Founding of Rome
The tale of the Founding of Rome is recounted in traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves as the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth. The most familiar of these myths, the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, twins who were suckled by a she-wolf as infants in the 8th century BC. Another account, set earlier in time, claims that the Roman people are descended from Trojan War hero Aeneas, who escaped to Italy after the war, whose son, was the ancestor of the family of Julius Caesar; the archaeological evidence of human occupation of the area of modern-day Rome, Italy dates from about 14,000 years ago. The national epic of mythical Rome, the Aeneid of Virgil, tells the story of how Trojan prince Aeneas came to Italy; the Aeneid was written under Augustus, who claimed ancestry through Julius Caesar and his mother Venus. According to the Aeneid, the survivors from the fallen city of Troy banded together under Aeneas and underwent a series of adventures around the Mediterranean Sea, including a stop at newly founded Carthage under the rule of Queen Dido reaching the Italian coast.
The Trojans were thought to have landed in an area between modern Anzio and Fiumicino, southwest of Rome at Laurentum or, in other versions, at Lavinium, a place named for Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus whom Aeneas married. This started a series of armed conflicts with Turnus over the marriage of Lavinia. Before the arrival of Aeneas, Turnus was betrothed to Lavinia, who married Aeneas, starting the war. Aeneas killed Turnus; the Trojans won the right to assimilate with the local peoples. The young son of Aeneas, Ascanius known as Iulus, went on to found Alba Longa and the line of Alban kings who filled the chronological gap between the Trojan saga and the traditional founding of Rome in the 8th century BC. Toward the end of this line, King Procas was the father of Amulius. At Procas' death, Numitor became king of Alba Longa, but Amulius captured him and sent him to prison. Forests have a prominent role in the founding myth-when Aeneas arrives at the site that would become Rome it is still forest: Evander goes on to explain that from that "first time" the god Saturn brings these scattered people laws and bestows upon them the name Latium.
The myth of Aeneas was of Greek origin and had to be reconciled with the Italian myth of Romulus and Remus, who would have been born around 771 BC if taken as historical figures. They were purported to be sons of Rhea Silvia and either Mars, the god of war, or the demi-god hero Hercules, they were abandoned at birth, in the manner of many mythological heroes, because of a prophecy that they would overthrow their great-uncle Amulius, who had overthrown Silvia's father Numitor. The twins were abandoned on the river Tiber by servants who took pity on the infants, despite their orders; the twins were nurtured by a she-wolf until a shepherd named Faustulus found the boys and took them as his sons. Faustulus and his wife Acca Larentia raised the children; when Remus and Romulus became adults, they killed restored Numitor. They decided to establish a city. Thus, Rome began with a fratricide, a story, taken to represent the city's history of internecine political strife and bloodshed. Strabo writes that there is an older story, about the founding of Rome, than the previous legends that he had mentioned.
The city was founded by Evander. Strabo writes that Lucius Coelius Antipater believed that Rome was founded by Greeks. Dionysius of Halicarnassus writes that the people who came to the lands that became the city of Rome were first, the Aborigines, who drove the Sicels out of these lands, were from the Arcadia the Pelasgians, who came from Thessaly, third those who came into Italy with Evander from the city of Pallantium in Arcadia, after them the Epeans from Elis and Pheneats from Pheneus, who were part of the army commanded by Heracles who decided to stay there while they were returning from the expedition at the Erytheia, with whom a Trojan element was commingled and last of all, the Trojans who had escaped with Aeneas from Ilium and the other Trojan cities. Dionysius mentions that the Trojans, were Greek people who were from the Peloponnesus, he adds that Romans say that the Pallantium was founded by Greeks from Pallantium of Arcadia, about sixty years before the Trojan war and the leader was Evander.
At the sixteenth generation after the Trojan war the Albans united these places into one settlement, surrounding them with a wall and a ditch. The Albans were a mixed nation composed of all the above people. Dionysius adds that it is that a barbarian element from among the neighboring people or a remnant of the ancient inhabitants of the place were mixed with the Greek, but all these people, having lost their national identity came to be called by one common name, after Latinus, the king of the country. The leaders of the colony were the twin brothers Remus. Another story told how a son of Odysseus and Circe, was the one who founded Rome. Martin P. Nilsson speculates that this older story was becoming a bit embarrassing as Rome became more powerful and tensions with the Greeks grew. Being descendants of the Greeks was no longer preferable, so the Romans settled on the Trojan foundation myth instead. Nilsson further speculates that the name of Romos was changed by the Romans to the native name Romulus, but the name Romos was never forgotten by the people
Publius Vergilius Maro called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets, his Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome since the time of its composition. Modeled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and reach Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus were to found the city of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as Dante's guide through Hell and Purgatory. Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by Varius, Virgil's editor, incorporated into the biography by Suetonius and the commentaries of Servius and Donatus, the two great commentators on Virgil's poetry.
Although the commentaries no doubt record much factual information about Virgil, some of their evidence can be shown to rely on inferences made from his poetry and allegorizing. The tradition holds that Virgil was born in the village near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs. Modern speculation is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his biographers. Macrobius says, he attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum and Naples. After considering a career in rhetoric and law, the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry. According to Robert Seymour Conway, the only ancient source which reports the actual distance between Andes and Mantua is a surviving fragment from the works of Marcus Valerius Probus. Probus flourished during the reign of Nero. Probus reports. Conway translated this to a distance of 28 English miles. Little is known about the family of Virgil, his father belonged to gens Vergilia, his mother belonged to gens Magia. According to Conway, gens Vergilia is poorly attested in inscriptions from the entire Northern Italy, where Mantua is located.
Among thousands of surviving ancient inscriptions from this region, there are only 8 or 9 mentions of individuals called "Vergilius" or "Vergilia". Out of these mentions, three appear in inscriptions from Verona, one in an inscription from Calvisano. Conway theorized. Calvisano is located 30 Roman miles from Mantua, would fit with Probus' description of Andes; the inscription in this case is a votive offering to the Matronae by a woman called Vergilia, asking the goddesses to deliver from danger another woman, called Munatia. Conway notes that the offering belongs to a common type for this era, where women made requests for deities to preserve the lives of female loved ones who were pregnant and were about to give birth. In most cases, the woman making the request was the mother of a woman, pregnant or otherwise in danger. Though there is another inscription from Calvisano, where a woman asks the deities to preserve the life of her sister. Munatia, the woman who Vergilia wished to protect, was a close relative of Vergilia or Vergilia's daughter.
The name "Munatia" indicates that this woman was a member of gens Munatia, makes it that Vergilia married into this family. According to the commentators, Virgil received his first education when he was five years old and he went to Cremona and Rome to study rhetoric and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy. From Virgil's admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, associated with Catullus' neoteric circle. According to Servius, schoolmates considered Virgil shy and reserved, he was nicknamed "Parthenias" or "maiden" because of his social aloofness. Virgil seems to have suffered bad health throughout his life and in some ways lived the life of an invalid. According to the Catalepton, he began to write poetry while in the Epicurean school of Siro the Epicurean at Naples. A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil by the commentators survive collected under the title Appendix Vergiliana, but are considered spurious by scholars.
One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems, some of which may be Virgil's, another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex, was attributed to Virgil as early as the 1st century AD. The biographical tradition asserts that Virgil began the hexameter Eclogues in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection was published around 39–38 BC, although this is controversial; the Eclogues are a group of ten poems modeled on the bucolic hexameter poetry of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus. After his victory in the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, fought against the army led by the assassins of Julius Caesar, Octavian tried to pay off his veterans with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy including, according to the traditi
Flavia Maximiana Theodora
Flavia Maximiana Theodora known as Theodora, was a Roman Empress, wife of Constantius Chlorus. She is referred to as a stepdaughter of Emperor Maximian by ancient sources, leading to claims by historians Otto Seeck and Ernest Stein that she was born from an earlier marriage between Eutropia, wife of Maximian, Afranius Hannibalianus; this man was consul in praetorian prefect under Diocletian. Timothy Barnes challenges this view stating that all "stepdaughter sources" derive their information from the unreliable work Kaisergeschichte, while more reliable sources refer Theodora as Maximian's natural daughter, he concludes that she was born no than c. 275 to an unnamed earlier wife of Maximian one of Hannibalianus' daughters. In 293, Theodora married Flavius Valerius Julius Constantius, after he had divorced from his first wife, Helena, to strengthen his political position; the couple had six children: Flavius Dalmatius. Media related to Flavia Maximiana Theodora at Wikimedia Commons
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations and natural forces, such as seasons and weather. Both have ancient roots as storytelling and artistic devices, most cultures have traditional fables with anthropomorphized animals as characters. People have routinely attributed human emotions and behavioral traits to wild as well as domesticated animals. Anthropomorphism derives from its verb form anthropomorphize, itself derived from the Greek ánthrōpos and morphē, it is first attested in 1753 in reference to the heresy of applying a human form to the Christian God. From the beginnings of human behavioral modernity in the Upper Paleolithic, about 40,000 years ago, examples of zoomorphic works of art occur that may represent the earliest evidence we have of anthropomorphism.
