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Pierre Belon

Pierre Belon was a French traveler, naturalist and diplomat. Like many others of the Renaissance period, he studied and wrote on a range of topics including ichthyology, botany, comparative anatomy and Egyptology, he is sometimes known as Pierre Belon du Mans, or, in the Latin in which his works appeared, as Petrus Bellonius Cenomanus. Ivan Pavlov called him the "prophet of comparative anatomy". Belon was born in 1517 at the hamlet of Souletière near Cérans-Foulletourte, his family was not wealthy and as a boy, he worked as an apprentice at an apothecary at Foulletourte. He worked as an apothecary to the bishop of Clermont, Guillaume Duprat, he travelled through Flanders and England, taking a keen interest in zoology. When he returned to Auvergne, he was supported by René du Bellay, bishop of Le Mans, to study at the University of Wittenberg with the botanist Valerius Cordus, he travelled around Germany with Cordus and on his arrival at Thionville, was arrested on suspicions that he was a Lutheran.

He was released by the interventions of a certain Dehamme, an admirer of his friend from Paris, the poet Pierre Ronsard. Around 1542 he studied medicine at Paris, obtained a licentiate in medicine although he never took the degree of doctor. With the recommendation of Duprat, he became an apothecary to Cardinal François de Tournon. Under this patronage, he was able to undertake extensive scientific voyages. Starting in 1546, he travelled through Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt and Palestine, returned in 1549, he hoped to find the remains of Homer's Troy in the Levant. A full account of his Observations on this journey, with illustrations, was published in Paris, 1553. Returning to the household of Cardinal de Tournon at Rome for the Papal conclave, 1549-1550, Belon encountered the naturalists Guillaume Rondelet and Hippolyte Salviani, he began to publish. In 1557 he travelled again, this time in northern Italy, the Dauphiné and Auvergne. Belon was favored both by Henry II and by Charles IX, who accorded him lodging in the Château de Madrid in the Bois de Boulogne.

He was assassinated by thieves one evening in April 1564, when coming through the Bois on his return from Paris. Belon was typical of the renaissance scholar and took an interest in "all kinds of good disciplines" in his lifetime, he was interested in zoology and classical Antiquity. Besides the narrative of his travels he wrote several scientific works of considerable value, his first book was Histoire naturelle des estranges poissons and despite its title was a work on the dolphin. His second book, De aquatilibus expanded on the first and included a description of 110 species of fish, with illustrations, its French translation La nature et diversite des poissons Paris, 1555, was followed by an edition of 1560 and the volume was reprinted in Frankfurt and Zurich. His works were translated by Carolus Clusius, he was held in high authority by Ulisse Aldrovandi. In his L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux he included two figures of the skeletons of humans and birds marking the homologous bones; this is used as one of the earliest ideas on comparative anatomy.

All of the following were first published in Paris. 1551: L'histoire naturelle des estranges poissons marins, avec la vraie peincture & description du Daulphin, & de plusieurs autres de son espece. Observee par Pierre Belon du Mans. A Paris. 1551. 1553: De aquatilibus. Libri duo Cum eiconibus expressis. Parisiis, 1553. 1555: La nature et diversite des poissons avec leurs pourtraicts representez au plus pres du naturel. Paris, 1555. 1553: De arboribus Coniferis, Resiniferis aliisque semper virentibus... a basic text on conifers and evergreens. 1553 De admirabili operi antiquorum et rerum suspiciendarum praestantia... treating the funerary customs of Antiquity, in three volumes, of which separate titles head the second, on mummification and third. 1553: Les observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses memorables trouvées en Grèce, Judée, Arabie et autres pays étrangèrs. 1555: revised edition of the Observations. 1555: L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux. A genus in the plant family Gesneriaceae was named as Bellonia in his honour by Charles Plumier.

