Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region and was the first capital city of Italy. The city is located mainly on the bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 892,649 while the population of the area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million, in 1997 a part of the historical center of Torino was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, many of Turins public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. This was after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy was moved to Turin from Chambery as part of the urban expansion, the city used to be a major European political center.
Turin was Italys first capital city in 1861 and home to the House of Savoy, from 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy. Turin is sometimes called the cradle of Italian liberty for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour. The city currently hosts some of Italys best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, in addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana. Turins attractions make it one of the worlds top 250 tourist destinations, Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the worlds 78th richest city by purchasing power, as of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry, the Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.
In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibals forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum, both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurinis country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times. In the 1st century BC, the Romans created a military camp, the typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the path of the Roman citys decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani. The Porta Palatina, on the side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Greater Buenos Aires
Greater Buenos Aires is the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos over the Province of Buenos Aires. Thus, it does not constitute an administrative unit. The conurbation spreads south and north of Buenos Aires city, to the east, the River Plate serves as a natural boundary. The term is related to other expressions that are not necessarily well-defined, the Buenos Aires conurbation, the Greater Buenos Aires Agglomeration. The National Institute of Statistics and Censuses has defined Greater Buenos Aires, there are three main groups within the Buenos Aires Conurbation. The first two groups comprise the traditional conurbation, or the conurbation proper, the third group of six partidos is in process of becoming fully integrated with the rest. D. and Marcos, M. The social map of Greater Buenos Aires as empirical evidence of urban models, volume 11 Number 1, pp. 67–78, DOI10. 1353/lag.2012.0012 Keeling, D. Buenos Aires, Global Dreams, Local Crisis
1952 Italian Grand Prix
The 1952 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 7 September 1952 at Monza. It was the eighth and final round of the 1952 World Drivers Championship, the 80-lap race was won by Ferrari driver Alberto Ascari after he started from pole position. José Froilán González finished second for the Maserati team and Ascaris teammate Luigi Villoresi came in third, due to the dominance of the Ferrari team throughout 1952, the World Drivers Championship had already been clinched a month prior to the season-ending Italian Grand Prix. There were a number of privateer Ferraris, including the Ecurie Espadon pairing of Fischer and Stuck, as well as Charles de Tornaco of Ecurie Francorchamps, Louis Rosier and Peter Whitehead. The works Maserati team appeared for the first and only time in the 1952 World Championship, Gordini retained their previous driver lineup of Behra and Trintignant, while Johnny Claes drove a privateer Simca-Gordini at Monza. HWM entered a pair of cars for Peter Collins and Lance Macklin, the Connaught team, absent since the British Grand Prix, returned to the Championship with a three-car entry consisting of Stirling Moss, Dennis Poore and Kenneth McAlpine.
For this event, only 24 cars were allowed to take the start and these included all of the HWMs, three of the privateer Ferraris, and both of the Enrico Platé-entered Maseratis. Ascari took his third pole position, and the front row was completed by his teammates Villoresi and Farina. The Maserati of González started from the row, alongside the remaining works Ferraris of Taruffi and Simon. Row three consisted of Stirling Moss in the leading Connaught, Frenchman Élie Bayol in the sole OSCA, Behra in the third and final works Gordini, and Mike Hawthorn in his privateer Cooper-Bristol. The remaining works Maseratis of Bonetto and Rol were only able to make the fourth row of the grid, starting from 13th and 16th, José Froilán González emerged in first place at the start of the race, ahead of Ascari in second. The Argentine remained in the lead for the first 36 laps of the race, until a pit stop allowed the Ferraris of Ascari and Villoresi to pass him for first and second. Ascari held the lead for the remainder of the race, and, in so doing, González caught up with Villoresi and passed him to take second place in his only Championship race of the season.
Villoresi completed the podium by taking his second consecutive third-place finish, Farina was not far behind in fourth place, while the second Maserati of Felice Bonetto took the final points position in fifth, finishing a lap down on the leaders. The remaining works Ferraris of Simon and Taruffi finished in sixth and seventh place, as Taruffi finished outside the points, he was unable to overtake Nino Farina in the Drivers Championship standings. The Ferrari team monopolised the top three positions, with World Champion Alberto Ascari ahead of teammates Farina and Taruffi, ^1 — Carlo Dusio, named substitute driver for the #44 Cisitalia-BPM, took no part in the Grand Prix. Ascari and González set equal fastest lap times, and shared the one championship point. Drivers Championship standings Note, Only the top five positions are included, Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche
Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche, mainly known as Ferry Porsche, was an Austrian technical automobile designer and automaker-entrepreneur. He operated Porsche AG in Stuttgart and his father, Ferdinand Porsche, Sr. was a renowned automobile engineer and founder of Volkswagen and Porsche. His nephew, Dr. Ferdinand Piëch, is the chairman of Volkswagen Group. Ferry Porsches life was connected with that of his father, Ferdinand Porsche. With his father he opened a bureau of automobile design, in Stuttgart in 1931 and they worked together to fulfill their countrys National Socialist regimes needs and they met Adolf Hitler at many business events. The Volkswagen Beetle was designed by Ferdinand Porsche, Sr. after World War II, while his father remained imprisoned in France, being accused of war crimes, Ferry Porsche ran their company. Aided by the postwar Volkswagen enterprise, he created the first cars that were associated with the company. Despite the political-economical adversities of the years, the company manufactured automobiles and, eventually.
