YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
"Fascination Street" is a 1989 North-American-only single by the English rock band The Cure from their album Disintegration. Their American record company refused the band's original choice "Lullaby" as the first single and used "Fascination Street" instead; the song is notable for its extended bass introduction. The song became the band's first number-one single on Billboard's then-newly created Modern Rock Tracks chart, where it stayed on top for seven weeks. An extended mix was produced, notable in which the lyrics begin after a 4:00 instrumental intro; the song appeared in the video game Guitar Hero: Warriors of Rock and in the documentary Warren Miller's... Like There's No Tomorrow; the song appeared in the fourth episode of 13 Reasons Why. "Fascination Street" "Babble" available on cassette 9 469300 "Fascination Street" "Babble" "Out of Mind" "Fascination Street" "Babble" "Out of Mind" "Fascination Street" "Babble" "Out of Mind" "Fascination Street" Simon Gallup - bass guitar Robert Smith - lead guitar, vocals, engineer Porl Thompson - guitar Boris Williams - drums Roger O'Donnell - keyboards Lol Tolhurst - other instruments Mark Saunders - remix Robert Smith - remix, engineer Chris Parry - remix David M. Allen - producer, engineer List of Billboard number-one alternative singles of the 1980s Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Laurence Andrew "Lol" Tolhurst is a founding member and the former drummer and keyboardist of British band The Cure. He left the Cure in 1989 and was involved in the band Presence and his current project, Levinhurst. In 2011, he was temporarily reunited with the Cure for a number of shows playing the band's earlier work. Tolhurst was born in Horley, in the county of Surrey, the fifth of six children of William and Daphne Tolhurst. Tolhurst was five years old when he first met Robert Smith at St. Francis Primary and Junior Schools, thus began a friendship that culminated in the formation of the Cure. Tolhurst was one of the co-founders of Goth rock band The Cure, was the band's drummer from 1976, playing on the albums Three Imaginary Boys, Seventeen Seconds and Pornography. After the Pornography tour in 1982, he became the band's keyboardist. In late 1989 during the recording of the Cure's eighth studio long-player, entitled Disintegration, Tolhurst was asked to leave the band by Robert Smith due to alcohol and narcotic use adversely affecting his professional reliability.
Despite receiving a credit for "other instrument" on Disintegration, the other members of the band have said that Tolhurst did not play on the album. Following his departure from the Cure and Gary Biddles—who worked with Simon Gallup in Fools Dance—formed the short-lived band Presence, which only released one full-length album at the time called Inside in 1993, he said several years that he had recorded a second album with this band, but the album, entitled Closer, would not be released until 2014, a year after Biddles' death. In 1991, Tolhurst's first son was born in London and musician Gray Andrew Tolhurst. In 1994, Tolhurst sued Robert Smith and Fiction Records over royalty payments claiming joint ownership, with Smith, of the name The Cure, he lost after a long legal battle. He has worked as a producer for the debut album of And Also the Trees. In the early 2000s, Tolhurst and his second wife, Cindy Levinson, formed. A few months before the release of their debut album, Tolhurst said in an interview that he had reconciled with Robert Smith and that the two were friends again.
Shortly afterward, Levinhurst released their debut album, Perfect Life, in 2004. Since they have released an EP called The Grey featuring a cover of The Cure's "All Cats Are Grey"—for which he claimed credit for writing the lyrics—and two other songs, their second album, House by the Sea, was released in April 2007. Their third album, called Blue Star and featuring original Cure bassist Michael Dempsey, was released in the U. S. in June 2009 and worldwide in February 2010. Tolhurst composed music for the film 9,000 Needles, a documentary that won Best Documentary at the 2010 Phoenix Film Festival; the second part of the European tour, "Blue Star Over Europe", occurred in October 2010, followed by a South and North American tour in early 2011. In 2010, The Guardian published an article with a headline reading "The Cure's original drummer asks to rejoin band." However, Tolhurst called the article "a little misleading", saying: I have not asked RS to rejoin the Cure! I have my thing, he has his. I just thought it might be fun to play the old songs together again as Michael and I had a great time playing the TIB songs this March in Europe.
In 2011, it was announced that Tolhurst would be performing with the Cure for the first time in 22 years when the band performed their first three albums—Three Imaginary Boys, Seventeen Seconds and Faith—in their entirety at the Sydney Opera House in Australia. Tolhurst performed with the Cure for seven more shows in London, New York and Los Angeles that year. Tolhurst published his memoir in 2016, Cured: The Tale of Two Imaginary Boys, he tells of his time with the band between 1976 and 1989. Tolhurst, who has known Robert Smith since his childhood, says. Tolhurst undertook an extensive book tour, beginning in the United Kingdom and finishing in the U. S. In 2018, Tolhurst featured in an episode of the BBC Radio 4 series Soul Music, in which he discussed the history of the song "Boys Don't Cry". Tolhurst is married and lives in the U. S, he has one child. With the CureThree Imaginary Boys Seventeen Seconds Faith Happily Ever After Pornography Japanese Whispers The Top Concert: The Cure Live The Head on the Door Standing on a Beach Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Kiss Me Disintegration Galore Greatest Hits Join the Dots: B-Sides & Rarities 1978–2001 With Presence→ See Presence discography With Levinhurst→ See Levinhurst Discography Levinhurst Lol's MySpace Interview with Tolhurst at chaindlk.com Interview with Tolhurst at freewilliamsburg.com Lol Tolhurst Interview - NAMM Oral History Library
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
The twelve-inch single is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, thus better sound quality; this record type is used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 45 rpm. Twelve-inch singles have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch; this extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions can be much greater in amplitude in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch singles at 33 1⁄3 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response and was used on many twelve-inch singles in the UK; the gramophone records cut for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.
Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were released in 1959 – only to become major local hits pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits; the popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances.
Those dubs included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica led American DJs to do the same. In the United States, the twelve-inch single gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after earlier market experiments. In early 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once in My Life"; the experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single.
Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores. Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label, with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation, it was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank; the first large-format single made for DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. The song was; as no 7-inch acetates could be found, a 10–inch blank was used. Upon completion, found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space, he asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him.
Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but a wider overall dynamic range as well. This was noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play. Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would become industry practice; this would have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in
Stephen Thomas Erlewine
Stephen Thomas Erlewine is an American music critic and senior editor for the online music database AllMusic. He is the author of many artist biographies and record reviews for AllMusic, as well as a freelance writer contributing liner notes. Erlewine was born in Ann Arbor, is a nephew of the former musician and AllMusic founder Michael Erlewine, he studied at the University of Michigan, where he majored in English, was a music editor, arts editor, of the school's paper The Michigan Daily. He has contributed to a number of books, including All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock and Soul, All Music Guide to Hip-Hop: The Definitive Guide to Rap & Hip-Hop. Erlewine resides in Austin, with his wife and two step-daughters. "Stephen Thomas Erlewine - Staff - Pitchfork". Pitchfork.com. Retrieved 2 June 2018. "Stephen Thomas Erlewine". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2 June 2018. "Stephen Thomas Erlewine". Billboard.com. Retrieved 2 June 2018. "Stephen Thomas Erlewine - SPIN". Spin.com. Retrieved 2 June 2018
Pearl Thompson known as Porl Thompson, is an English musician best known for being a member of the Cure. Though friends had long used the name "Pearl", Thompson changed his first name to "Pearl" in 2015. Thompson was part of the original lineup of the Cure, when the band was first formed in 1976, but had left to go to art college by the time they released their debut album Three Imaginary Boys, he rejoined the band in 1983, playing saxophone, helped record the album The Top. During the Top tour, he played keyboard as well as guitar and saxophone, performed with The Glove when they appeared on television. Thompson performed on four more Cure studio albums and four live albums as well as the videos The Cure in Orange and Picture Show, he appears on the remix album Mixed Up and the deluxe issue of Three Imaginary Boys. He left the Cure in 1994 to play with Jimmy Page and Robert Plant of Led Zeppelin during the Page and Plant tour of 1995, played with Babacar, the band formed by Boris Williams following his departure from the Cure.
Thompson formed another project called Quietly Torn. He joined the singer's group for the 2002 release Dreamland. In 2002, Thompson had an exhibition of paintings in Cornwall, UK & Canada entitled "100% SKY". Thompson rejoined the Cure for a third time in June 2005, recorded the live DVD The Cure: Festival 2005, appeared on their 13th studio album, 4:13 Dream, toured with The Cure for their 2007-2008 4Tour. Thompson and designer Andy Vella are the co-founders of Parched Art, which has produced many of the record sleeves found on the Cure's albums, many of which Thompson drew or painted. In 2007, Schecter Guitars released a Porl Thompson Signature model, featuring graphics by the British artist Kev Grey, featured in the book 108 Rock Star Guitars by photographer Lisa S. Johnson. In 2013, now known as Pearl Thompson, he collaborated with Gonjasufi, other various artistic projects and charities such as WAR CHILD that Thompson, along with other renowned artists donated their own custom-made Caparelli guitar for auction.
In March 2015, Thompson had his first US painting exhibition of abstract landscape paintings at Mr MusicHead Art Gallery on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles, entitled: "... Through the eyes of birds." The work was inspired by remote Malibu canyons and desert landscapes. Early 2016, Thompson relocated to the Mojave desert, designed the artwork for Lol Tolhurst's autobiography "Cured" with a limited edition of thirteen laser cut books that display textured handmade silver stars. Thompson is featured on the album Callus by Gonjasufi, released in August 2016. Thompson is noted for being reclusive and private about his personal life, is now dedicated to painting; the CureThe Top Concert The Cure Live In Japan VHS The Head on the Door Standing on a Beach The Cure In Orange, VHS Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Kiss Me Disintegration Mixed Up Entreat Wish Paris Show Galore Greatest Hits Festival 2005, DVD 4:13 Dream GonjasufiCallus Page and PlantNo Quarter: Jimmy Page and Robert Plant Unledded Robert PlantDreamland Shelleyan OrphanHumroot BabacarBabacar https://www.113PERCENTSTRANGE.
COM/http://www.instagram.com/113PERCENTSTRANGEPorl Thompson bio http://sufisays.com/