La Vie de Marianne
La Vie de Marianne is an unfinished novel by Pierre de Marivaux and illustrated by Jakob van der Schley. The novel was written in sections, eleven of which appeared between 1731 and 1745. A Continuation was produced by Madame Riccoboni. Maria Rosaria Ansalone, Una Donna, una vita, un romanzo: saggio su “La Vie de Marianne” di Marivaux, Fasano: Schena, 1985. Patrick Brady, Structuralist perspectives in criticism of fiction: essays on Manon Lescaut and La Vie de Marianne, Bern. Patrick Brady, Rococo Style versus enlightenment novel: with essays on Lettres persanes, La Vie de Marianne, Candide, La Nouvelle Héloïse, Le Neveu de Rameau, Slatkine, 1984. Peter Brooks, The Novel of worldliness. J.: Princeton University Press, 1969. David Coward, Marivaux, La Vie de Marianne and Le paysan parvenu, London: Grant & Cutler, 1982. Anne Deneys-Tunney, Écritures du corps: de Descartes à Laclos, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1992 ISBN 978-2-13-044216-5. Béatrice Didier, La Voix de Marianne: essai sur Marivaux, Paris: J. Corti, 1987 ISBN 978-2-7143-0229-8.
Annick Jugan, Les Variations du récit dans La Vie de Marianne de Marivaux, Paris: Klincksieck, 1978. Marie-Paule Laden, Self-imitation in the eighteenth-century novel, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1987 ISBN 978-0-691-06705-6. Leo Spitzer, Alban K. Forcione, Herbert Samuel Lindenberger, et al. Representative essays, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988 ISBN 978-0-8047-1367-2. Theodore E. D. Braun, John A. McCarthy, Disrupted patterns: on chaos and order in the Enlightenment, Amsterdam. Nancy K. Miller, The Heroine's text: readings in the French and English novel, 1722-1782, New York: Columbia University Press, 1980 ISBN 978-0-231-04910-8. Annie Rivara, Les Sœurs de Marianne: suites, variations, 1731-1761, Voltaire Foundation, Oxford, 1991 ISBN 978-0-7294-0413-6. Philip Stewart, Half-told tales: Dilemmas of meaning in three French novels, Chapel Hill: U. N. C. Dept. of Romance Languages, 1987 ISBN 978-0-8078-9232-9. Loïc Thommeret, La Mémoire créatrice. Essai sur l’écriture de soi au XVIIIe siècle, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2006, ISBN 978-2-296-00826-7.
Arnold L. Weinstein, Fictions of the self, 1550-1800, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1981 ISBN 978-0-691-06448-2. English translations, Internet Archive
History of Auvergne
The history of the Auvergne dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France. It was the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne. Auvergne was a province of France deriving its name from the Arverni, a Gallic tribe who once occupied the area, well known for its fierce resistance, led by Vercingetorix, to conquest by the Roman Empire. Christianized by Saint Austremoine, Auvergne was quite prosperous during the Roman period. After a short time under the Visigoths, it was conquered by the Franks in 507. During the earlier medieval period, Auvergne was a county within the duchy of Aquitaine and as such part of the "Angevin Empire" until the 13th century. In 1225, Louis VIII of France granted Auvergne to his third son Alfonso. On Alfonso's death in 1271, along with the County of Toulouse and the Comtat Venaissin, reverted to the royal domain; the Middle Ages the 10th to 13th centuries, were a period of great development for Auvergne, with the building of famous abbeys and churches in a Romanesque style.
In 1095, the historic Council of Clermont was held to rally support for the First Crusade. Its wide autonomy was ended by King Philippe-Auguste of France, who linked it to the royal possessions. Hardly impacted by the Hundred Years' War, the religion wars and epidemics, integrated to the kingdom of France, it turned itself more and more into an agricultural province, although reputed for its products. In 1790, the historical province was divided into the modern-day départements of Puy-de-Dôme, Haute-Loire, Allier, although Haute-Loire and Allier include some land from the historical provinces of Bourbonnais and Velay; the region is famed for its charcuterie, celebrated in "La Mangona" festivals in many Auvergnat villages, for its cheeses, for its mineral waters. Michelin tires are produced there. Auvergne is the site of several major hydroelectric projects located on the Dordogne, Cère, Truyère rivers; the region is quite touristic, thanks to its landscapes. Auvergnat, a variety of the Occitan language, was spoken in the Auvergne.