Ferdinand Porsche Sr was chief designer at Austro-Daimler in Austria and his designs were focused on compact street cars and race cars. Austro-Daimler was so tied to the local royalty that the Austrian double-headed eagle became the trademark of the company. The day Ferry Porsche was born, his father was competing with one of his cars at Semmering, finishing first in his class. He found out about his sons birth by telegram, Ferry Porsches mother was Aloisia Johanna Kaes. He had a sister, Louise Piëch, who was five years his senior. He was baptized Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche, with the name Ferdinand after his father, the name Anton after his grandfather, during the following years, the family moved around a lot. He and his father spent much time together in workshops where he began early to learn mechanical engineering. They used to tour around Europe and the United States of America, Ferry remarked later. cars were my greatest passion from the very beginning. Ferry Porsche learned to drive when he was only 10 years old, at age 12 he drove a real race car, the Austro-Daimler Sascha, which had just won its class at Targa Florio, Sicily, in 1922.
Ferry Porsche attended school at Wiener Neustadt and Stuttgart, concentrating on mathematics, in 1923, the family moved to Stuttgart, due to senior Ferdinand Porsches unrest about the squandering financial destiny of Austro-Daimler
The straight-eight engine or inline-eight engine is an eight-cylinder internal combustion engine with all eight cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase. The type has been produced in side-valve, IOE, overhead-valve, sleeve-valve, a straight-eight can be timed for inherent primary and secondary balance, with no unbalanced primary or secondary forces or moments. However, crankshaft torsional vibration, present to some degree in all engines, is sufficient to require the use of a harmonic damper at the end of the crankshaft. Without such damping, fatigue cracking near the main bearing journal may occur. Also, due to the number of power strokes per revolution. The smooth running characteristics of the straight-eight made it popular in luxury, the engines length demanded the use of a long engine compartment, making the basic design unacceptable in modern vehicles. Also, due to the length of the engine, torsional vibration in both crankshaft and camshaft can adversely affect reliability and performance at high speeds, as a result, the design has been displaced almost completely by the shorter V8 engine configuration.
The first straight-eight was conceived by Charron, Girardot et Voigt in 1903, great strides were made during World War I, as Mercedes made straight-eight aircraft engines like the Mercedes D. IV. The disadvantages of crank and camshaft twisting were not considered at this time, unlike the V8 engine configuration, examples of which were used in De Dion-Bouton, Scripps-Booth, and Cadillac automobiles by 1914, no straight-eight engines were used in production cars before 1920. The Duesenberg brothers introduced their first production straight-eight in 1921, straight-eight engines were used in expensive luxury and performance vehicles until after World War II. Bugattis and Duesenbergs commonly used double overhead cam straight-eight engines, other notable straight-eight-powered automobiles were built by Daimler, Mercedes-Benz, Isotta-Fraschini, Alfa Romeo, Stearns-Knight and Packard. One marketing feature of engines was their impressive length — some of the Duesenberg engines were over 4 ft long, resulting in the long hoods found on these automobiles.
In the United States in the 1920s, automobile manufacturers, including Chandler, Gardner, Engine manufacturer Lycoming built straight-eight engines for sale to automobile manufacturers, including Gardner and Locomobile. The automobile manufacturers within the Cord Corporation, comprising Auburn, Lycoming continues to this day as an aircraft engine manufacturer. In the late 1920s, volume sellers Hudson and Studebaker introduced straight-eight engines for the vehicles in their respective lines. They were followed in the early 1930s by Nash, REO, and the Buick, the Buick straight-eight engine was an overhead valve design, while the Oldsmobile and Pontiac straight-eights were flathead engines. Chevrolet, as a marque, did not have a straight-eight. Cadillac, the brand of General Motors, stayed with their traditional V8 engines
Juventus Football Club S. p. A. colloquially known as Juve, is a professional Italian association football club based in Turin, Piedmont. The clubs fan base is larger than any other Italian football club and is one of the largest worldwide, support for Juventus is widespread throughout the country and abroad, mainly in countries with a significant presence of Italian immigrants. Juventus is the most successful club in Italian football and one of the most awarded globally, Juventus were founded as Sport-Club Juventus in late 1897 by pupils from the Massimo DAzeglio Lyceum school in Turin, but were renamed as Foot-Ball Club Juventus two years later. The club joined the Italian Football Championship during 1900, during this period the team wore a pink and black kit. Juventus first won the championship in 1905 while playing at their Velodrome Umberto I ground. By this time the colours had changed to black and white stripes. There was a split at the club in 1906, after some of the staff considered moving Juve out of Turin, President Alfred Dick was unhappy with this and left with some prominent players to found FBC Torino which in turn spawned the Derby della Mole.
Juventus spent much of this period steadily rebuilding after the split, fiat owner Edoardo Agnelli gained control of the club in 1923, and built a new stadium. This helped the club to its second scudetto in the 1925–26 season beating Alba Roma with a score of 12–1. With star players such as Raimundo Orsi, Luigi Bertolini, Giovanni Ferrari, Juventus moved to the Stadio Comunale, but for the rest of the 1930s and the majority of the 1940s they were unable to recapture championship dominance. After the Second World War, Gianni Agnelli was appointed honorary president, the club added two more league championships to its name in the 1949–50 and 1951–52 seasons, the latter of which was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver. Two new strikers were signed during 1957–58, Welshman John Charles and Italo-Argentine Omar Sívori and that season saw Juventus awarded with the Golden Star for Sport Excellence to wear on their shirts after becoming the first Italian side to win ten league titles. In the same season, Sívori became the first ever player at the club to win the European Footballer of the Year, the following season they beat Fiorentina to complete their first league and cup double, winning Serie A and Coppa Italia.
Boniperti retired in 1961 as the top scorer at the club, with 182 goals in all competitions. During the rest of the decade, the won the league just once more in 1966–67, The 1970s, however. Under former player Čestmír Vycpálek, they won the scudetto in 1971–72 and 1972–73, with such as Roberto Bettega, Franco Causio. During the rest of the decade, they won the league twice more, the Trapattoni era was highly successful in the 1980s, the club started the decade off well, winning the league title three more times by 1984. This meant Juventus had won 20 Italian league titles and were allowed to add a golden star to their shirt
Province of Asti
The Province of Asti is a province in the Piedmont region of northern Italy. Its capital is the city of Asti, to the northwest it borders on the province of Turin, to the southwest it borders on the province of Cuneo. To the east it borders on the province of Alessandria, while in the south it shares a short border with the Ligurian province of Savona. It has an area of 1,504.5 square kilometres, the Province of Asti was re-established on 1 April 1935 by Royal Decree No.297 of King Victor Emmanuel III. It was detached from the existing Province of Alessandria into which it had been absorbed upon the creation of that province in 1859. The Province of Asti is among the awarded the Gold Medal for Military Valor for its contribution to the partisan struggle during the last two years of the Second World War. There are 118 municipalities in the province
The Mille Miglia was an open-road endurance race which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957. Like the older Targa Florio and the Carrera Panamericana, the MM made Gran Turismo sports cars like Alfa Romeo, BMW, Maserati, Mercedes Benz, the race brought out an estimated five million spectators. From 1953 until 1957, the Mille Miglia was a round of the World Sports Car Championship, since 1977, the Mille Miglia has been reborn as a regularity race for classic and vintage cars. Participation is limited to cars, produced no than 1957, the route is similar to that of the original race, maintaining the point of departure / arrival in Viale Venezia in Brescia. This made organisation simpler as marshals did not have to be on duty for as long a period, from 1949, cars were assigned numbers according to their start time. For example, the 1955 Moss/Jenkinson car, #722, left Brescia at 07,22, in the early days of the race, even winners needed 16 hours or more, so most competitors had to start before midnight and arrived after dusk - if at all.
The race was established by the young Count Aymo Maggi and Franco Mazzotti, together with a group of wealthy associates, they chose a race from Brescia to Rome and back, a figure-eight shaped course of roughly 1500 km — or a thousand Roman miles. Later races followed twelve other routes of varying total lengths, the first race started on 26 March 1927 with seventy-seven starters — all Italian — of which fifty-one had reached the finishing post at Brescia by the end of the race. The first Mille Miglia covered 1,618 km, corresponding to just over 1,005 modern miles, entry was strictly restricted to unmodified production cars, and the entrance fee was set at a nominal 1 lira. The winner, Giuseppe Morandi, completed the course in just under 21 hours 5 minutes, averaging nearly 78 km/h in his 2-litre OM, tazio Nuvolari won the 1930 Mille Miglia in an Alfa Romeo 6C. Having started after his teammate and rival Achille Varzi, Nuvolari was leading the race, in the dim half-light of early dawn, Nuvolari tailed Varzi with his headlights off, thereby not being visible in the latters rear-view mirrors.
He overtook Varzi on the roads approaching the finish at Brescia, by pulling alongside. The event was dominated by local Italian drivers and marques. Caracciola had received little support from the factory due to the economic crisis at that time. He did not have mechanics to man all necessary service points. After performing a pit stop, they had to hurry across Italy, the race was briefly stopped by Italian leader Benito Mussolini after an accident in 1938 killed a number of spectators. When it resumed in 1940 during wartime, it was dubbed the Grand Prix of Brescia and this event saw the debut of the first Enzo Ferrari-owned marque AAC. The Italians continued to dominate their race after the war, now again on a single big lap through Italy, caracciola, in a comeback attempt, was fourth