Pierre Corneille

Pierre Corneille was a French tragedian. He is considered one of the three great seventeenth-century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine; as a young man, he earned the valuable patronage of Cardinal Richelieu, trying to promote classical tragedy along formal lines, but quarrelled with him over his best-known play, Le Cid, about a medieval Spanish warrior, denounced by the newly formed Académie française for breaching the unities. He continued to write well-received tragedies for nearly forty years. Corneille was born in Rouen, France, to Marthe Le Pesant and Pierre Corneille, a distinguished lawyer, his younger brother, Thomas Corneille became a noted playwright. He was given a rigorous Jesuit education at the Collège de Bourbon where acting on the stage was part of the training. At 18 he began to study law but his practical legal endeavors were unsuccessful. Corneille's father secured two magisterial posts for him with the Rouen department of Forests and Rivers. During his time with the department, he wrote his first play.

It is unknown when he wrote it, but the play, the comedy Mélite, surfaced when Corneille brought it to a group of traveling actors in 1629. The actors made it part of their repertoire; the play was a success in Paris and Corneille began writing plays on a regular basis. He moved to Paris in the same year and soon became one of the leading playwrights of the French stage, his early comedies, starting with Mélite, depart from the French farce tradition by reflecting the elevated language and manners of fashionable Parisian society. Corneille describes his variety of comedy as "une peinture de la conversation des honnêtes gens", his first true tragedy is Médée, produced in 1635. The year 1634 brought more attention to Corneille, he was selected to write verses for the Cardinal Richelieu’s visit to Rouen. The Cardinal selected him to be among Les Cinq Auteurs; the others were Guillaume Colletet, Jean Rotrou, Claude de L'Estoile. The five were selected to realize Richelieu's vision of a new kind of drama.

Richelieu would present ideas. However, the Cardinal's demands were too restrictive for Corneille, who attempted to innovate outside the boundaries defined by Richelieu; this led to contention between employer. After his initial contract ended, Corneille returned to Rouen. In the years directly following this break with Richelieu, Corneille produced what is considered his finest play. Le Cid is based on the play Mocedades del Cid by Guillem de Castro. Both plays were based on the legend of a military figure in Medieval Spain; the original 1637 edition of the play was subtitled a tragicomedy, acknowledging that it intentionally defies the classical tragedy/comedy distinction. Though Le Cid was an enormous popular success, it was the subject of a heated argument over the norms of dramatic practice, known as the "Querelle du Cid" or "The Quarrel of Le Cid". Cardinal Richelieu's Académie française acknowledged the play's success, but determined that it was defective, in part because it did not respect the classical unities of time and action.

The newly formed Académie was a body. Although it dealt with efforts to standardize the French language, Richelieu himself ordered an analysis of Le Cid. Accusations of immorality were leveled at the play in the form of a famous pamphlet campaign; these attacks were founded on the classical theory. The Académie's recommendations concerning the play are articulated in Jean Chapelain's Sentiments de l'Académie française sur la tragi-comédie du Cid; the prominent writer Georges de Scudéry harshly criticized the play in his Observations sur le Cid. The intensity of this "war of pamphlets" was heightened by Corneille's boastful poem Excuse À Ariste, in which he rambled and boasted about his talents, while Corneille claimed no other author could be a rival; these poems and pamphlets were made public, one after the other, as once "esteemed" playwrights traded slanderous blows. At one point, Corneille took several shots at criticizing author Jean Mairet's lineage. Scudéry, a close friend of Mairet at the time, did not stoop to Corneille's level of "distastefulness", but instead continued to pillory Le Cid and its violations.

Scudéry stated of Le Cid that, "almost all of the beauty which the play contains is plagiarized." This "war of pamphlets" influenced Richelieu to call upon the Académie française to analyze the play. In their final conclusions, the Academy ruled that though Corneille had attempted to remain loyal to the unity of time, "Le Cid" broke too many of the unities to be a valued piece of work; the controversy, coupled with the Academy's ruling proved too much for Corneille, who decided to return to Rouen. When one of his plays was reviewed unfavorably, Corneille was known to withdraw from public life, he remained publicly silent for some time.


Livarot-Pays-d'Auge is a commune in the department of Calvados, northwestern France. The municipality was established on 1 January 2016 by merger of the 22 former communes of Livarot, Les Autels-Saint-Bazile, Cerqueux, Cheffreville-Tonnencourt, La Croupte, Fervaques, Heurtevent, Le Mesnil-Bacley, Le Mesnil-Durand, Le Mesnil-Germain, Les Moutiers-Hubert, Notre-Dame-de-Courson, Préaux-Saint-Sébastien, Sainte-Marguerite-des-Loges, Saint-Martin-du-Mesnil-Oury, Saint-Michel-de-Livet, Saint-Ouen-le-Houx and Tortisambert. Communes of the Calvados department Media related to Livarot-Pays-d'Auge at Wikimedia Commons

Sigismund von Kollonitsch

Sigismund von Kollonitsch. He was raised in 1727 to the cardinalate by Pope Benedict XIII. Sigismund was a son of Ulrich von Kollonitsch and was supported by his uncle, the Cardinal Prince-Primate of Hungary and Archbishop of Gran, Leopold Karl von Kollonitsch. After attending the Jesuit Convocation in Neuhaus, he studied at the German College of Apollinaris in Rome and received his doctorate in theology. On 22 October 1699, he was ordained a priest a canon in Gran by 1700, was consecrated titular Bishop of Scutari. From 1705, he was a Royal Hungarian Councillor and, from 14 October 1709, Bishop of Waitzen, where he founded the Piarists. On 1 July 1716, he became the prince-bishop of Vienna. Together with Emperor Charles VI he petitioned Pope Clement XI to elevate Vienna to an archdiocese; the Prince-Bishop of Passau, Raymund Ferdinand von Rabatta, tried to prevent this, but on 6 March 1721, the Congregation in Rome agreed, on 1 June 1722, the decision of the Consistory of Cardinals followed. On 14 February 1723, was that of Pope Innocent XIII in signing the Papal Bull Suprema dispositione elevating Vienna.

Kollonitsch held the title of prince-archbishop, to whom the diocese of Wiener-Neustadt has been subordinated as suffragan. In 1729, the Viennese diocesan area was extended, when the area Under the Wienerwald was separated from the diocese of Passau, he was elevated to the cardinalate by Pope Benedict XIII on 26 November 1727, at the same time appointed cardinal-priest of Santi Marcellino e Pietro, in 1740 Kollonitsch changed to the titular church and became cardinal priest of San Crisogono. As early as 1747, he had been awarded the title Protector Germaniae by Emperor Francis I, he was a zealous bishop who demanded of his priests participation in annual retreats and the wearing of clerical clothing. In 1719, he introduced retreats for lay people, he increased the funds available for the creation of priests in St. Stephan. In 1727, he acquired a palace in Wien-Landstraße. In 1730, he conducted a general visitation of his diocese, he won the lawsuit with the cathedral chapter of St. Stephen, when the Pope gave him jurisdiction over the canons.

In return, he raised in 1728 the cathedral provost, Joseph Heinrich Braitenbücher, to Vicar-General and Auxiliary Bishop. Being the last of his family, he adopted in 1728 the son of the half-sister of his father Ladislaus Zay von Csömör, he appointed him heir to his dominions with the condition that he and all his descendants, with the complete omission of their former name and coat of arms, should be addressed only as Counts and Countesses von Kollonitsch. He is buried in the episcopal tomb of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. "Sigismund Graf von Kollonitz". Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. 12. Pp. 363–364. Ernst Tomek: Kirchengeschichte Österreichs. Tyrolia, Innsbruck – Wien – München 1935–59. Josef Wodka: Kirche in Österreich. Wegweiser durch ihre Geschichte. Herder, Wien 1959. Franz Loidl: Geschichte des Erzbistums Wien. Herold, Wien 1983. ISBN 3-7008-0223-4 Susanne Siebert. "Sigismund von Kollonitsch". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 4. Herzberg: Bautz.

Cols. 348–349. ISBN 3-88309-038-7. Sigismund von Kollonitsch in Austria-Forum "Sigismund Kollonitsch". David M. Cheney. Entry about Sigismund von Kollonitsch in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the history of the state of Lower Austria