It is still spoken there. Aubrac oxen, a rare breed, are raised in the Aubrac hills; the Auvergne emigrants, together with other Aveyron and Italian emigrants influenced the Parisian Bal-musette music. Composer Joseph Canteloube based Songs of the Auvergne, his well-known piece for voice and orchestra, on folk music and songs from the Auvergne. Singer-songwriter Georges Brassens composed Chanson pour l'Auvergnat. Composer Camille Saint-Saëns composed Rhapsodie d'Auvergne in 1884, based upon folk songs from the Auvergne. Vercingetorix, King of the Arverni, leader of the Gallic resistance against Julius Caesar. Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, born in Auvergne, was a national hero in both France and the United States for his roles in the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolution. Pierre-Andre Coffinhal, Jacobin leader and vice-president of the Revolutionary Tribunal, was born in Auvergne. A close friend of Robespierre, he was executed following the events of the 9 Thermidor. Jean-Baptiste Carrier was a French Revolutionary born at Yolet in Auvergne.
He was famous for his brutality towards his enemies. In 1794, he was guillotined upon the conviction of the National Convention. Sylvester II, pope and scholar, born Gerbert of Aurillac, a significant player in the transition from the Carolingians to the Capetians; the Dalfi d'Alvernha or Dauphin d'Auvergne and patron of troubadours, Count of Clermont and Montferrand Joseph Canteloube, French composer. Guy Debord and leader of the Situationist International, acquired a country house in the region in 1975, where he lived until committing suicide there in 1994. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of France, although not born in the Auvergne, was educated in Clermont-Ferrand and represented it in the National Assembly. Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of France and of the Vichy French regime, was born near Clermont-Ferrand, although he made his political career in Paris. Blaise Pascal, inventor, Christian apologist Audrey Tautou, internationally successful French actress, was born and raised in Auvergne: her surname is Occitan.
Lestat de Lioncourt Gabrielle de Lioncourt Nicolas de Lenfent Philippe Charboneau Philip Kent.
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though novelists write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they continue to be published, although few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work. Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, this shapes the content of their works. Public reception of a novelist's work, the literary criticism commenting on it, the novelists' incorporation of their own experiences into works and characters can lead to the author's personal life and identity being associated with a novel's fictional content. For this reason, the environment within which a novelist works and the reception of their novels by both the public and publishers can be influenced by their demographics or identity.
Some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, romance or historical novels. While many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires and commentators ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers. Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to novel writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality "truthfully". Novelist is a term derivative from the term "novel" describing the "writer of novels"; the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes other definitions of novelist, first appearing in the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to either "An innovator. However, the OED attributes the primary contemporary meaning of "a writer of novels" as first appearing in the 1633 book "East-India Colation" by C. Farewell citing the passage "It beeing a pleasant observation to note the order of their Coaches and Carriages.. As if it had bin the spoyles of a Tryumph leading Captive, or a preparation to some sad Execution" According to the Google Ngrams, the term novelist first appears in the Google Books database in 1521.
The difference between professional and amateur novelists is the author's ability to publish. Many people take up novel writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they will try to get it published; the publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers. Self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer. In these settings, unlike the more traditional publishing industry, activities reserved for a publishing house, like the distribution and promotion of the book, become the author's responsibility; the rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive and a realistic way for authors to realize income. Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity.
Some communities encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, that vary from author to author. For example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50,000-word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works. In the 2010 event, over 200,000 people took part – writing a total of over 2.8 billion words. Novelists don't publish their first novels until in life. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age. For example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, at sixteen completed his first novel, "The Hungarian Lift-Jet", about international arms dealers, "in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book". However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the controversial The Wasp Factory in 1984; the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist. An important writers' juvenilia if not published, is prized by scholars because it provides insight into an author's biography and approach to writing.
Novelists publish as early as their teens. For example, Patrick O'Brian published his first novel, Caesar: The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Barbara Newhall Follett's The House Without Windows, was accepted and published in 1927 when she was 13 by the Knopf publishing house and earned critical acclaim from the New York Times, the Saturday Review, H. L. Mencken; these works will achieve popular success as well. For example, though Christopher Paolini's Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks. First-time novelists of any age find themselves unable to get works published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author and the economic realities of publishers. Authors mus
Les Fausses Confidences
Les Fausses Confidences is a three-act comedy in prose by the French playwright Pierre de Carlet de Chamberlain de Marivaux. It was first performed on the 16 March 1737 by the actors of the Comédie Italienne at the Hotel de Bourgogne, Paris; this play explores the idea of deceiving someone in order to make them fall in love, a theme which has always been popular with playwrights and which had figured in several of Marivaux’s earlier plays. Despite its well-devised plot, likeable characters and interesting comic situations, this play did not at first receive the success it merited. However, when it was taken up again, this time by the Théâtre-Français in 1793, it received a much more favourable reception. Araminte, a rich widow and daughter of Madame Argante Dorante, nephew of Monsieur Rémy Monsieur Rémy, lawyer and uncle of Dorante Madame Argante, mother of Araminte Arlequin, Araminte's valet Dubois, Dorante's former valet, now in the service of Araminte Marton, Araminte's servant and companion Count Dorimont, Araminte's suitor Dorante, a young man of good family, finds himself financially ruined.
