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Pictures at an Exhibition

Pictures at an Exhibition is a suite of ten pieces composed for piano by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky in 1874. The suite is Mussorgsky's most famous piano composition, has become a showpiece for virtuoso pianists, it has become further known through various orchestrations and arrangements produced by other musicians and composers, with Maurice Ravel's 1922 version for full symphony orchestra being by far the most recorded and performed. The composition is based on pictures by the artist and designer Viktor Hartmann, it was in 1868 that Mussorgsky first met Hartmann, not long after the latter's return to Russia from abroad. Both men were devoted to the cause of an intrinsically Russian art and became friends, they met in the home of the influential critic Vladimir Stasov, who followed both of their careers with interest. According to Stasov's testimony, in 1868, Hartmann gave Mussorgsky two of the pictures that formed the basis of Pictures at an Exhibition. In 1870, Mussorgsky dedicated the second song of the cycle The Nursery to Hartmann.

Stasov remarked that Hartmann loved Mussorgsky's compositions, liked the "Scene by the Fountain" in his opera Boris Godunov. Mussorgsky abandoned the scene in his original 1869 version, but at the requests of Stasov and Hartmann, he reworked it for Act 3 in his revision of 1872; the years 1873–74 are associated with the staging of Boris Godunov, the zenith of Mussorgsky's career as a composer—at least from the standpoint of public acclaim. Mussorgsky's distant relative and roommate during this period, Arseniy Golenishchev-Kutuzov, describing the January 1874 premiere of the opera, remarked: "During the winter, there were, I think, nine performances, each time the theatre was sold out, each time the public tumultuously called for Mussorgsky." The composer's triumph was overshadowed, however, by the critical drubbing. Other circumstances conspired to dampen Mussorgsky's spirits; the disintegration of The Mighty Handful and their failure to understand his artistic goals contributed to the isolation he experienced as an outsider in Saint Petersburg's musical establishment.

Golenishchev-Kutuzov wrote: " banner was held by Mussorgsky alone. The loss of the artist, aged only 39, plunged the composer into deep despair. Stasov helped to organize a memorial exhibition of over 400 Hartmann works in the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg in February and March 1874. Mussorgsky lent to the exhibition the two pictures Hartmann had given him, viewed the show in person. In June, two-thirds of the way through composing his song cycle, Mussorgsky was inspired to compose Pictures at an Exhibition completing the score in three weeks. In a letter to Stasov written on 12 June 1874, he describes his progress: My dear généralissime, Hartmann is boiling as Boris boiled—sounds and ideas hung in the air, I am gulping and overeating, can manage to scribble them on paper. I am writing the 4th No.—the transitions are good. I want to work more and steadily. My physiognomy can be seen in the interludes. So far I think it's well turned... The music depicts his tour of the exhibition, with each of the ten numbers of the suite serving as a musical illustration of an individual work by Hartmann.

Five days after finishing the composition, he wrote on the title page of the manuscript a tribute to Vladimir Stasov, to whom the work is dedicated. One month he added an indication that he intended to have it published. Golenishchev-Kutuzov gives the following account of the work's reception among Mussorgsky's friends and colleagues and an explanation for his failure to follow through on his plans to publish it: Soon, with the composition of the musical illustrations for Pictures from an Exhibition by the architect Hartmann, he reached the acme of that musical radicalism, to whose'new shores' and to whose'unfathomed depths' the admirers of his'Peepshows' and'Savishnas' had pushed him so diligently. In music for these illustrations, as Mussorgsky called them, he represented, Baba Yaga in her wooden house on chicken legs, catacombs and rattling carts. All this was not done jokingly, but'seriously'. There was no end to the enthusiasm shown by his devotees. Mussorgsky noticed their bewilderment and seemed to feel that he'had gone too far.'

He set the illustrations aside without trying to publish them. Mussorgsky devoted himself to Khovanshchina. In August, Mussorgsky completed the last two songs of Sunless and resumed work on Khovanshchina, composing the prelude to Act 1 in September; as with most of Mussorgsky's works, Pictures at an Exhibition has a complicated publication history. Although composed rapidly, during June 1874, the work did not appear in print until 1886, five years after the composer's death, when an edition by the composer's friend and colleague Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov was published; this edition, was not a accurate representation of Mussorgsky's score but


Puttgarden is a ferry harbour and a village on the German island of Fehmarn. It lies on an important route between Germany and Denmark known as the Vogelfluglinie which crosses the 18 kilometres strait, the Fehmarnbelt, to Rødby on the island of Lolland. A train ferry terminal was built in Puttgarden in 1961-63 and at the same time Fehmarn was connected to the mainland by bridge. From 1945 to 1963, the ferry route from West Germany to Denmark had run between Großenbrode and Gedser. Since the completion of the Great Belt Fixed Link in Denmark, the route via Puttgarden has become less used by trains, but the harbour is still used by Scandlines ferries; the service is frequent, with four ferries giving one connection 24 hours a day. A fixed link — a bridge or a tunnel — is planned across the Fehmarn Belt. Planned as a bridge, the current plan is for a tunnel, comprising both a road and a rail link; the Danish government will finance construction. The fixed link will have road fees comparable to the ferry fees.

