A coachbuilder or body-maker manufactures bodies for passenger-carrying vehicles. Coachwork is the body of an automobile, horse-drawn carriage, or railroad passenger car; the word "coach" was derived from the Hungarian town of Kocs. Custom or bespoke coachbuilt bodies were made and fitted to another manufacturer's rolling chassis by the craftsmen who had built bodies for horse-drawn carriages and coaches. Separate coachbuilt bodies became obsolete when vehicle manufacturers found they could no longer meet their customers' demands by relying on a simple separate chassis mounted on leaf springs on beam axles. Unibody or monocoque combined chassis and body structures became standardised during the middle years of the 20th century to provide the rigidity required by improved suspension systems without incurring the heavy weight, consequent fuel, penalty of a rigid separate chassis; the improved more supple suspension systems gave vehicles better roadholding and much improved the ride experienced by passengers.
As well as true bespoke bodies the same coachbuilders made short runs of more-or-less identical bodies to the order of dealers or the manufacturer of a chassis. The same body design might be adjusted to suit different brands of chassis. Examples include Salmons & Sons' Tickford bodies with a patent device to raise or lower a convertible's roof, first used on their 19th century carriages, or Wingham convertible bodies by Martin Walter. Coachbuilt body is the British English name for the coachbuilder's product. Custom body is the standard term in North American English. Coachbuilders are: carrossiers in French, carrozzeria in Italian, Karosseriebauer in German and carroceros in Spanish. Coachbuilt body is the British English name for mass produced vehicles built on assembly lines using the same but simplified techniques until more durable all-steel bodies replaced them in the early 1950s. Unless they were for mass produced vehicles justifying the cost of tooling up dies and presses coachbuilt bodies were made of hand-shaped sheet metal alluminium alloy.
Pressed or hand-shaped the metal panels were fastened to a wooden frame of light but strong timber. Many of the more important structural features of the bespoke or custom body such as A, B and C pillars were cast alloy components; some bodies such as those alloy bodies fitted to many Pierce-Arrow cars contained little or no timber though they were mounted on a conventional steel chassis. The coachbuilder craftsmen who might once have built bespoke or custom bodies continue to build bodies for short runs of specialised commercial vehicles such as luxury motor coaches or recreational vehicles or motorhome bodied upon a rolling chassis provided by an independent manufacturer. A conversion is built inside an existing vehicle body. A British trade association the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers, was incorporated in 1630; some British coachmaking firms operating in the 20th century were established earlier. Rippon was active in the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Barker founded in 1710 by an officer in Queen Anne's Guards.
Brewster, the oldest in the U. S. was formed in 1810. The maker would provide the coachworks with a chassis frame, brakes, steering system, lighting system, spare wheel and rear mudguards and bumpers and dashboard; the easily damaged honeycomb radiator enclosed and protected by a shell became the main visual element identifying the chassis' brand. To maintain some level of control over the final product, chassis manufacturers' warranties would be voided by mating them with unapproved bodies; when popular automobile manufacturers brought body building in-house, larger dealers or distributors of ultra-luxury cars would pre-order stock chassis and the bodies they thought most to sell, inventory them in suitable quantities for sale off their showroom floor. In time, the practice of commissioning bespoke coachwork dwindled to a prerogative of wealth. All ultra-luxury vehicles of automobiling's Golden Era before World War II sold as chassis only. For instance, when Duesenberg introduced their Model J, it was offered as chassis only, for $8,500.
Other examples include the Bugatti Type 57, Cadillac V-16, Ferrari 250, Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8, all Rolls-Royces produced before World War II. Delahaye had no in-house coachworks, so all its chassis were bodied by independents, who created some of their most attractive designs on the Type 135. Most of the Delahayes were bodied by Chapron, Franay, Figoni et Falaschi and many more carrossiers; the practice remained in limited force after World War II, with both luxury chassis and high-performance sports cars and gran turismos, waning by the late 1960s. Rolls-Royce acquiesced, debuting its first unibody model, the Silver Shadow, in 1965, before taking all R-R and Bentley bodying in-house. Independent coachbuilders survived for a time after the mid-20th century, making bodies for the chassis produced by low-production companies such as Rolls-Royce and Bentley. Producing body dies is expensive, only considered practical when large numbers are involved—though, the path taken by Rolls-Royce and Bentley after 1945 for their own in-house production.
