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Pierre de Coubertin

Charles Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educator and historian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, its second President. He is known as the father of the modern Olympic Games. Born into a French aristocratic family, he became an academic and studied a broad range of topics, most notably education and history, he graduated with a degree in public affairs Paris Institute of Political Studies. It was at Sciences Po; the Pierre de Coubertin medal is an award given by the International Olympic Committee to athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in the Olympic Games. Pierre de Frédy was born in Paris on 1 January 1863, into an aristocratic family, he was the fourth child of Baron Charles Louis de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin and Marie–Marcelle Gigault de Crisenoy. Family tradition held that the Frédy name had first arrived in France in the early 15th century, the first recorded title of nobility granted to the family was given by Louis XI to an ancestor named Pierre de Frédy, in 1477.

But other branches of his family tree delved further into French history, the annals of both sides of his family included nobles of various stations, military leaders and associates of kings and princes of France. His father Charles was a staunch royalist and accomplished artist whose paintings were displayed and given prizes at the Parisian salon, at least in those years when he was not absent in protest of the rise to power of Louis Napoleon, his paintings centred on themes related to the Roman Catholic Church and nobility, which reflected those things he thought most important. In a semi-fictional autobiographical piece called Le Roman d'un rallié, Coubertin describes his relationship with both his mother and his father as having been somewhat strained during his childhood and adolescence, his memoirs elaborated further, describing as a pivotal moment his disappointment upon meeting Henri, Count of Chambord, whom the elder Coubertin believed to be the rightful king. Coubertin grew up in a time of profound change in France: France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the Paris Commune, the establishment of the French Third Republic, the Dreyfus affair.

But while these events were the setting of his childhood, his school experiences were just as formative. In October 1874, his parents enrolled him in a new Jesuit school called Externat de la rue de Vienne, still under construction for his first five years there. While many of the school's attendees were day students, Coubertin boarded at the school under the supervision of a Jesuit priest, which his parents hoped would instill him with a strong moral and religious education. There, he was among the top three students in his class, was an officer of the school's elite academy made up of its best and brightest; this suggests that despite his rebelliousness at home, Coubertin adapted well to the strict rigors of a Jesuit education. As an aristocrat, Coubertin had a number of career paths from which to choose, including prominent roles in the military or politics, but he chose instead to pursue a career as an intellectual and writing on a broad range of topics, including education, history and sociology.

The subject which he seems to have been most interested in was education, his study focused in particular on physical education and the role of sport in schooling. In 1883, he visited England for the first time, studied the program of physical education instituted by Thomas Arnold at the Rugby School. Coubertin credited these methods with leading to the expansion of British power during the 19th century and advocated their use in French institutions; the inclusion of physical education in the curriculum of French schools would become an ongoing pursuit and passion of Coubertin's. Coubertin is thought to have exaggerated the importance of sport to Thomas Arnold, whom he viewed as "one of the founders of athletic chivalry"; the character-reforming influence of sport with which Coubertin was so impressed is more to have originated in the novel Tom Brown's School Days rather than in the ideas of Arnold himself. Nonetheless, Coubertin was an enthusiast in need of a cause and he found it in England and in Thomas Arnold.

"Thomas Arnold, the leader and classic model of English educators," wrote Coubertin, "gave the precise formula for the role of athletics in education. The cause was won. Playing fields sprang up all over England". Intrigued by what he had read about English public schools, in 1883, at the age of twenty, Frédy went to Rugby and to other English schools to see for himself, he described the results in a book, L'Education en Angleterre, published in Paris in 1888. This hero of his book is Thomas Arnold, on his second visit in 1886, Coubertin reflected on Arnold's influence in the chapel at Rugby School. What Coubertin saw on the playing fields of Rugby and the other English schools he visited was how "organised sport can create moral and social strength". Not only did organised games help to set the mind and body in equilibrium, it prevented the time being wasted in other ways. First developed by the ancient Greeks, it was an approach to education that he felt the rest of the world had forgotten and to whose revival he was to dedicate the rest of his life.

As a historian and a thinker on education, Coubertin romanticised ancient Greece. Thus, when he began to develop his theory of physical education, he looked to the example set by the Athenian i

Kevin Borland

Kevin Borland was an Australian post-war Architect. His career saw works evolve from an International Modernist stance into a Regionalist aesthetic for which he became most recognized. Much of his significant works were composed of raw materials and considered ‘Brutalist’ typifying Borland’s renowned motto ‘architecture is not for the faint-hearted’. Borland died in 2000 leaving a legacy of work throughout New South Wales and Tasmania. From 1938 to 1941 Borland attended University High School and at age 15 was offered a job as office hand at the studio of Best Overend, a pioneer of modernist architecture in Melbourne; that same year he began part-time tuition at the Melbourne Technical College studying Building Construction and Geometrical Drawing. In 1944 Borland attended first year of a Bachelor of Architecture degree at the University of Melbourne before withdrawing to join the Royal Australian Naval Reserve, serving in WWII from July 1945 to January 1947. Upon return Borland recommenced studies under the newly appointed tutors Roy Grounds and Robin Boyd.

During these years Borland was an active member of the University branch of the CPA and the Melbourne University Labor Club. Borland’s belief in an idealistic society of economic and social equality was intensified by his experiences at war and remained prevalent throughout his career and life. Borland received the Illuminating Engineers Society Student Award for Light in Architecture in 1949 and in 1950 graduated with second class honours in Town Planning. During 1951 and 1952 Borland worked for ‘the Age’ Royal Victorian Institute of Architects Small Homes Service under former tutors Robin Boyd and Neil Clerehan; the service aimed to supply the general public with modest affordable architect-designed homes. Through the service Borland obtained his first two major domestic commissions; the second of these was the Rice House, which used an innovative method of chicken wire reinforced concrete shells in a lightweight form of slender vaulting roofs. The design reflects Borland’s improvisation of medium, a deep sense of Humanism, which he carried on throughout his career.

Borland’s first public building, in collaboration with John and Phyllis Murphy, Peter McIntyre and engineering consultant Bill Irwin - the Olympic Swimming Stadium in Melbourne - precedes many collaborative projects for large institutional buildings. The scheme’s expression of primary structure reveals an idea of the interdependency of all building components. 1957 saw the beginning of the Borland & Trewenack practice which received recognition for works such as Mcarthy House, Stein House, Preshil Hall. After 8 years Borland established an independent practice, over the next decade became recognized, receiving numerous accolades for both residential and public commissions. RAIA Victorian Architectural Medal for Outstanding Building, 1972. School Hall at Preshil, Kew. RAIA Victorian Chapter, Citation in the Public Buildings category, 1969. Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Centre, Glen Iris. RAIA Victorian Chapter House of the Year, 1972. Paton House, Portsea. RAIA Victorian Chapter, Bronze Medal in category ‘House of the Year’, 1974.

Nichols House, Eltham. RAIA Victorian Chapter, Citation, 1974. Crossman Flats, Launching Place. RAIA Victorian Chapter, Citation, 1977. New Gordon House, South Melbourne. RAIA Victorian Chapter, Citation, 1978. Mount Eliza North Primary School. RAIA Tasmanian Chapter declared among the ten notable Tasmanian buildings of 1980. Fitzgerald House, Tasmania RAIA Victorian Chapter House of the Year, 1984. Roger Evans Residence, Queenscliff. RAIA Victorian Chapter award for Outstanding Architecture in residential alterations, 1991. Borland Residence, Newport Dulux Colour Award for Residential Building and ‘Belle’ magazine Colorbond Steel Award, 1994. 10 x 1 bedroom housing units for Ministry of Housing, Collingwood. "By Design:changing Australian Housing, Melbourne" John Baird. AE Press. 1984. P44 "Kevin Borland. RMIT Publishing. 2006. RMIT research page Kevin Borland and the Two Strands of Modernism E Melbourne

Peter Moon (comedian)

Peter Moon is an Australian comedian, best known for writing and performing in the sketch comedy Fast Forward. Moon was born in Victoria. On Fast Forward, his characters were oafish sidekicks to more dominant characters played by Steve Vizard, including Barry the advertising executive and Abdul the Persian carpet salesman. Moon appeared in one of the show's best-known parodies, of the Kung Fu television series, as the "very unattractive" Soviet newsreader Victor with Jane Turner as Svetta. After Fast Forward, Moon worked as a writer and occasional guest performer on its successor, Full Frontal, various other comedy series alongside other Fast Forward alumni. In 1995 Moon joined the 2Day FM Morning Crew breakfast radio show, co-hosting alongside Wendy Harmer. For 8 years this was the highest rating FM Breakfast show in Sydney, until animosity between the two hosts led to him being axed in 2002; the new duo of Greg Fleet and Harmer rated poorly and Morning Crew was taken off air at the end of the following year.

Moon played Samuel Marsden in the historical sit-com Bligh, appeared in Bill Bennett's Film The Nugget. Since Moon has been developing film and television projects and making occasional appearances in shows such as 20 to 1 and Let Loose Live, he wrote and appeared in The Comedy Channel's sitcom Whatever Happened To That Guy?, loosely based on his post-fame life. He is the treasurer of the Australian Writers Guild, he has three children. In 2010, Moon joined the cast of Neighbours on a recurring basis as theatre producer Terry Kearney. Snow: The Movie Peter Moon on IMDb