin. After some debate, the agree to this, but place a number of restrictions on the builder. The builder makes a single request, that he may have help from his stallion Svaðilfari, and due to Lokis influence, the stallion Svaðilfari performs twice the deeds of strength as the builder, and hauls enormous rocks to the surprise of the gods. The builder, with Svaðilfari, makes fast progress on the wall, the gods convene, and figured out who was responsible, resulting in a unanimous agreement that, along with most trouble, Loki was to blame.
The gods declare that Loki would deserve a horrible death if he could not find a scheme that would cause the builder to forfeit his payment, and threatened to attack him. Loki, swore oaths that he would devise a scheme to cause the builder to forfeit the payment and that night, the builder drove out to fetch stone with his stallion Svaðilfari, and out from a wood ran a mare. The mare neighed at Svaðilfari, and realizing what kind of horse it was, Svaðilfari became frantic, tore apart his tackle, the mare ran to the wood, Svaðilfari followed, and the builder chased after. The two horses ran around all night, causing the work to be held up for the night. When the Æsir realize that the builder is a hrimthurs, they disregard their previous oaths with the builder, Thor arrives, and kills the builder by smashing the builders skull into shards with the hammer Mjöllnir. However, Loki had such dealings with Svaðilfari that somewhat Loki gave birth to a foal with eight legs, the horse Sleipnir
In Germanic mythology, Odin is a widely revered god. In the modern period, Odin continued to be acknowledged in the folklore of Germanic Europe. Forms of his name appear frequently throughout the Germanic record, though narratives regarding Odin are mainly found in Old Norse works recorded in Iceland and these texts make up the bulk of modern understanding of Norse mythology. In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded, frequently wielding a spear named Gungnir, and wearing a cloak, Odin is attested as having many sons, most famously the god Baldr with Frigg, and is known by hundreds of names. Odin has an association with Yule, and mankinds knowledge of both the runes and poetry is attributed to him. In Old Norse texts, Odin is given primacy over female beings associated with the battlefield—the valkyries—and oversees Valhalla, where he receives half of those who die in battle, the other half are chosen by the goddess Freyja for her afterlife location, Fólkvangr. In folklore, Odin appears as a leader of the Wild Hunt and he has been associated with charms and other forms of magic, particularly in Old English and Old Norse texts.
Odin has been a frequent subject of study in Germanic studies, in the modern period, Odin has inspired numerous works of poetry and other forms of media. He is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry, together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples, some branches focus particularly on him. The Old Norse theonym Óðinn and its cognates, including Old English Wōden, Old Saxon Wōden, the masculine noun *wōđanaz developed from the Proto-Germanic adjective *wōđaz, related to Latin vātēs and Old Irish fáith, both meaning seer, prophet. Adjectives stemming from *wōđaz include Gothic woþs possessed, Old Norse óðr, frantic, additionally the Old Norse noun æði rage and Old High German wuotī madness derive from the feminine noun *wōđīn, from *wōđaz. Over 170 names are recorded for the god Odin and these names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with the god. This multitude of names makes Odin the god with the most names known among the Germanic peoples, the weekday name Wednesday derives from Old English wōdnesdæg.
Cognate terms are found in other Germanic languages, such as Middle Low German wōdensdach, all of these terms derive from Proto-Germanic *Wodensdag, itself a Germanic interpretation of Latin Dies Mercurii. However, in Old High German, the derived from Odins was replaced by a translation of Church Latin media hebdomas. The earliest records of the Germanic peoples were recorded by the Romans and they regard it as a religious duty to offer to him, on fixed days, human as well as other sacrificial victims. Hercules and Mars they appease by animal offerings of the permitted kind, in this instance, Tacitus refers to the god Odin as Mercury, Thor as Hercules, and Týr as Mars, and the identity of the Isis of the Suebi has been debated. But their rankings in their respective religious spheres may have very different
Forseti is an Æsir god of justice and reconciliation in Norse mythology. He is generally identified with Fosite, a god of the Frisians, grimm took Forseti, praeses, to be the older form of the name, first postulating an unattested Old High German equivalent *forasizo. But preferring a derivation from fors, a stream or cataract, connected to the spring. It is plausible that Fosite is the name and Forseti a folk etymology. The Greek traveller Pytheas of Massalia, who describes the amber trade, is known to have visited the region around 325 BC, according to Snorri Sturluson in the Prose Edda, Forseti is the son of Baldr and Nanna. His home is Glitnir, its name, meaning shining, refers to its ceiling and golden pillars. His is the best of courts, all those who come before him leave reconciled and this suggests skill in mediation and is in contrast to his fellow god Týr, who is not called a reconciler of men. However, as de Vries points out, the basis for associating Forseti with justice seems to have been his name.