Because dies for pressing metal panels are so costly, from the mid 20th century, many vehicles, most notably the Chevrolet Corvette, were clothed with large panels of fiberglass reinforced resin, which only require inexpensive molds. Glass has since been re
Alessandria is a city and comune in Piedmont and the capital of the Province of Alessandria. The city is sited on the alluvial plain between the Tanaro and the Bormida rivers, about 90 kilometres southeast of Turin. Alessandria is a major railway hub. Alessandria was founded in 1168 with a charter as a free comune. Alessandria stood in the territories of the marchese of Montferrat, a staunch ally of the Emperor, with a name assumed in 1168 to honor the Emperor's opponent, Pope Alexander III. In 1174 -- 1175 the fortress stood fast. A legend says it was saved by a quick-witted peasant, Gagliaudo: he fed his cow with the last grain remaining within the city took it outside the city walls until he reached the Imperial camp. Here he was captured, his cow cut open to be cooked: when the Imperials found the cow's stomach filled with grain, Gagliaudo was asked the reason to waste such a rich meal, he answered that he was forced to feed his cow with grain because there was such a lot of it, no room to place it within the city.
The Emperor, left Alessandria free. A statue of Gagliaudo can be found on the left corner of the city cathedral. Alessandria entered into jealous conflicts with the older communes of the region, in particular with Asti. In 1348 Alessandria fell into the hands of the Visconti and passed with their possessions to the Sforza, following the career of Milan, until 1707, when it was ceded to the House of Savoy and henceforth formed part of Piedmont; the new domination was evidenced by the construction of a new big Cittadella on the left side of the river Tanaro, across from the city. With Napoleon's success at the Battle of Marengo, Alessandria fell to France and became the capital of the Napoleonic Département of Marengo. During this period another substantial fort was built to the north of the city containing impressive and substantial barracks which are still used as a military headquarters and stores; the remains of a second fort to the south of the city have been sliced in two by a railway. From 1814 Alessandria was Savoyard territory once more, part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
During the years of the Risorgimento, Alessandria was an active center of the liberals. In a suburb, Spinetta Marengo, the Battle of Marengo is reenacted annually, on June 14. Alessandria was the first capital of an Italian province to be governed by a Socialist: the clockmaker Paolo Sacco was elected mayor on July 25, 1899. Alessandria was a tactical military target during World War II and was subjected to intense Allied bombing, the most serious being the raids of April 30, 1944, with 238 dead and hundreds wounded, April 5, 1945, with 160 deaths, among them 60 children from the children's asylum in Via Gagliaudo. On end of that month the city was liberated from the German occupation by the partisan resistance and troops of Brazilian Expeditionary Force. On November 6, 1994, the Tanaro flooded a good part of the city, causing major damage in the Orti quarter; the first known Jews in Alessandria, named Abraham opened a loan bank in or about 1490. In 1590, the Jews were expelled from the Duchy of Milan, one of Abraham's descendants travelled to Madrid, which ruled the Duchy, was permitted to stay in the town due to a large sum owed him by the government.
Of the 230 Jews living in the city in 1684, 170 were members of the Vitale family. The Jewish Ghetto was established in 1724. Between 1796 and 1814, among the rest of Italian Jewry, the city Jewish congregation was emancipated, under French influence. According to Benito Mussolini's census in 1938, the town had 101 Jews. On December 13, 1943, The synagogue on Via Milano was attacked by supporters of the Italian Social Republic. Books and manuscripts were set on fire at Piazza Rattazzi. In total, 48 Jews were sent from the province of Alessandria to death, most of them in Auschwitz. Alessandria is located in a humid subtropical climate, the city has moderately cold winters and hot, sultry summers. Rainfall is moderate, with two maximums in autumn and spring. Citadella Militare The church of Santa Maria di Castello The church of Santa Maria del Carmine Palazzo Ghilini Università del Piemonte Orientale The Marengo Battle Museum Antiquarium Forum Fulvii Sale d'arte I percorsi del Museo Civico Museo del Fiume Museo di Scienze Naturali e Planetario Museo Etnografico "C'era una volta" Museo del Cappello Borsalino Sistema dei musei civici The annual Fraskettando SkaBluesJazz Festival, which takes place on the first weekend of July, has showcased the Blues Brothers, Eddie Floyd, Al Di Meola, Taj Mahal, Soft Machine, Mario Biondi, Mick Abrahams & Clive Bunker and many others.