His former valet, Dubois, is now in the service of an attractive young widow and, seeing that his former master is in love with her, plans a scheme to make her marry him. He tells Dorante to use his connection to Monsieur Rémy, to introduce himself into the house and take on the role of steward. All the action is driven by Dubois, who sets in motion a foolproof strategy for making Araminte fall in love with Dorante. From the start, Araminte is attracted by his distinguished air and agreeable manners, so she hires him, she is involved in legal proceedings with Count Dorimont, keen to marry her in order to end the case, which he is worried about losing. She herself has no desire to marry the Count and asks Dorante to examine the documents to see if she has any chance of winning. Monsieur Rémy decides that Dorante would do well to marry Araminte's companion and protégée, she would thereby receive 1000 livres, which the Count has promised her as a gift if he marries Araminte. Marton tries to show Dorante.
Although this is not part of Dubois’ plot, it can only help his plan along since Marton’s interest in Dorante is to make Araminte jealous. Meanwhile, Araminte's mother, an ambitious woman and dreams of seeing her daughter become a countess, orders Dorante to tell Araminte that she will lose her case, leaving her with no other choice but to marry the Count. However, Dorante refuses to take any part in this and Araminte, hearing what has happened, congratulates him on his integrity. Dubois interrupts this conversation and pretends to be surprised to see Dorante, while Dorante feigns embarrassment at being seen. Left alone with Dubois, Araminte asks for some information about her new steward, he tells her that he is the most honest man in the world, well-educated and distinguished, but that he has one folly: he is in love. Several advantageous matches have been proposed to him, all of which he has refused because of this mad infatuation; when Araminte asks Dubois if he knows the person who has inspired such passion, he confides that it is she herself.
She is astonished, but deeply touched. Although she tells herself that she should not keep her steward now she is aware of his feelings for her, she cannot make up her mind to send him away and decides to wait a little while. Dorante advises Araminte to take the Count to court. Monsieur Rémy arrives to suggest a rich marriage for his nephew, is irritated when he refuses; the unfortunate Marton believes. At this point, a mysterious portrait is delivered to Araminte's house, Marton is sure that she is the subject. However, when Araminte opens the box in the presence of her mother and the Count, they all discover that it is a portrait not of Marton but of her. Araminte learns from Dubois that the idea of marrying Dorante to Marton has come from Monsieur Rémy, that the portrait has indeed been painted by Dorante. Araminte therefore decides to set a trap for him, she makes him write a letter to the Count. Dorante is troubled and worried, suspecting a trap, reveals nothing of his own feelings. Marton arrives to announce that she is ready to marry him: he explains to Araminte that he cannot go through with this as he loves someone else.
As he does not want to say who, she opens the box with the portrait, he throws himself at her feet to ask for her forgiveness. Araminte afterwards tells Dubois that he has not declared himself. Marton, having seen that Dorante has no interest in her, steals a letter; this letter, which Dorante has written at Dubois’ own instigation, tells an imaginary recipient of his passion for Araminte and his desire to flee out of shame for having offended her. Madame Argante tries one last time to persuade her daughter to send Dorante away and argues with Monsieur Rémy, furious that she is treating his amiable nephew as an impertinent upstart. Marton, who sees the letter as the ideal vengeance, makes the Count read it aloud in the presence of all the protagonists. Since this letter’s aim was to make Dorante's passion public, he does not deny it. Araminte sends everyone away, she reproaches Dubois for having betrayed his former master and promises her friendship to Marton who comes to ask forgiveness. Having accepted Dorantes request that he might come and say goodbye to her, she ends up admitting that she loves him.
He confesses that most of what she has been told was false, that Dubois arranged the whole scheme. The only things
Louis-Michel van Loo
Louis-Michel van Loo was a French painter. He studied under his father, the painter Jean-Baptiste van Loo, at Turin and Rome, he won a prize at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris in 1725. With his uncle, the painter Charles-André van Loo, he went to Rome in 1727–1732, in 1736 he became court painter to Philip V of Spain at Madrid, where he was a founder-member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in 1752, he returned to Paris in 1753, painted many portraits of Louis XV of France. In 1765 he succeeded Charles-André as director of the special school of the French academy known as the École Royale des Élèves Protégés. In 1766 he made the portrait of Marquis of Pombal. Among his brothers were the painters François van Loo and Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra