Samuel Michael Fuller was an American screenwriter and film director known for low-budget, understated genre movies with controversial themes made outside the conventional studio system. Fuller wrote his first screenplay for Hats Off in 1936, made his directorial debut with the Western I Shot Jesse James, he would continue to direct several other Westerns and war thrillers throughout the 1950s. Fuller shifted from Westerns and war thrillers in the 1960s with his low-budget thriller Shock Corridor in 1963, followed by the neo-noir The Naked Kiss, he was inactive in filmmaking for most of the 1970s, before writing and directing the war epic The Big Red One, the experimental White Dog, whose screenplay he co-wrote with Curtis Hanson. Samuel Michael Fuller was born in Massachusetts of Jewish parents, his parents were Benjamin Fuller. His father died in 1923 when Samuel was 11. After immigrating to the United States, the family's surname was changed from Rabinovitch to Fuller, a name inspired by Samuel Fuller, a doctor who arrived in America on the Mayflower.
Fuller tells in A Third Face, that he did not speak until he was five. His first word was "Hammer!". After his father's death, the family moved to New York City where, at the age of 12, he began working in journalism as a newspaper copyboy, he became a crime reporter in New York City at age 17. He broke the story of Jeanne Eagels' death, he wrote pulp novels, including The Dark Page, adapted into the 1952 movie, Scandal Sheet. During World War II, Fuller joined the United States Army, he was assigned as an infantryman to the 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, saw heavy fighting. He was involved in landings in Africa and Normandy and saw action in Belgium and Czechoslovakia. In 1945, he was present at the liberation of a German concentration camp and shot 16 mm footage, known as V-E +1, integrated into the French documentary Falkenau: The Impossible. In 2014, the footage was selected to the United States National Film Registry. For his military service, Fuller was awarded the Bronze Star, the Silver Star, the Purple Heart and reached the rank of Corporal.
Fuller used his wartime experiences as material in his films in The Big Red One, the nickname for the 1st Infantry Division. After the war, Fuller co-authored a regimental history of the 16th Infantry. Hats Off marked Fuller's first credit as a screenwriter, he wrote many screenplays throughout his career, such as Gangs of the Waterfront in 1945. He was unimpressed with Douglas Sirk's direction of his Shockproof screenplay, he made the jump to writer/director after being asked to write three films by independent producer Robert Lippert. Fuller agreed to write them. Lippert agreed. Fuller's first film under this arrangement was I Shot Jesse James followed by The Baron of Arizona with Vincent Price. Fuller's third film, The Steel Helmet, established him as a major force; the first film about the Korean War made during the war, he wrote it based on tales from returning Korean veterans and his own World War II experiences. The film was attacked by reporter Victor Riesel for being, as Riesel saw it, "pro-Communist" and "anti-American."
Critic Westford Pedravy alleged that Fuller was secretly financed by "the Reds." Fuller had a major argument with the U. S. Army, which provided stock footage for the film; when army officials objected to Fuller's American characters executing a prisoner of war, Fuller replied he had seen it done during his own military service. A compromise was reached; the film marked the first collaboration between actor Gene Evans. After the success of The Steel Helmet, Fuller was sought out by the major studios, he asked each of them. All gave him advice on tax shelters, except for Darryl F. Zanuck of 20th Century-Fox, who replied, "We make better movies," the answer Fuller was seeking. Zanuck signed Fuller for a contract for seven films, the first being another Korean War film, Fixed Bayonets!, in order to head off other studio competition copying The Steel Helmet. The U. S. Army assigned Medal of Honor recipient Raymond Harvey as Fuller's technical advisor; the proposed seventh film, based on a book by Sasha Siemel, is the subject of a 1994 documentary by Mika Kaurismäki, Tigrero: A Film That Was Never Made, that featured Fuller and Jim Jarmusch visiting the proposed Amazon locations of the film.
