Italian nationality law
Italian nationality law is the law of Italy governing the acquisition and loss of Italian citizenship. Like many continental European countries it is based on jus sanguinis, it incorporates many elements that are seen as favourable to the Italian diaspora. The Italian Parliament's 1992 update of Italian nationality law is Law no. 91, came into force on 15 August 1992. Presidential decrees and ministerial directives, including several issued by the Ministry of the Interior, instruct the civil service how to apply Italy's citizenship-related laws. Italian citizenship can be automatically acquired: By birth to an Italian parent in line with the principle of jus sanguinis. By birth in Italy to stateless parents, to unknown parents, or to parents who cannot transmit their nationality to their children. With the acknowledgement or legitimation of an Italian mother or father. On 27 April 1983 by minor children without Italian citizenship, including children adopted per Italian law, who as of the same date had a parent holding Italian citizenship.
By some former citizens of Italy, after two years of residing in Italy, if the original parting with Italian citizenship was caused by naturalising in another state. The citizenship law 555 of 1912, discussed carried the pertinent provision until it was superseded. By minor children of persons acquiring Italian citizenship. Before 27 April 1983, minor children could not acquire Italian citizenship by this means if they were living abroad from Italy and still retaining a foreign citizenship. By Vatican citizens concluding their ex officio Vatican citizenship who would otherwise become stateless upon this event, pursuant to the provision in article 9 of the Lateran Treaty of 1929 between Italy and Vatican City. Through special application: For an individual whose parents were Italian citizens born outside Italy but at least one of their grandparents was an Italian citizen born in Italy; the applicant must have served in the Italian military or civil service or have resided for two years in Italy after reaching the age of majority.
For individuals who were born in Italy to foreign parents but who have resided in Italy continuously from birth to adulthood. Through marriage: Foreign women who married an Italian citizen before 27 April 1983 were automatically granted Italian citizenship. After 2 years legal residence in Italy, or 3 years living abroad; this time will be reduced by half. The spouse of an Italian citizen can apply for Italian citizenship through naturalisation; as of 4 December 2018, the spouse must be accomplished in the Italian language to the level B1 of the EU Common Language Framework. Through naturalisation: A person, resident in Italy for at least ten years may apply for and be granted naturalisation as an Italian citizen if he or she does not have a criminal record and has sufficient financial resources; the residence requirement is reduced to three years for descendants of Italian citizen grandparents and for foreigners born in Italy, four years for nationals of EU member states, five years for refugees or stateless persons, seven years for someone, adopted as a child by an Italian citizen.
Citizens of other countries descended from an ancestor born in Italy may have a claim to Italian citizenship by descent. Italian citizenship is granted by birth through the paternal line, with no limit on the number of generations, or through the maternal line for individuals born after 1 January 1948. An Italian citizen may be born in a country whose citizenship is acquired at birth by all persons born there; that person would be born therefore with the citizenship of two countries. Delays in reporting the birth of an Italian citizen abroad do not cause that person to lose Italian citizenship, such a report might in some cases be filed by the person's descendants many years after he or she is deceased. A descendant of a deceased Italian citizen whose birth in another country was not reported to Italy may report that birth, along with his or her own birth, to be acknowledged as having Italian citizenship. A person may only have acquired jus sanguinis Italian citizenship by birth if one or both of that person's parents was in possession of Italian citizenship on the birth date.
There is a possibility in the law that the only parent who held Italian citizenship on the birth date of a child born with jus sanguinis Italian citizenship was the mother, who acquired the Italian citizenship by marriage to the father, who relinquished his own Italian citizenship before the child was born. Under certain conditions, a child born with Italian citizenship might have lost Italian citizenship during his or her infancy; the event could prevent a claim of Italian citizenship by her descendants. If the Italian parents of a minor child naturalised in another country, the child may have remained holding Italian citizenship, or else may have lost the Italian citizenship; the children who were exempt from losing their Italian citizenship upon the foreign naturalisation of their parents were in many cases citizens of other countries where they were born, by operation of the jus soli citizenship laws in those countries. One must apply through the Italian consulate; each consulate has different procedures and waiting t
Italian Communist Party
The Italian Communist Party was a communist political party in Italy. The PCI was founded as Communist Party of Italy on 21 January 1921 in Livorno by seceding from the Italian Socialist Party. Amadeo Bordiga and Antonio Gramsci led the split. Outlawed during the Fascist regime, the party played a major part in the Italian resistance movement, it changed its name in 1943 to PCI and became the second largest political party of Italy after World War II, attracting the support of about a third of the voters during the 1970s. At the time, it was the largest communist party in the West. In 1991, as it had travelled a long way from doctrinaire communism to democratic socialism by the 1970s or the 1980s, the PCI evolved into the Democratic Party of the Left, which joined the Socialist International and the Party of European Socialists; the more radical members of the party left to form the Communist Refoundation Party. The PCI participated to its first general election in 1921 as the Communist Party of Italy, obtaining 4.6% of the vote and 15 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
At the time, it was an active yet small faction within Italian political left, led by the Italian Socialist Party while on the international plane it was part of Soviet-led Comintern. In 1926, the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini outlawed the PCI. Although forced underground, the PCI maintained a clandestine presence within Italy during the years of the Fascist regime. Many of its leaders were active in exile. During its first year as a banned party, Antonio Gramsci defeated the party's left-wing, led by Amadeo Bordiga. Gramsci replaced Bordiga's leadership at a conference in Lyon and issued a manifesto expressing the programmatic basis of the party. However, Gramsci soon found himself jailed by Mussolini's regime and the leadership of the party passed to Palmiro Togliatti. Togliatti would lead the party until it emerged from suppression in 1944 and relaunched itself as the PCI; the party played a major role during the national liberation and in the April 1944 after the svolta di Salerno, Togliatti agreed to cooperate with King Victor Emmanuel III so the Communists took part in every government during the national liberation and constitutional period from June 1944 to May 1947.