Puts to sleep all suits or stills all strifes may have been an addition to the strophe Snorri cites. The first element in the name Forsetlund, a farm in the parish of Onsøy, in eastern Norway, seems to be the case of Forseti. According to Alcuins Life of St. Willebrord, the saint visited an island between Frisia and Denmark that was sacred to Fosite and was called Fositesland after the god worshipped there. There was a spring from which water had to be drawn in silence. Willebrord defiled the spring by baptizing people in it and killing a cow there, altfrid tells the same story of St. Liudger. Adam of Bremen retells the story and adds that the island was Heiligland, there is a late-medieval legend of the origins of written Frisian laws. Wishing to assemble written lawcodes for all his subject peoples, Charlemagne summoned twelve representatives of the Frisian people, the Āsegas, when they could not do so after several days, he let them choose between death, slavery, or being set adrift in a rudderless boat.
They chose the last and prayed for help, whereupon a thirteenth man appeared and he steered the boat to land with the axe, threw it ashore, a spring appeared where it landed. He taught them laws and disappeared, the stranger and the spring have traditionally been identified with Fosite and the sacred spring of Fositesland. Modern scholarship, however, is critical about this hypotheses, as the attribute of the axe is normally associated with Thor
The Gotland Museum in Visby, Sweden, is the county museum of Gotland. It was founded by the Friends of Gotlands Antiquity society in 1875, the museum owns a number of houses and farms on Gotland, some of which are used as museums. It has a house for books on subjects related to the islands heritage. The museums collections consists of about 400,000 objects, which are stored in three depositories, the largest of these is the Magasin Visborg outside Visby and since 2014, this storehouse is open to the public. The collections are divided into sections, Collection of cultural history — Clothes, household items, weapons. Art collection — Paintings, graphic prints, archeological collection — Objects representing Gotlands history from 7, 000-year-old stone axes to Medieval seals. Finds from excavations on the island, Collection of natural history — Fossils, butterflies, mounted animals, skeletons. The objects in the collections have in most cases been donated to the museum by individuals, single items or entire estates.
While some of the art has been bought by the museum, the art collection comprises art from the Brucebo Foundation, the Heritage Society, the museum was founded in 1875, by the Friends of Gotlands Antiquity society at the initiative of P. A. Säve. The purpose was to collect artifacts and everyday objects connected to Gotland as well as documenting immaterial aspects of life on the island. Through the years, the function of the museum has remained the same, the museum has grown steadily as the collections increased. Houses and other buildings have left to the museum in wills and through donations. In 2011, the museum initiated a project with other museums in countries around the Baltic Sea. Pehr Magnus Arvid Säve was a Swedish cultural historian and he was born in Roma the son of the provost there, Pehr Säve and his wife Hedvig Lallerius. Säve started out as a teacher in Visby 1835–57, and he became a pioneer for the Gotlandic cultural history. On the behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters and Antiquities he collected facts about Gotlands heritage, geography and he was the academys curator of antiquities on Gotland and in Västergötland and Östergötland.
His notes are collected in six volumes in Uppsala University Library. Notes made by Säve and his brother, Carl Säve, resulted in a Gotlandic dictionary was published in Uppsala in 1936-45 and he gathered and wrote down Gotlandic traditional tales, which he called sagas