The saltwater fish genus Belone was named after him by the preeminent ichthyologist Georges Cuvier, along with the family and order it belongs to, Belonidae and Beloniformes respectively. A statue of Belon was erected at Le Mans in 1887. Citations Bibliography Works by or about Pierre Belon at Internet Archive L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux L'histoire naturelle des estranges poissons marins... Sketch of Pierre Belon Travels in the Levant: The Observations of Pierre Belon of Le Mans on Many Singularities and Memorable Things Found in Greece, Judaea, Egypt and Other Foreign Countries. Translated into English by James Hogarth, with an Introduction by Alexandra Merle. Hardinge Simpole Publishers, 2012

Port of Shanghai

The Port of Shanghai, located in the vicinity of Shanghai, comprises a deep-sea port and a river port. In 2010, Shanghai port overtook the Port of Singapore to become the world's busiest container port. Shanghai's port handled 29.05 million TEUs. In 2016, Shanghai port set a historic record by handling over 37 million TEUs; the Port of Shanghai faces the East China Sea to the east, Hangzhou Bay to the south. It includes the confluences of the Yangtze River, Huangpu River, Qiantang River; the Port of Shanghai is managed by Shanghai International Port which superseded the Shanghai Port Authority in 2003. Shanghai International Port Company Limited is a public listed company, of which the Shanghai Municipal Government owns 44.23 percent of the outstanding shares. During the Ming dynasty, what is now the city of Shanghai was a part of Jiangsu Province. While Shanghai had become a county seat in the Yuan dynasty, it remained a small town, its location at the mouth of the Yangtze River led to its development as coastal trade developed during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor in the Qing dynasty.

The port of Shanghai surpassed the port of Ningbo and the port of Guangzhou to become the largest port of China at the time. In 1842, Shanghai became a treaty port. By the early 20th century, it was the largest port in East Asia. In 1949, with the Communist takeover in Shanghai, overseas trade was cut dramatically; the economic policy of the People's Republic had a crippling effect on Shanghai's infrastructure and capital development. In 1991, the central government allowed Shanghai to initiate economic reform. Since the port of Shanghai has developed at an increasing pace. By 2005, the Yangshan deep water port was built on the Yangshan islands, a group of islands in Hangzhou Bay, linked to Shanghai by the Donghai Bridge; this development allowed the port to overcome shallow water conditions in its current location, to rival another deep-water port, the nearby Ningbo-Zhoushan port. The port of Shanghai includes 3 major working zones: Yangshan Deep Water Port Huangpu River Yangtze River The Port of Shanghai is a critically important transport hub for the Yangtze River region and the most important gateway for foreign trade.

It serves the Yangtze economically developed hinterland of Anhui, Jiangsu and Henan provinces with its dense population, strong industrial base and developed agricultural sector. Container transport SIPG, Shanghai International Port Co. Ltd

Amirreza Vakilifard

Amirreza Vakilifard was born in 1968 in Tehran, Iran. He obtained his Ph. D. in Education Sciences from the University of Montreal in Canada in 2007. He is the founding member of the first-ever Persian Language teaching department aimed at foreign learners in Iran, he has been teaching Persian language to foreign students since 1995 at the Imam Khomeini International University in Qazvin, Iran. He established the M. A. program in Persian Language Didactics at the IKIU since 2014 and has been teaching the above program at other Iranian universities, including Allameh Tabatabyi, Payam-e Noor since 2010. Dr. Vakilifard was the Deputy-Director of the Persian Language Center at IKIU from 1995 to 2002 and again from 2011 to 2013, he has been appointed as the Director of the Persian Language Center of the IKIU since 2013. In 2011, he established the "Journal of Teaching Persian to Speakers of Other Languages",Iran's first academic periodical in the field, in which he serves as Director-in-Charge and Editor-in-Chief.

Dr. Vakilifard is a frequent speaker at conferences and conducts regular workshops for Persian language teachers in Iran and abroad, he has produced over 50 books and articles in Persian and English. Many of his books and articles are in the field of learning and teaching Persian as a second language. Among his well-known books are: Persian Framework of Reference for teaching Persian to Speakers of Other Languages: Grammar and Functions for Elementary and Advanced Levels. In 2002, he received the award for the Excellent Researcher of the academic year 2002-2003 among the professors of the IKIU, Iran In 2012, he was chosen Distinguished Professor of the academic year 2011-2012 among the professors of the IKIU, Iran. In 2016, he once again received the award for the Excellent Researcher of the academic year 2014-2015 among the professors of IKIU, Iran. In 2017, Dr. Vakilifard was once again chosen Distinguished Professor of the academic year 2015-2016 among the professors of the IKIU, Iran