Michele Pittaluga International Classical Guitar Competition Premio Città di Alessandria International Rally "Madonnina dei Centauri". The International Kendo Trophy "City of Alessandria" Alessandria railway station, opened in 1850, forms part of the Turin–Genoa railway, it is a junction for six other
Cooper Car Company
The Cooper Car Company is a car manufacturer founded in December 1947 by Charles Cooper and his son John Cooper. Together with John's boyhood friend, Eric Brandon, they began by building racing cars in Charles's small garage in Surbiton, England, in 1946. Through the 1950s and early 1960s they reached motor racing's highest levels as their rear-engined, single-seat cars altered the face of Formula One and the Indianapolis 500, their Mini Cooper dominated rally racing. Due in part to Cooper's legacy, Great Britain remains the home of a thriving racing industry, the Cooper name lives on in the Cooper versions of the Mini production cars that are still built in England, but are now owned and marketed by BMW; the first cars built by the Coopers were single-seat 500-cc Formula Three racing cars driven by John Cooper and Eric Brandon, powered by a JAP motorcycle engine. Since materials were in short supply after World War II, the prototypes were constructed by joining two old Fiat Topolino front-ends together.
According to John Cooper, the stroke of genius that would make the Coopers an automotive legend—the location of the engine behind the driver—was a practical matter at the time. Because the car was powered by a motorcycle engine, they believed it was more convenient to have the engine in the back, driving a chain. In fact there was nothing new about'mid' engined racing cars but there is no doubt Coopers led the way in popularizing what was to become the dominant arrangement for racing cars. Called the Cooper 500, this car's success in hillclimbs and on track, including Eric winning the 500 race at one of the first postwar meetings at Gransden Lodge Airfield created demand from other drivers and led to the establishment of the Cooper Car Company to build more; the business grew by providing an inexpensive entry to motorsport for every aspiring young British driver, the company became the world's first and largest postwar, specialist manufacturer of racing cars for sale to privateers. Cooper built up to 300 single-and twin-cylinder cars during the 1940s and 1950s, dominated the F3 category, winning 64 of 78 major races between 1951 and 1954.
This volume of construction enabled the company to grow into the senior categories. Though Schell retired in the first lap, this marked the first appearance of a rear-engined racer at a Grand Prix event since the end of WWII; the front-engined Formula Two Cooper Bristol model was introduced in 1952. Various iterations of this design were driven by a number of legendary drivers – among them Juan Manuel Fangio and Mike Hawthorn – and furthered the company's growing reputation by appearing in Grand Prix races, which at the time were run to F2 regulations; until the company began building rear-engined sports cars in 1955, they had not become aware of the benefits of having the engine behind the driver. Based on the 500-cc cars and powered by a modified Coventry Climax fire-pump engine, these cars were called "Bobtails". With the center of gravity closer to the middle of the car, they found it was less liable to spins and much more effective at putting the power down to the road, so they decided to build a single-seater version and began entering it in Formula 2 races.
Jack Brabham raised some eyebrows when he took sixth place at the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix in a rear-engined Formula 1 Cooper. When Stirling Moss won the 1958 Argentine Grand Prix in Rob Walker's entered Cooper and Maurice Trintignant duplicated the feat in the next race at Monaco, the racing world was stunned and a rear-engined revolution had begun; the next year, 1959, Brabham and the Cooper works team became the first to win the Formula One World Championship in a rear-engined car. Both team and driver repeated the feat in 1960, every World Champion since has been sitting in front of his engine; the little-known designer behind the car was Owen Maddock, employed by Cooper Car Company. Maddock was known as ` Whiskers' to Charles Cooper. Maddock was a familiar figure in the drivers' paddock of the 1950s in open-neck shirt and woolly jumper and a prime force behind the rise of British racing cars to their dominant position in the 1960s. Describing how the revolutionary rear-engined Cooper chassis came to be, Maddock explained, "I'd done various schemes for the new car which I'd shown to Charlie Cooper.
He kept saying'Nah, that's not it, try again.' I got so fed up I sketched a frame in which every tube was bent, meant just as a joke. I showed it to Charlie and to my astonishment he grabbed it and said:'That's it!' " Maddock pioneered one of the first designs for a honeycomb monocoque stressed skin composite chassis, helped develop Cooper's C5S racing gearbox. Brabham took one of the championship-winning Cooper T53 "Lowlines" to Indianapolis Motor Speedway for a test in 1960 entered the famous 500-mile race in a larger and offset car based on the 1960 F1 design, the unique Type T54. Arriving at the Speedway 5 May 1961, the "funny" little car from Europe was mocked by the other teams, but it ran as high as third and finished ninth, it took a few years, but the Indianapolis establishment realized the writing was on the wall and the days of their front-engined roadsters were numbered. Beginning with Jim Clark, who drove a rear-engined Lotus in 1965, every winner of the Indianapolis 500 since has had the engine in the back.
The revolution begun by the little chain-driven Cooper 500 was complete. Once every Formula car manufacturer beg
1960 Belgian Grand Prix
The 1960 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Spa-Francorchamps on 19 June 1960. It was race 5 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers and race 4 of 9 in the 1960 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers. Stirling Moss and Mike Taylor were injured in crashes during practice, Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey were killed in accidents during the race. With the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, it is one of two occasions in which two driver fatalities have occurred at a Formula One race meeting. Practice for the event saw Stirling Moss and Mike Taylor injured in separate accidents, Taylor suffering injuries which would end his racing career, Moss injured enough to keep him out of racing for a number of months. In the race itself, the Lotus drivers Innes Ireland & Jim Clark got off to good starts before Ireland spun out with clutch trouble by lap 14, Chris Bristow, driving a year-old Cooper for the British Racing Partnership, got off line and lost control at Malmedy, crashed into a four foot high embankment and was thrown from his car whilst battling for 6th with the Ferrari of Mairesse, landed on some barbed wire which beheaded him, killing him on lap 20.
Five laps Alan Stacey was hit in the face by a bird at Masta as his car crashed somersaulted off the track and landed in a field as it went up in flames and Stacey was burned to death whilst Stacey was still in the car on lap 25. It was the only Formula One race meeting in which two drivers were killed until the deaths of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix; the race distance had been lengthened to 36 laps from 24 laps. The results highlight an unusual quirk in the rules regarding classification of non-finishers. Under modern rules, Graham Hill would have been classified third, since he completed lap 35 before the lapped Olivier Gendebien. Hill retired, in the pits, but was not classified since he did not push his car over the line after the winner took the finish. In fact the rule about crossing the finishing line was inconsistently applied – at the 1959 German Grand Prix, Harry Schell was classified seventh despite only completing 49 of the race's 60 laps.
Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
1960 Indianapolis 500
The 44th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Monday, May 30, 1960. The event was part of the 1960 USAC National Championship Trail and was race 3 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers, it would be the final time World Championship points would be awarded at the Indy 500. Regarded as the greatest two-man duel in Indianapolis 500 history, the 1960 race saw a then-record 29 lead changes. Jim Rathmann and Rodger Ward battled out nearly the entire second half. Rathmann took the lead for good on lap 197. Rathmann's margin of victory of 12.75 seconds was the second-closest finish in Indy history at the time. The inaugural 500 Festival Open Invitation was held at the Speedway Golf Course in the four days leading up to the race. Time trials was scheduled for four days. Saturday May 14 – Pole Day time trials Eddie Sachs set a track record of 146.592 mph to win the pole position. Sunday May 15 – Second day time trials Saturday May 21 – Third day time trials The third day of time trials was rained out.
Sunday May 22 – Fourth day time trials Jim Hurtubise nearly broke the elusive and much-anticipated 150 mph barrier. Hurtubise's four-lap qualifying average of 149.056 mph featured a new one-lap record of 149.601 mph, to establish himself as the fastest qualifier in the field. After Carburetion tests, Dempsey Wilson replaced Jimmy Daywalt as the driver for the #23 entry, the car was moved to the rear of the starting grid; the race started out with four contenders in the first half. Rodger Ward took the lead on lap 1 from the outside of the front row, but polesitter Eddie Sachs took the lead on lap 2. Two laps Ward was back in the lead, the record-setting number of lead changes was under way. Troy Ruttman and Jim Rathmann took turns at the front.. The first caution came out on lap 47, after Duane Carter spun in turn 3, he did not hit the wall, came to a rest in the infield grass continued in the race. Jim McWithey came into the pits without any brakes, he brushed the inside pit wall trying to slow the car down, but continued through the pit lane and wasn't able to stop until he reached the infield grass in turn 1.
In the race, Eddie Russo and Wayne Weiler suffer single-car crashes. Rodger Ward stalled his engine twice during his first pit stop. After getting back on the track, he started charging to catch up to the front of the field. Shortly after the halfway point, Eddie Sachs and Troy Ruttman would both drop out of the race leaving Rathmann and Ward to battle it out in front. On about lap 124, Tony Bettenhausen came in for a routine pit stop, he returned to the track. One lap he was back in the pits with a fire and a blown engine. Bettenhausen was unhurt, but hoisted himself out of the cockpit as it was coasting to stop in the pits to avoid getting burned. In the second half, Ward had caught up with Johnny Thomson close behind in third. Rathmann and Ward swapped the lead several times, but meanwhile Ward was hoping that the pace would slow down, in order to save his tires to the end. After stalling in the pits earlier, the hard charge Ward made to get back to the front was a concern, as he was afraid he had worn out his tires prematurely.
Ward was aware of Rathmann's tendencies as a driver, allowed Rathmann to pass him for the lead. Rathmann was known for charging hard to take the lead, but once he was in the lead, would back the pace down. Ward's prediction came true. Johnny Thomson was now catching up. With Thomson closing in on the leaders and Rathmann started charging again, racing each other hard, swapping the lead between themselves. Meanwhile, Thomson's engine lost power, he slowed to a 5th-place finish. Inside ten laps to go, Rodger Ward seemed to have the faster car, took the lead on lap 194. A few laps though, Ward saw the cords in his right front tire showing, he let off the pace. Jim Rathmann took the lead on lap 197, pulled away for victory. Due to Ward's experience as a tire tester, he was able to nurse his car to the finish without pitting to change the bad tire, held on to second place. Despite winning twice, Rodger Ward considered this race his personal best. Paul Goldsmith charged from 26th starting position to finish 3rd, holding off 4th place Don Branson by about a car length.
First alternate: Chuck Rodee Fastest Lead Lap: Jim Rathmann – 1:01.59 The 1960 Indianapolis 500 was the final 500 which featured a 33-car field consisting of all front-engined cars. The weather on race day would reach a high of 75 °F with wind speeds up to 15 miles per hour. Climate historians would consider this to be the "traditional" climate for an Indianapolis 500 race. Despite some published claims that it was Smokey Yunick, the race-winning chief mechanic for Rathmann was Takeo "Chickie" Hirashima. Two spectators in the infield, Fred H. Linder, 36, of Indianapolis, William C. Craig, 37, of Zionsville, were killed, as many as 82 were injured, when a homemade scaffolding collapsed. 125–130 patrons had paid a small fee to view the race from the 30-foot tall scaffolding, erected by a private individual and not the Speedway – a practice, allowed at the time. The structure was anchored to a pick-up truck, situated in the infield of turn three. Over the years, the private scaffold platforms had become a popular fixture at the Speedway, with many located around the massive infield.
They were not sponsored by the track
Vignale Monferrato is a comune in the Province of Alessandria in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 60 kilometres east of Turin and about 20 kilometres northwest of Alessandria. Vignale Monferrato borders the following municipalities: Altavilla Monferrato, Camagna Monferrato, Cuccaro Monferrato, Frassinello Monferrato and Olivola. Eraldo Monzeglio, footballer. Piero Drogo, car driver and Ferrari designer