It is planned to be completed in 2028. Puttgarden station List of bridge-tunnels Media related to Puttgarden at Wikimedia Commons Scandlines

Osgood Carleton

Osgood Carleton was a cartographer, land surveyor and navigation teacher, author in Boston, Massachusetts. By the close of the American Revolution there rose a need for practical knowledge in the applied sciences, outside of the public schools which only taught reading writing and basic math. In June of 1787, Carleton launched his career in lecturing, by August 1, 1787 the Boston Board of Selectmen approved his application to open a school, teaching surveying, mensuration, geometry, astronomy, navigation, architecture. An advertisement for his school can be found in the Peter Short 1791 ciphering book found in the Phillips Library at the Peabody Essex Museum. A surviving example of one of his teaching texts can be found at the Boston Athenaeum, Compendium of Practical Arithmetic, he went on to become a key cartographer in the early mapping of Maine. Carleton persuaded the Commonwealth to make a requirement that every town should make a detailed plan and he used these to create maps for Massachusetts and Maine.

His maps in 1801 and 1802 offer information about economic activities in early Maine

Foreign celebrity advertising

Foreign celebrity advertising is a popular form of advertising in parts of Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. The phenomenon is most pronounced when English-speaking celebrities do print advertisements or commercials for a non-English speaking market. American and British dramatic actors have traditionally been reluctant to appear in widespread advertising campaigns, on the assumption that it cheapens their respectability and can be perceived as selling out by their fanbase or the critical public at large. In Asia, it is much more common to see dramatic actors in commercial advertisements. Japanese advertising budgets, for one, can be far more extravagant than American budgets when it comes to celebrity talent, so the deals in other countries can prove much more lucrative than their domestic counterparts, with a much lower risk of negative publicity; as many of the celebrities participate under the assumption that their videos will never be seen by their domestic audience, many times they agree to do actions and read lines that are silly and outside of their normal image.

For the reasons stated above, celebrities attempt to keep these advertisements a secret from American audiences. Arnold Schwarzenegger, who has done many television ads for Japanese drinks, food products, television networks is known to secure a "secrecy clause", preventing Japanese advertisers from disclosing his sponsorship deals in the United States; some celebrities, including Leonardo DiCaprio and Meg Ryan, have gone so far as to file cease and desist letters against websites that mirrored the foreign advertisements. In more recent years because of the faster spread of information made possible by the internet, American celebrities have been more open about doing foreign advertisements, as well as increasing their advertising presence in the United States. Oscar-winning actress Catherine Zeta-Jones has become the spokeswoman for T-Mobile, a variety of reclusive celebrities such as Robert De Niro and M. Night Shyamalan have done individual advertisements for American Express. American actors and filmmakers Orson Welles, Francis Ford Coppola, Audrey Hepburn would appear in Japanese advertisements, while eschewing American ones.

More recent celebrities such as Brad Pitt, Leonardo DiCaprio, Gwyneth Paltrow and Jodie Foster, who avoid publicity in the United States, have been known to do large-scale advertising campaigns in Japan and China. One commercial featuring Arnold Schwarzenegger promoting a Japanese energy drink "Vfuyy" with zany actions is a favorite of Conan O'Brien, was featured on Late Night with Conan O'Brien as a filler clip. One Pepsi commercial that aired in Asia features American singer Christina Aguilera but wasn't aired in United States; the movie Lost in Translation follows an American actor's trip to Japan to film an ad for Suntory brand whiskey. It is loosely based on Francis Ford Coppola, who did advertisements for the Japanese liquor, despite shying away from advertisements in the United States; the Entourage episode "Chinatown" features the main character, Vincent Chase, appearing in a lucrative Chinese energy drink commercial at the request of his agent. In the episode, the production quality and special effects budget of the commercial rivals some mainstream action movies.

The Friends episode "The One with Ross's Grant" includes the character Joey appearing in a Japanese Lipstick for Men commercial. Japander - a repository of Japanese commercials featuring American and British celebrities Chris. "The 5 Most Ridiculous Celebrity Cameos in Japanese Ads". Retrieved 2010-03-17

NU Pavonis

NU Pavonis is a variable star in the southern constellation of Pavo. With a nominal apparent visual magnitude of 4.95, it is a faint star but visible to the naked eye. The distance to NU Pav, as determined from its annual parallax shift of 7.0 mas as seen from Earth's orbit, is around 460 light years. It is moving closer with a heliocentric radial velocity of −10 km/s; this is an aging red giant with a stellar classification of M6 III on the asymptotic giant branch. It is a semiregular variable star of sub-type SRb that ranges in magnitude from 4.91 down to 5.26 with a period of 60 days. The star has expanded to 204 times the Sun's radius and is radiating 7,412 times the Sun's luminosity from its enlarged photosphere at an effective temperature of 3,516 K. Far-ultraviolet emission has been detected from these coordinates, which may be coming from a companion star

Jean-Joseph Patu de Rosemont

Jean-Joseph Patu de Rosemont was a French painter. He is known for watercolours depicting landscapes from La Réunion, where he lived from 1788; some of his paintings show the Piton de la Fournaise, whose he was one of the first known explorators. Patu de Rosemont was born to Antoine-Henry Patu des Hauts-Champs, counselor to the King and auditor at the Chambre des comptes of Paris. Aged 20, he enlisted as an auxiliary officer in the French Navy. In 1790, he married Jeanne Tarsile Bregeault; the next year, he took part in a scientific expedition led by Alexis Bert at Piton de la Fournaise, the active volcano of the island. He explored tis tip on 29 July, a feat for which a natural formation of Enclos Fouqué, the chapelle de Rosemont, was named in his honour; when the British attacked the island in 1809, Rosemont took part in the fighting with his son Amédée and their friend Nicole Robinet de La Serve. He was captured during the Raid on Saint-Paul in September and held prisoner aboard the British flagship.

After he was released, he returned to France in 1817