Film that Fuller shot on that location at the time was featured in his Shock Corridor. Fuller's favorite film was a story of American journalism. Zanuck had wanted to adapt it into a musical but Fuller refused. Instead, he started his own production company, with his profits to make the film on his own. Park Row was a labor of love and served as a tribute to the journalists he knew as a newsboy, his flourishes of style on a low budget led critics such as Bill Krohn to compare the film to Citizen Kane. Fuller followed this with Pickup on South Street, a film noir starring Richard Widmark, which became one of his best-known films. Other films Fuller directed in the 1950s include House of Bamboo, Forty Guns and China Gate
Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
French battleship Jean Bart (1940)
For the first French battleship with this name, see Jean Bart. Jean Bart was a French battleship of World War II, named for the 17th-century seaman and corsair Jean Bart, she was the second Richelieu-class battleship. Derived from the Dunkerque class, Jean Bart were designed to fight the new battleships of the Italian Navy, their speed, shielding and overall technology were state of the art, but they had a rather unusual main battery armament arrangement, with two 4-gun turrets forward and none aft. Jean Bart was incomplete when France surrendered to Germany in June 1940, she sailed from Saint-Nazaire to Casablanca just before the Armistice. She was sunk in harbour in 1942. After the war she was re-floated, completed with an updated anti-aircraft battery, entered service in 1955, she had a short career: Jean Bart was put into reserve in 1957, decommissioned in 1961, scrapped in 1969. The Richelieu class was designed in response to the Italian Littorio-class battleships laid down in 1934, with Richelieu being laid down in 1935.
When Germany laid down the two Bismarck-class battleships in November 1935 and June 1936, France ordered the second Richelieu, Jean Bart. Jean Bart was intended to be the exact sister ship of Richelieu, with the same 35,000-long-ton tons standard displacement, same hull dimensions, same armament and propulsion, her general layout, with two four-gun turrets forward, originated with the Dunkerque battleship class. The quadruple turret had first been proposed for France's last pre-World War I battleship projects, the Normandie, Lyon-class battleships; the quad turret was featured on nearly all the French battleship projects in the 1920s. The "all forward" main battery arrangement was influenced by pre-1921 British battlecruiser projects and the Nelson-class battleships; the Richelieu-class battleships had, with 380 mm calibre guns, 327 mm thick belt armor covering 60% of total length, the same hitting and staying power as contemporary battleships built within the limit of 35,000 tons displacement in the Washington Naval Treaty.
The 32 knots maximum speed was surpassed only by the U. S. Iowa-class battleships. Jean Bart was laid down in December 1936, she was floated out on 6 March 1940, transferred from the building basin to the nearby fitting-out basin. She was expected to leave in October 1940. In May 1940, it was decided that the uncompleted battleship had to be sent to a safer place in Britain or in French Africa, beyond the Luftwaffe's range. However, the fitting-out basin, where the ship was afloat, was separated from the navigational channel by an earth dam. In late May, when it appeared that Germany would win the Battle of France, the Navy began dredging the earth dam, so Jean Bart could leave at high tide on 20 June. Half the propulsion machinery was installed. On 18 June, as German troops were approaching, her captain was ordered to prepare to sail or to scuttle the ship; the dredging work was finished the middle of the next night, with narrow margins for the battleship to pass through, in the early hours of 19 June, nearly in view of the German vanguard, Jean Bart – 75% completed, her steam engines never having been worked before, under the threat of German bombers – was taken out of the Saint Nazaire docks by four tugs.
She reached Casablanca under her own steam on 22 June. She was only about 75 % complete; the designed main battery was eight 380 mm /45 Modèle 1935 guns in two quadruple Modèle 1935 turrets forward, The secondary battery was nine 152 mm /52 Model 1930 guns, in three dual-purpose Modèle 1936 turrets aft, two lateral and one axial. From 1936 to 1938, twenty-one 380 mm/45 Modèle 1935 gun barrels were constructed at the Ruelle naval artillery establishment. Sixteen were to be fitted on Richelieu and Jean Bart, two were to be retained at Ruelle, three were for the Gâvres gunnery testing ground, near Lorient. Twelve were installed: eight on Richelieu and four in the #1 turret on Jean Bart; the remaining nine fell into German hands in 1940, except for one lost when the freighter Mecanicien Principal Lestin. Bound for Casablanca, was sunk by German aerial attack off the Gironde estuary in June 1940, it was taking one barrel earmarked for Jean Bart's #2 main turret. When it had been decided, in November 1939, to reallocate the amidships 152 mm turrets from the first pair of the Richelieu-class battleships, to the next battleship to be built, Clemenceau, no armour plating was installed on the barbettes in place, on Richelieu, the installation of the corresponding barbettes was cancelled on Jean Bart.
When Jean Bart left Saint-Nazaire, to Casablanca, in June 1940, none of the three aft 152 mm turrets had yet been installed. As there was a shortage of 100 mm CAD Model 1930 turrets, intended to be substituted to the 152 mm amidships turrets on Richelieu and Jean Bart, it was decided to install on Jean Bart 90 mm CAD Modèle 1930 turrets, which were in use on the most recent La Galissonnière-class light cruisers; the 90 mm /50 Modèle 1926 guns of these turrets fired OEA Model 1925 shells, weighing 9.5 kg, with a muzzle velocity of 850 m/s, at a maximum range of 15,440 m and a 10,600 m ceiling. The rate of fire was 6-8rpm practical. Due to the difficulties to dispose o
The fourth wall is a performance convention in which an invisible, imagined wall separates actors from the audience. While the audience can see through this "wall", the convention assumes, the actors act as if they cannot. From the 16th century onwards, the rise of illusionism in staging practices, which culminated in the realism and naturalism of the theatre of the 19th century, led to the development of the fourth wall concept; the metaphor suggests a relationship to the mise-en-scène behind a proscenium arch. When a scene is set indoors and three of the walls of its room are presented onstage, in what is known as a box set, the "fourth" of them would run along the line dividing the room from the auditorium; the "fourth wall", though, is a theatrical convention, rather than of set design. The actors ignore the audience, focus their attention on the dramatic world, remain absorbed in its fiction, in a state that the theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski called "public solitude". In this way, the fourth wall exists regardless of the presence of any actual walls in the set, or the physical arrangement of the theatre building or performance space, or the actors' distance from or proximity to the audience."Breaking the fourth wall" is any instance in which this performance convention, having been adopted more in the drama, is violated.
This can be done through either directly referencing the audience, the play as a play, or the characters' fictionality. The temporary suspension of the convention in this way draws attention to its use in the rest of the performance; this act of drawing attention to a play's performance conventions is metatheatrical. A similar effect of metareference is achieved when the performance convention of avoiding direct contact with the camera used by actors in a television drama or film, is temporarily suspended; the phrase "breaking the fourth wall" is used to describe such effects in those media. Breaking the fourth wall is possible in other media, such as video games and books; the concept is attributed to the philosopher and dramatist Denis Diderot. The term itself was used by Molière; the presence of the fourth wall is an established convention of modern realistic theatre, which has led some artists to draw direct attention to it for dramatic or comic effect when a boundary is "broken", when an actor or character addresses the audience directly.
Breaking the fourth wall is common in pantomime and children's theatre where, for example, a character might ask the children for help, as when Peter Pan appeals to the audience to applaud in an effort to revive the fading Tinker Bell. Many Shakespearian plays use this technique for comic effect; the acceptance of the transparency of the fourth wall is part of the suspension of disbelief between a work of fiction and an audience, allowing them to enjoy the fiction as though they were observing real events. Critic Vincent Canby described it in 1987 as "that invisible scrim that forever separates the audience from the stage"; the earliest recorded breaking of the fourth wall in serious cinema was in Mary MacLane's revolutionary 1918 silent film Men Who Have Made Love to Me, in which the enigmatic authoress - who portrays herself - interrupts the vignettes onscreen to address the audience directly. In 1918, in A Dog's Life, written and starring Charlie Chaplin, after finding a wallet with money in it, "The Tramp", Chaplin's most famous character, looks right at the audience with his signature eyebrow raised.
Oliver Hardy was one of the first notable examples of breaking the fourth wall in his films with Stan Laurel, when he would stare directly at the camera to seek sympathy from viewers. Groucho Marx spoke directly to the audience in Animal Crackers, Horse Feathers, in the film advising them to "go out to the lobby" during Chico Marx's piano interlude. Comedy films by Mel Brooks, Monty Python, Zucker and Zucker broke the fourth wall, such that with these films, "the fourth wall is so flimsy and so shattered that it might as well not exist", according to The A. V. Club. In Akira Kurosawa's 1957 adaptation of Gorky's The Lower Depths, the film abruptly ends with Kōji Mitsui breaking the fourth wall to utter a callous remark about a fellow slum dweller's suicide. By having Mitsui use the startling technique, Kurosawa not only stresses his character's victorious nihilism but suggests the film's theatrical origins. Breaking the fourth wall is an integral part of the ending of Alejandro Jodorowsky's 1973 film The Holy Mountain.
In the Mel Brooks film Blazing Saddles, the characters break the fourth wall. Woody Allen broke the fourth wall several times in his movie Annie Hall, as he explained, "because I felt many of the people in the audience had the same feelings and the same problems. I wanted to talk to them directly and confront them." His 1985 film The Purple Rose of Cairo features the breaking of the fourth wall as a central plot point. The John Hughes movie Ferris Bueller's Day Off, is another well-known fourth-wall-breaking movie. Bueller, played by Matthew Broderick turns to the camera without breaking character to tell his thought process or explain his reasoning. Another Chicago area fourth-wall-breaking film, High Fidelity, has John Cusack's character Rob intimately sharing his life struggles and confessions with the audience. Two more recent examples are the 2016 film Deadpool, in which it is used as a comic device between the main character and the audience and the 2017 film I, where Tonya Harding and the
Jean-Pierre Léaud, ComM is a French actor, best known for playing Antoine Doinel in François Truffaut's series of films about that character, beginning with The 400 Blows. He worked several times with Jean-Luc Godard, is a significant figure of the French New Wave. Born in Paris, Léaud made his major debut as an actor at the age of 14 as Antoine Doinel, a semi-autobiographical character based on the life events of French film director François Truffaut, in The 400 Blows. To cast the two adolescents, Truffaut published an announcement in France-Soir and auditioned several hundred children in September and October 1958. Jean Domarchi, a critic at Cahiers du cinéma, had earlier recommended the son of an assistant scriptwriter, Pierre Léaud, the actress Jacqueline Pierreux. Truffaut was captivated by the fourteen-year-old adolescent, who had appeared with Jean Marais in Georges Lampin's La Tour, prends garde!. He recognized traits they both shared, "for example a certain suffering with regard to the family...
With, this fundamental difference: though we were both rebels, we hadn't expressed our rebellion in the same way. I lie. Jean-Pierre, on the contrary, seeks to hurt and wants it to be known... Why? Because he's unruly, while I was sly; because his excitability requires that things happen to him, when they don't occur enough, he provokes them". In his final interview, Truffaut mentioned he was happy with how Léaud improvised within the flexibly written script. Jean-Pierre Léaud in the eighth grade at a private school in Pontigny, was a far from ideal student; the director of the school wrote this to Truffaut, "I regret to inform you that Jean-Pierre is more and more'unmanageable'. Indifference, permanent defiance, lack of discipline in all its forms, he has twice been caught leafing through pornographic pictures in the dorm. He is developing more and more into an disturbed case", but this unstable boy, who ran away with the older students on their nights out, could be brilliant and affectionate. Cultured for his age, he was very good at writing, he claimed to Truffaut that he had written a "verse tragedy", Torquatus.
Throughout the production of The 400 Blows, wrote Jay Carr "Truffaut would take Léaud to see rushes of Godard's Breathless each evening. They'd sit up late talking film with Godard, Rohmer, Orson Welles." Upon the filmmaker's death, the actor reminisced Truffaut was the first person he admired and that he "spoke to children like they were adults. He realized, he was purely intuitive. We operated in a sort of complicity."During and following the filming of The 400 Blows, Truffaut's concern for Léaud extended beyond the film set. He took charge of the difficult adolescent's upbringing after Léaud was expelled from school and kicked out of the home of the retired couple taking care of him. Truffaut subsequently rented a studio apartment for Léaud. Truffaut hired him for assistant work on The Soft Skin and Mata Hari, Agent H21. Léaud starred in four more Truffaut films depicting the life of Doinel, spanning a period of 20 years—after the short-film Antoine et Colette in 1962—beside actress Claude Jade as his girlfriend, wife, Christine.
Those films are Stolen Kisses and Board and Love on the Run. Truffaut stated that Léaud was the source of inspiration for the Antoine Doinel character and "I created some scenes just because I knew he would be funny in them—at least I laughed during the writing as I thought of him." He collaborated with Truffaut on non-Antoine Doinel films like Two English Girls and Day for Night and became the actor most affiliated with him. Although Antoine Doinel is his most familiar character, he found his performances in other films to be compared to his Doinel character whether there were legitimate similarities or not. Léaud is one of the most visible and well-known actors to be associated with the French New Wave film movement and, aside from his work with Truffaut, collaborated with Jean-Luc Godard, Jean Eustache, Jacques Rivette and Agnès Varda; the early 1970s was the peak of his professional career when he had three critically acclaimed films released: Bertolucci's Last Tango in Paris, Truffaut's La Nuit américaine, Eustache's The Mother and the Whore.