Samuel Broder

Samuel Broder is an American oncologist and medical researcher. He was a co-developer of some of the first effective drugs for the treatment of AIDS and was Director of the National Cancer Institute from 1989 to 1995. During the first years of the AIDS epidemic, he co-developed zidovudine and zalcitabine, which were the first effective drugs licensed for the treatment of AIDS. In 1989, he was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to be Director of the NCI. In this position he oversaw the development of a number of new therapies for cancer including paclitaxel. After leaving the NCI, Dr. Broder became Senior Vice President for Research and Development at the IVAX Corporation in Florida, a position he held until 1998 when he joined Celera Genomics, he is now Chief Medical Officer of Celera. He has received a number of honors for his work including the Arthur S. Flemming Award and the Leopold Griffuel Award. Dr. Broder's Bio at Celera NIH Oral History of Dr. Broder's role in developing AIDS drugs


Hymenagaricus is a genus of fungi in the family Agaricaceae. The widespread genus contains species found in tropical regions. Hymenagaricus was circumscribedby Belgian mycologist Paul Heinemann in 1981. Hymenagaricus alphitochrous Heinem. 1981 Hymenagaricus ardosiaecolor Heinem. 1985 Hymenagaricus caespitosus D. A. Reid & Eicker 1995 – Africa Hymenagaricus calicutensis Heinem. & Little Flower 1984 Hymenagaricus canoruber Heinem. & Little Flower 1984 Hymenagaricus cylindrocystis Heinem. & Little Flower 1984 Hymenagaricus epipastus Heinem. & Little Flower 1984 – Sri Lanka Hymenagaricus fuscobrunneus D. A. Reid & Eicker 1998 – South Africa Hymenagaricus hymenopileus Heinem. 1981 Hymenagaricus kivuensis Heinem. 1984 Hymenagaricus laticystis Heinem. 1985 Hymenagaricus nigrovinosus Heinem. 1981 Hymenagaricus nigroviolaceus Heinem. 1985 Hymenagaricus ochraceoluteus D. A. Reid & Eicker 1998 – South Africa Hymenagaricus olivaceus Heinem. 1985 Hymenagaricus pallidodiscus D. A. Reid & Eicker 1999 – South Africa Hymenagaricus rufomarginatus D.

A. Reid & Eicker 1998 – South Africa Hymenagaricus subaeruginosus Heinem. & Little Flower 1984 Hymenagaricus taiwanensis Zhu L. Yang, Z. W. Ge & C. M. Chen 2008 – Taiwan List of Agaricaceae genera List of Agaricales genera

La Purísima Mission State Historic Park

La Purísima Mission State Historic Park is a state park unit of California, United States, containing La Purísima Mission, considered to be the most restored Spanish mission in California. Ten of the original buildings are restored and furnished, including the church, shops and blacksmith shop; the mission gardens and livestock represent what would have been found at the mission during the 1820s. Special living history events are scheduled throughout the year. A visitor center features information and artifacts, a self-guided tour gives visitors the opportunity to step back in time for a glimpse of a brief, turbulent period in California's history. Located outside Lompoc, the 1,934-acre park was established in 1935. Misión de la Purísima Concepción de la Santísima Virgen María — "Mission of the Immaculate Conception of Most Holy Mary" — was founded by Father Presidente Fermin de Lasuén on December 8, 1787, it was the eleventh of 21 Franciscan Missions established in Alta California. A major earthquake on December 21, 1812, destroyed many of the mission buildings.

Father Mariano Payeras received permission to relocate the mission community 4 miles to the northeast in La Cañada de los Berros, next to El Camino Real. La Purísima Mission was established in its new location on April 23, 1813. Materials salvaged from the buildings destroyed by the earthquake were used to construct the new buildings, which were completed within ten years; the end of the California missions came in 1834, when the Mexican government, which had gained independence from Spain, transferred control of the missions from the Catholic Church to civil authorities. The property passed into private ownership and the mission buildings fell into ruin. In 1933 the Union Oil Company deeded several parcels to the State of California. Under direction of the National Park Service, the Civilian Conservation Corps restored or reconstructed many of the mission's adobe buildings. La Purísima Mission State Historic Park was one of many state parks threatened with closure in 2008; those closures were avoided by cutting hours and maintenance system-wide.

List of California state parks This article contains material from the California Department of Parks and Recreation which, unless otherwise indicated, is in the public domain. La Purísima Mission State Historic Park – California State Parks La Purisima Mission State Historic Park – Prelado de los Tesoros de la Purisima