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Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel". Born in Paris on 15 May 1859, Pierre Curie was the son of Eugene Curie, a doctor of French Huguenot Protestant origin from Alsace, Sophie-Claire Depouilly Curie, he was educated by his father and in his early teens showed a strong aptitude for mathematics and geometry. When he was 16, he earned his math degree. By the age of 18, he earned a higher degree, but did not proceed to a doctorate due to lack of money. Instead, he worked as a laboratory instructor; when Pierre Curie was preparing for his bachelor of science degree, he worked in the laboratory of Jean-Gustave Bourbouze in the Faculty of Science. In 1880, Pierre and his older brother Jacques demonstrated that an electric potential was generated when crystals were compressed, i.e. piezoelectricity.

To aid this work they invented the piezoelectric quartz electrometer. The following year they demonstrated the reverse effect: that crystals could be made to deform when subject to an electric field. All digital electronic circuits now rely on this in the form of crystal oscillators. In subsequent work on magnetism Pierre Curie defined the Curie scale; this work involved delicate equipment - balances, etc. Pierre Curie was introduced to Maria Skłodowska by physicist Józef Wierusz-Kowalski. Curie took her into his laboratory as his student, his admiration for her grew. He began to regard Skłodowska as his muse, she refused his initial proposal, but agreed to marry him on 26 July 1895. It would be a beautiful thing, a thing I dare not hope if we could spend our life near each other, hypnotized by our dreams: your patriotic dream, our humanitarian dream, our scientific dream; the Curies had a happy, affectionate marriage, they were known for their devotion to each other. Before his famous doctoral studies on magnetism, he designed and perfected an sensitive torsion balance for measuring magnetic coefficients.

Variations on this equipment were used by future workers in that area. Pierre Curie studied ferromagnetism and diamagnetism for his doctoral thesis, discovered the effect of temperature on paramagnetism, now known as Curie's law; the material constant in Curie's law is known as the Curie constant. He discovered that ferromagnetic substances exhibited a critical temperature transition, above which the substances lost their ferromagnetic behavior; this is now known as the Curie temperature. The Curie temperature is used to study plate tectonics, treat hypothermia, measure caffeine, to understand extraterrestrial magnetic fields. Pierre Curie formulated what is now known as the Curie Dissymmetry Principle: a physical effect cannot have a dissymmetry absent from its efficient cause. For example, a random mixture of sand in zero gravity has no dissymmetry. Introduce a gravitational field, there is a dissymmetry because of the direction of the field; the sand grains can'self-sort' with the density increasing with depth.

But this new arrangement, with the directional arrangement of sand grains reflects the dissymmetry of the gravitational field that causes the separation. Curie worked with his wife in isolating radium, they were the first to use the term "radioactivity", were pioneers in its study. Their work, including Marie Curie's celebrated doctoral work, made use of a sensitive piezoelectric electrometer constructed by Pierre and his brother Jacques Curie. Pierre Curie's 1898 publication with his wife Mme. Curie and with M. G. Bémont for their discovery of radium and polonium was honored by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society presented to the ESPCI ParisTech in 2015. Curie and one of his students, Albert Laborde, made the first discovery of nuclear energy, by identifying the continuous emission of heat from radium particles. Curie investigated the radiation emissions of radioactive substances, through the use of magnetic fields was able to show that some of the emissions were positively charged, some were negative and some were neutral.

These correspond to alpha and gamma radiation. The curie is a unit of radioactivity named in honor of Curie by the Radiology Congress in 1910, after his death. Subsequently, there has been some controversy over whether the naming was in honor of Pierre, Marie, or both. In the late nineteenth century, Pierre Curie was investigating the mysteries of ordinary magnetism when he became aware of the spiritualist experiments of other European scientists, such as Charles Richet and Camille Flammarion. Pierre Curie thought the systematic investigation into the paranormal could help with some unanswered questions about magnetism, he wrote to his fiancée Marie: "I must admit that those spiritual phenomena intensely interest me. I think they are questions that deal with physics." Pierre Curie's notebooks from this period show. He did not attend séances such as those of Eusapia Palladino in Paris in 1905–06 as a mere spectator

Cibes Lift

Cibes Lift is a manufacturer of low speed, screw-driven platform lifts for installation in public and private environments. The company's head office, sales and service offices are located in Gävle, Sweden. Platform lifts are an alternative to conventional elevators for lower lift heights; the company has three subsidiaries and 200 foreign distributors. During the 1950s, a manufacturing was started in Solna by chain-driven hoists with lift car for rated loads between 200 and 1000 kg. Manufacturing and sales amounted to approx. 30 lifts / year under the brand name Elektroborg. MSc Bertil Svedberg founded the company Cibes in 1947, took over the business Elektroborg during the 1950s. Stenfors Industries in Skillingaryd, contract manufactured in the mid-1960s, a housing adapted lift for disabled, the product consisted of a lift table with guardrails, Cibes handled the sales activities of the lift during the 1970s, developed the product and made it accessible for the use of wheelchairs; this lift was a pioneering product in the disability field, with a design where the car was driven with a screw rod, built on a tripod with legs.

This wheelchair lift had a design with inbuilt safety aspects as early as the late 1970s, was recommended in buildings by the Swedish Work Environment Authority. Thanks to Swedish social reforms and legislation, to increase the integration of disabled people in society, the sales increased throughout the 1980s. 1986 Cibes started to manufactured and product developed the platform lifts in Sweden. The export began in 1989, first to Finland and 1990 to Norway. 1991 Cibes Elevator AB was formed with sales and marketing.1992 Cibes Elevator AB moved to new and more suitable premises to meet the expected expansion. 1996 Sweden joined the European Community. The platform lift A5000 was certified for the EC market, exports began on a broad field and the company expanded rapidly. 1999 Cibes was one of the 24 European companies that founded the association European Platform and Stairlift Association. Website of Cibes Lift: Cibes is present in many other countries like: China: Thailand: Vietnam: Indonesia: Philippines: Hong Kong:

RepoblaciĆ³n art and architecture

The designation arte de repoblación was first proposed by José Camón Aznar in 1949 to replace the term Mozarabic as applied to certain works of architecture from the Christian kingdoms of northern Spain between the end of the 9th and beginning of the 11th centuries. Camón argued that these buildings were related stylistically to the architecture of Asturias and owed little to Andalusian styles. Moreover, since they were built by Christians living under Christian rule, neither were they Mozarabic. In Spanish historiography, the repoblación is the expansion of Christian settlement in the Duero basin and the Meseta Central in the 9th–10th centuries; the religious influences were inevitable given the presence of the Islamic state of the Caliph of Córdoba, developed culturally and economically. However, it had long been suggested that the monumental buildings in northern Spain from this period were crafted by the modest groups of Mozarabic immigrants that settled in the areas of repopulation when the living conditions in Muslim al-Andalus became difficult to bear.

As stated by professor Isidro Bango Torviso, suggesting that these immigrants were responsible for these buildings would be akin to suggesting that: when the Duero River Valley was repopulated under the auspices of the Asturian-Leonese kingdom, northerners settlers would have forsaken all their knowledge and experience and submitted themselves to the'very rich and demonstrated creative capacity' of poor, rural southern immigrants. The Art and Architecture of the Repoblación is identified as the third subset of the Hispanic Pre-Romanesque period, by the phases that correspond to the Visigothic art and Asturian art, its architecture is a summary of elements of diverse extraction, irregularly distributed, in such a way that on occasion elements of paleo-Christian, Visigothic or Asturian origin come to predominate, while at other times Muslim characteristics come to the fore. Some of the identifying characteristics of this Repoblación ecclesiastic architectural style are: Basilica or centralized plan.