The Communists' contribution to the new Italian democratic constitution was decisive. The Gullo decrees of 1944, for instance, sought to improve social and economic conditions in the countryside. In the first general elections of 1948, the party joined the PSI in the Popular Democratic Front, but it was defeated by the Christian Democracy party; the United States spent over $10 million to support anti-PCI groups in the election. Fearful of the possible FDP's electoral victory, the British and American governments undermined the quest for justice by tolerating the efforts made by Italy's top authorities to prevent any of the alleged Italian war criminals from being extradited and taken to court; the denial of Italian war crimes was backed up by the Italian state and media, re-inventing Italy as only a victim of the German Nazism and the post-war Foibe massacres. The party gained considerable electoral success during the following years and supplied external support to centre-left governments, although it never directly joined a government.
It lobbied Fiat to set up the AvtoVAZ car factory in the Soviet Union. The party did best in Emilia-Romagna and Umbria, where it won the local administrative elections. At the city government level during the course of the post-war period, the PCI demonstrated their capacity for uncorrupt and clean government. After the elections of 1975, the PCI was the strongest force in nearly all of the municipal councils of the great cities; the PCI's municipal showcase was Bologna, held continuously by the PCI from 1945 onwards. Amongst other measures, the local PCI administration tackled urban problems with successful programmes of health for the elderly, nursery education and traffic reform while undertaking initiatives in housing and school meal provisions. From 1946 to 1956, the Communist city council built 896 flats and 9 schools. Health care improved street lighting was installed, new drains and municipal launderettes were built and 8,000 children received subsidised school meals. In 1972, the then-mayor of Bologna, Renato Zangheri, introduced a new and innovative traffic plan with strict limitations for private vehicles and a renewed concentration on cheap public transport.
Bologna's social services continued to expand throughout mid-1970s. The city centre was restored, centres for the mentally sick were instituted to help those, released from closed psychiatric hospitals, handicapped persons were offered training and found suitable jobs, afternoon activities for schoolchildren were made less mindless than the traditional doposcuola and school programming for the whole day helped working parents. Communists administrations at a local level helped to aid new businesses while introducing innovative social reforms. In Naples, the PCI government under Mayor Maurizio Valenzi reduced the corruption in the affairs of local government and 333 kindergarten classrooms were opened between 1975 and 1979, compared to the 210, built in the previous 30 years; the Soviet Union's brutal suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 created a split within the PCI. The party leadership, includi
Philosophical Investigations is a work by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. It was first published posthumously in 1953. Wittgenstein discusses numerous problems and puzzles in the fields of semantics, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of action, philosophy of mind, putting forth the view that conceptual confusions surrounding language use are at the root of most philosophical problems. Wittgenstein alleges that the problems are traceable to a set of related assumptions about the nature of language, which themselves presuppose a particular conception of the essence of language; this conception is considered and rejected for being too general. This view can be seen to contradict or discard much of what he argued in his earlier work Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Philosophical Investigations is influential. Within the analytic tradition, the book is considered by many as being one of the most important philosophical works of the 20th century, it continues to influence contemporary philosophers those studying mind and language.
Wittgenstein begins the book with a quotation from Augustine of Hippo, whom he cites as a proponent of the generalized and limited conception that he summarizes: The individual words in language name objects—sentences are combinations of such names. In this picture of language we find the roots of the following idea: Every word has a meaning; this meaning is correlated with the word. It is the object, he sets out throughout the rest of the book to demonstrate the limitations of this conception, including, he argues, with many traditional philosophical puzzles and confusions that arise as a result of this limited picture. Philosophical Investigations was not ready for publication when Wittgenstein died in 1951. G. E. M. Anscombe translated Wittgenstein's manuscript into English, it was first published in 1953. There are multiple editions of Philosophical Investigations with the popular third edition and 50th anniversary edition having been edited by Anscombe: First Edition: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1953.
Second Edition: Blackwell Publishers, 1958. Third Edition: Prentice Hall, 1973. 50th Anniversary Edition: Blackwell Publishers, 2001. This edition includes the original German text in addition to the English translation. Fourth Edition: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009; the text is divided into two parts, consisting of what Wittgenstein calls, in the preface, translated by Anscombe as "remarks". In the first part, these remarks are more than a paragraph long and are numbered sequentially. In the second part, the remarks numbered using Roman numerals. In the index, remarks from the first part are referenced by their number rather than page; the comparatively unusual nature of the second part is due to the fact that it comprises notes that Wittgenstein may have intended to re-incorporate into the first part. Subsequent to his death it was published as a "Part II" in the first and third editions. However, in light of continuing uncertainty about Wittgenstein's intentions regarding this material, the fourth edition re-titles "Part I" as "Philosophical Investigations" proper, "Part II" as "Philosophy of Psychology – A Fragment."
In standard references, a small letter following a page, section, or proposition number indicates a paragraph. Philosophical Investigations is unique in its approach to philosophy. A typical philosophical text presents a philosophical problem and critiques various alternative approaches to solving it, presents its approach, argues in favour of that approach. In contrast, Wittgenstein's book treats philosophy as an activity, rather along the lines of Socrates's famous method of maieutics. Rather than presenting a philosophical problem and its solution, Wittgenstein engages in a dialogue, where he provides a language-game, that describes how one might be inclined to think about it, shows why that inclination suffers from conceptual confusion; the following is an excerpt from the first entry in the book that exemplifies this method:...think of the following use of language: I send someone shopping. I give him a slip marked'five red apples', he takes the slip to the shopkeeper, who opens the drawer marked'apples' he looks up the word'red' in a table and finds a colour sample opposite it.
Well, I assume. Explanations come to an end somewhere.—But what is the meaning of the word'five'? No such thing was in question here; this example is typical of the book's style. We can see each of the steps in Wittgenstein's method: The reader is presented with a use of language: someone is sent shopping with an order on a slip. Wittgenstein supplies the response of one or more imagined interlocutors, he may put these statements in quotes to distinguish them from his own: "But how does he know where and how he is to look up the word'red' and what he is to do with the
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age; the first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not conferred until 1951. The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209; the buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.
Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average; the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece; the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times; the earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.
Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae. The principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village; the fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill, it was converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is identified as Cair Grauth listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement expanded on both sides of the river; the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies; the first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It recognised the borough court; the distinctive Round Church dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford; the oldest existing college, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive; the town north of the river was affected being wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.
In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's pa
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. Sardinia is politically a region of Italy, whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna, enjoys some degree of domestic autonomy granted by a specific Statute, it is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the region's capital and its largest city. Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian. Due to the variety of its ecosystems, which include mountains, plains uninhabited territories, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, the island has been defined metaphorically as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have extolled the beauty of its untouched landscape, which houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization; the name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *srd- romanised as sardus.
It makes its first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdn testifies to the name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus, one of Plato's dialogues and its people as well might have been named after a legendary woman going by Sardò, born in Sardis, capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. There has been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples, it is suggested that the name had a religious connotation from its use as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god Sardus Pater, as well as being the stem of the adjective "sardonic". In Classical antiquity, Sardinia was called a number of names besides Sardò or Sardinia, like Ichnusa and Argirofleps. Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres, it is situated between 8 ° 8' and 9 ° 50' east longitude. To the west of Sardinia is the Sea of Sardinia, a unit of the Mediterranean Sea.
The nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Tunisia, the Balearic Islands, Provence. The Tyrrhenian Sea portion of the Mediterranean Sea is directly to the east of Sardinia between the Sardinian east coast and the west coast of the Italian mainland peninsula; the Strait of Bonifacio is directly north of Sardinia and separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. The coasts of Sardinia are high and rocky, with long straight stretches of coastline, many outstanding headlands, a few wide, deep bays, many inlets and with various smaller islands off the coast; the island has an ancient geoformation and, unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone. Its rocks date in fact from the Palaeozoic Era. Due to long erosion processes, the island's highlands, formed of granite, trachyte, basalt and dolomite limestone, average at between 300 to 1,000 metres; the highest peak is part of the Gennargentu Ranges in the centre of the island. Other mountain chains are Monte Limbara in the northeast, the Chain of Marghine and Goceano running crosswise for 40 kilometres towards the north, the Monte Albo, the Sette Fratelli Range in the southeast, the Sulcis Mountains and the Monte Linas.
The island's ranges and plateaux are separated by wide alluvial valleys and flatlands, the main ones being the Campidano in the southwest between Oristano and Cagliari and the Nurra in the northwest. Sardinia has few major rivers, the largest being the Tirso, 151 km long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas and the Flumendosa. There are 54 artificial dams that supply water and electricity; the main ones are Lake Coghinas. The only natural freshwater lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km of the coastline; the climate of the island is variable from area to area, due to several factors including the extension in latitude and the elevation. It can be classified in two different macrobioclimates, one macrobioclimatic variant, called Submediterranean, four classes of continentality, eight thermotypic horizons and seven ombrotypic horizons, resulting in a combination of 43 different isobioclimates. During the year there is a major concentration
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It