In the Bertolucci film, Léaud appeared in the same film as a hero of his, Marlon Brando, although the two men never met, since all of Léaud's scenes were shot on Saturdays and Brando refused to work on Saturdays. In March 1966, Léaud won the Silver Bear for Best Actor at the 16th Berlin International Film Festival for his role in Jean-Luc Godard's Masculin, féminin, he was nominated for a César Award for Best Supporting Actor in 1988 for Les Keufs and was awarded an Honorary César for lifetime achievement in 2000. Léaud acted in films by other influential directors, such as Pier Paolo Pasolini, Jerzy Skolimowski, Aki Kaurismäki and Olivier Assayas and Tsai Ming-liang, he is married to the French actress Brigitte Duvivier. Nominated for the BAFTA Film Award for being the "Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles" for his role in The 400 Blows. Won the Silver Bear for Best Actor at the Berlin International Film Festival for his role in Masculin Féminin. Nominated for César Award for Best Supporting Actor at the César Awards for his role in the film Les keufs.
Won "Best Actor" at the Thessaloniki Film Festival for his role in
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s. The movement presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular and mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. One of its aims is to use images of popular culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture, most through the use of irony, it is associated with the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, or combined with unrelated material. Among the early artists that shaped the pop art movement were Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain, Larry Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns among others in the United States. Pop art is interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion of those ideas. Due to its utilization of found objects and images, it is similar to Dada.
Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves. Pop art takes imagery, in use in advertising. Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbell's Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol; the labeling on the outside of a shipping box containing food items for retail has been used as subject matter in pop art, as demonstrated by Warhol's Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, 1964. The origins of pop art in North America developed differently from Great Britain. In the United States, pop art was a response by artists, they used impersonal, mundane reality and parody to "defuse" the personal symbolism and "painterly looseness" of abstract expressionism. In the U. S. some artwork by Larry Rivers, Alex Katz and Man Ray anticipated pop art. By contrast, the origins of pop art in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, were more academic. Britain focused on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American pop culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while improving the prosperity of a society.
Early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fueled by American popular culture when viewed from afar. Pop art was both an extension and a repudiation of Dadaism. While pop art and Dadaism explored some of the same subjects, pop art replaced the destructive and anarchic impulses of the Dada movement with a detached affirmation of the artifacts of mass culture. Among those artists in Europe seen as producing work leading up to pop art are: Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Kurt Schwitters. Although both British and American pop art began during the 1950s, Marcel Duchamp and others in Europe like Francis Picabia and Man Ray predate the movement. During the 1920s, American artists Patrick Henry Bruce, Gerald Murphy, Charles Demuth and Stuart Davis created paintings that contained pop culture imagery "prefiguring" the pop art movement; the Independent Group, founded in London in 1952, is regarded as the precursor to the pop art movement. They were a gathering of young painters, architects and critics who were challenging prevailing modernist approaches to culture as well as traditional views of fine art.
Their group discussions centered on pop culture implications from elements such as mass advertising, product design, comic strips, science fiction and technology. At the first Independent Group meeting in 1952, co-founding member and sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi presented a lecture using a series of collages titled Bunk! that he had assembled during his time in Paris between 1947 and 1949. This material of "found objects" such as advertising, comic book characters, magazine covers and various mass-produced graphics represented American popular culture. One of the collages in that presentation was Paolozzi's I was a Rich Man's Plaything, which includes the first use of the word "pop", appearing in a cloud of smoke emerging from a revolver. Following Paolozzi's seminal presentation in 1952, the IG focused on the imagery of American popular culture mass advertising. According to the son of John McHale, the term "pop art" was first coined by his father in 1954 in conversation with Frank Cordell, although other sources credit its origin to British critic Lawrence Alloway.
"Pop art" as a moniker was used in discussions by IG members in the Second Session of the IG in 1955, the specific term "pop art" first appeared in published print in the article "But Today We Collect Ads" by IG members Alison and Peter Smithson in Ark magazine in 1956. However, the term is credited to British art critic/curator Lawrence Alloway for his 1958 essay titled The Arts and the Mass Media though the precise language he uses is "popular mass culture". "Furthermore, what I meant by it is not what it means now. I used the term, also'Pop Culture' to refer to the products of the mass media, not to works of art that draw upon popular culture. In any case, sometime between the winter of 1954-55 and 1957 the phrase acquired currency in conversation..." Alloway was one of the leading critics to defend the inclusion of the imagery of mass culture in the fine arts. Alloway clarified these terms