Main chapel on a rectangular plan on the ultra-semicircular in the interior. Use of the horseshoe arch of Muslim derivation, somewhat more sloped than the Visigothic. Generalized use of the horseshoe arch alfiz. Use of the twin and triple windows of Asturian tradition. Roofs composed including traditional barrel vaults. Grouped columns forming composite pillars, with Corinthian capitals decorated with stylized elements and cinctures joining the capital to the columns. Walls re-enforced by exterior buttresses. Evolution of rafter ornaments to great lobed offsets that support pronounced eaves. Decoration similar to the Visigothic based on volutes and vegetable and animal themes forming projecting borders. A great command of the technique in construction, employing principally ashlar by width. Absence or sobriety of exterior decoration. Diversity in the floor plans, with small proportions and discontinuous spaces covered by cupolas; the most representative buildings of the genre are: Monastery of San Miguel de Escalada Hermitage of Santo Tomás de las Ollas Church of Santiago de Peñalba Church of Santa María de Wamba Church of San Cebrián de Mazote Monastery of San Román de Hornija Chapel of San Miguel, Celanova Hermitage of Santa Céntola y Santa Elena de Siero Hermitage of Santa Cecilia de Barriosuso Church of Santa María, Retortillo Hermitage of San Juan Bautista de Barbadillo del Mercado Church of San Vicente del Valle Tower of Doña Urraca, in Covarrubias Church of Santa María, Lebeña Hermitage of San Román de Moroso, Arenas de Iguña Hermitage of San Baudelio de Berlanga, Caltojar Monastery of San Juan de la Peña, Jaca Church of San Pedro de Lárrede Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla Monastery of San Salvador de Tábara Church of Sant Cristòfol, Cabrils Church of Sant Julià de Boada Church of Santa Maria de Matadars Spain in the Middle Ages Reconquista Bango Torviso, Isidro G. "Arquitectura de la decima centuria: ¿Repoblación o mozárabe?"

Goya: Revista de arte 122, pp. 68–75. Bango Torviso, Isidro G. "Arquitectura de repoblación", pp. 167–216. In Javier Rivera Blanco, Francisco Javier de la Plaza Santiago and Simón Marchán Fiz, Historia del arte de Castilla y León, Vol. 1, Edad Antigua y arte prerrománico. Valladolid, 1994. Camón Aznar, J. "Arquitectura española del siglo X: Mozárabe y de la repoblación". Goya: Revista de arte 52, pp. 206–19. Canellas López, Ángel. Rutas románicas de Aragón. Madrid, 1996. Martínez Tejera, Artemio Manuel. "El contraábside en la arquitectura de la repoblación: el grupo castellano-leonés", pp. 57–76. III Curso de Cultura Medieval. Seminario: Repoblación y Reconquista. Madrid, 1993. Martínez Tejera, Artemio Manuel. "La arquitectura cristiana hispánica de los siglos IX y X en el Regnum Astur-leonés". Argutorio 14, pp. 9–12 Monedero Bermejo, Miguel Ángel. La arquitectura de la repoblación en la provincia de Cuenca. Cuenca, 1982. Moreno, Manuel Gómez. Iglesias mozárabes'. Madrid, 1917. Utrero Agudo, María de los Ángeles.


Archizoom Associati

Archizoom Associati was a design studio from Florence, Italy founded in 1966. The group that founded the studio consists of Andrea Branzi, Gilberto Corretti, Paolo Deganello and Massimo Morozzi. Archizoom organized his first exhibition called "Superachitettura" in December 1966 along with the group Superstudio; the exhibition featured colorful projections and prototypes handled the concept of radical anti-design as dynamic sofa Superonda produced by the company Poltronova. During 1967 Archizoom still Remained in the exhibitions as "Super Architettura 2" and "Modena" that brought the concept of kitsch dorms titled "dream beds"; the next few years until its dissolution in 1974, the group was in projects of modernist vision as the theoretical diffuse metropolis "No-Stop City" which featured the formulation of flexible interior products and places that are directed to a practice polychronic environment and constant construction activities in the city itself. The team produced a rich series of projects in design and large scale urban visions, a work, still a fundamental source of inspiration for generations to come.

Together with Superstudio, Archizoom invented "Superarchitecture", endorsing creative processes along the lines of Pop in architectural and design development, exemplified by objects such as the "Superonda"-sofa, which invites unconventional postures by its waved shape. The Dream Beds and Gazebos are results of "Superarchitecture" transformed into a productive system, which by the creation of eclectic objects and kitsch, undertakes the critical destruction of functionalist heritage and the spatial concept of the modern movement. Media art net Archizoom Exhibition at EPFL, Switzerland

2004 Canadian Figure Skating Championships

The 2004 Canadian Figure Skating Championships were the Canadian Figure Skating Championships of the 2003–04 season. They are a figure skating national championship held annually to determine the national champions of Canada, it is organized by the nation's figure skating governing body. Skaters competed at the senior and junior levels in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dancing; the results of this competition were used to pick the Canadian teams to the 2004 World Figure Skating Championships, the 2004 World Junior Figure Skating Championships, the 2004 Four Continents Figure Skating Championships. The 2004 Canadian Championships were held in Edmonton, Alberta on January 5–11, 2004. Due to the large number of competitors, the senior men's and senior ladies' qualifying was split into two groups. 2004 Canadian Championships

The Challenge (1970 film)

The Challenge is a 1970 made-for-television movie starring Darren McGavin and Mako. Director George McCowan chose to hide his involvement by using the pseudonym Alan Smithee; this was the last film appearance of Paul Lukas. An American orbital weapons platform crashes in an uninhabited area of the Pacific. An unnamed Asian country arrives first; the platform would allow any country to threaten the US from space. While the US has an overwhelming advantage in force, the country is allied with China, which the US does not want to aggravate; the Chinese government does not want to enter a full-scale war, but neither do they want to lose face. They agree to settle the matter with a "surrogate" war, fought by a single representative of each country. General Lewis Meyers is opposed to the proposal. American agents track down and bring back Jacob Gallery from a Latin American country, where he is a guide on a big game hunt. Meyers is familiar with Gallery, court-martialed during the Vietnam War for hunting Viet Cong sentries at night and keeping trophies of his kills.

During one such unauthorized nightly expedition, his unit was wiped out. Meyers wants to send Bryant, a Marine Captain who respects authority, but the Secretary wants to send someone whose disregard for rules and procedures is more to produce victory. A small tropical island is selected for the battle, its inhabitants relocated to Guam. Gallery reluctantly agrees to the assignment after demanding $1 million in advance, he is put through a training program and given a selection of weapons, including a pair of Madsen submachine guns bolted together that fires regular ammunition and a birdshot rounds. He is warned that the greatest threat on the island is fungi, which can infect any wound. A former resident of the island advises Gallery on. Gallery is sent on his way from a surfaced submarine at the same time his adversary is sent. After his first encounter with Yuro, he sets up his base inside a hidden cave, he begins forcing Yuro to the last one. When Yuro goes to the pond, Gallery ambushes him. Yuro not before being wounded.

Gallery booby traps it with a grenade. But Yuro had set razor blades in the tree trunk. On the submarine, Meyers arrives and unveils his plan to secretly send Bryant since Gallery has not been successful after four days. In the now-abandoned village, a feverish Gallery sets traps. Gallery escapes and makes his way to the beach with Yuro in pursuit. Hearing his name, he peeks around rocks to see Bryant holding Yuro at gunpoint. Bryant tells Gallery to kill Yuro and be a hero. Yuro runs off. Making his way back to his cave, Gallery comes upon one of Yuro's countrymen, hanging dead in one of Yuro's tree snares, signaling betrayal from both countries. Resting in his cave, he hears Yuro beseeching him to forsake the treacherous country that sent a second man against the rules. Yuro is pointing his gun at the cave. Gallery empties his magazine into the greenery, he takes out his transmitter to proclaim victory, but decides against it, throwing it away before succumbing to his infection. Darren McGavin as Jacob Gallery Broderick Crawford as Gen. Lewis Meyers Mako as Yuro James Whitmore as Overman Skip Homeier as Lyman George Paul Lukas as Dr. Nagy Sam Elliott as Bryant, Gallery's unwanted help Adolph Caesar as Clarence Opano Andre Philippe as Swiss official Arianne Ulmer as Sarah This made-for-television film was made at the height of the Vietnam war.

Critic Steven Puchalski suggests. The original director, Joseph Sargent, left the production after conflicts with the producer during editing. George McCowan took over the direction. Says Puchalski, "it's hard to understand why in this case, since The Challenge is a tightly-wound lesson about the stupidity and futility of warfare." List of American films of 1970 The Challenge on IMDb The Challenge at AllMovie