One of the oldest known is an ivory sculpture, the Löwenmensch figurine, Germany, a human-shaped figurine with the head of a lioness or lion, determined to be about 32,000 years old. It is not possible to say. A more recent example is The Sorcerer, an enigmatic cave painting from the Trois-Frères Cave, Ariège, France: the figure's significance is unknown, but it is interpreted as some kind of great spirit or master of the animals. In either case there is an element of anthropomorphism; this anthropomorphic art has been linked by archaeologist Steven Mithen with the emergence of more systematic hunting practices in the Upper Palaeolithic. He proposes that these are the product of a change in the architecture of the human mind, an increasing fluidity between the natural history and social intelligences, where anthropomorphism allowed hunters to identify empathetically with hunted animals and better predict their movements. In religion and mythology, anthropomorphism is the perception of a divine being or beings in human form, or the recognition of human qualities in these beings.
Ancient mythologies represented the divine as deities with human forms and qualities. They resemble human beings not only in personality; the deities fell in love, had children, fought battles, wielded weapons, rode horses and chariots. They feasted on special foods, sometimes required sacrifices of food and sacred objects to be made by human beings; some anthropomorphic deities represented specific human concepts, such as love, fertility, beauty, or the seasons. Anthropomorphic deities exhibited human qualities such as beauty and power, sometimes human weaknesses such as greed, hatred and uncontrollable anger. Greek deities such as Zeus and Apollo were depicted in human form exhibiting both commendable and despicable human traits. Anthropomorphism in this case is, more anthropotheism. From the perspective of adherents to religions in which humans were created in the form of the divine, the phenomenon may be considered theomorphism, or the giving of divine qualities to humans. Anthropomorphism has cropped up as a Christian heresy prominently with the Audians in third century Syria, but in fourth century Egypt and tenth century Italy.
This was based on a literal interpretation of Genesis 1:27: "So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him. Some religions and philosophers objected to anthropomorphic deities; the earliest known criticism was that of the Greek philosopher Xenophanes who observed that people model their gods after themselves. He argued against the conception of deities as fundamentally anthropomorphic: But if cattle and horses and lions had handsor could paint with their hands and create works such as men do,horses like horses and cattle like cattlealso would depict the gods' shapes and make their bodiesof such a sort as the form they themselves have.... Ethiopians say that their gods are snub -- blackThracians that they are pale and red-haired. Xenophanes said that "the greatest god" resembles man "neither in form nor in mind". Both Judaism and Islam reject an anthropomorphic deity, believing that God is beyond human comprehension. Judaism's rejection of an anthropomorphic deity grew during the Hasmonean period, when Jewish belief incorporated some Greek philosophy.
Judaism's rejection grew further after the Islamic Golden Age in the tenth century, which Maimonides codified in the twelfth century, in his thirteen principles of Jewish faith. Hindus do not reject the concept of a deity in the abstract unmanifested, but note practical problems. Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 12, Verse 5, that it is much more difficult for people to focus on a deity as the unmanifested than one with form, using anthropomorphic icons, because people need to perceive with their senses. In Faces in the Clouds, anthropologist Stewart Guthrie proposes that all religions are anthropomorphisms that originate in the brain's tendency to detect the presence or vestiges of other humans in natural phenomena. In secular thought, one of the most notable criticisms began in 1600 with Francis Bacon, who argued against Aristotle's teleology, which declared that everything behaves as it does in order to achieve some end, in order to fulfill itself. Bacon pointed out that achieving ends is a human activity and to attribute it to nature misconstrues it as humanlike.
Modern criticisms followed Bacon's ideas such as critiques
Gaius Petronius Arbiter was a Roman courtier during the reign of Nero. He is believed to be the author of the Satyricon, a satirical novel believed to have been written during the Neronian era. Tacitus and Pliny the Elder describe Petronius as the elegantiae arbiter, "judge of elegance" in the court of the emperor Nero, he served as suffect consul in 62. He became a member of the senatorial class who devoted themselves to a life of pleasure, his relationship to Nero was akin to that of a fashion advisor. Tacitus gives this account of Petronius in his historical work the Annals: He spent his days in sleep, his nights in attending to his official duties or in amusement, that by his dissolute life he had become as famous as other men by a life of energy, that he was regarded as no ordinary profligate, but as an accomplished voluptuary, his reckless freedom of speech, being regarded as frankness, procured him popularity. Yet during his provincial government, when he held the office of consul, he had shown vigor and capacity for affairs.
Afterwards returning to his life of vicious indulgence, he became one of the chosen circle of Nero's intimates, was looked upon as an absolute authority on questions of taste in connection with the science of luxurious living. None of the ancient sources mention that he was a writer. However, a medieval manuscript written around 1450 of the Satyricon credited a "Titus Petronius" as the author of the original work. Traditionally, this reference is linked with Petronius Arbiter, since the novel appears to have been written or at least set during his lifetime; the link, remains speculative and disputed. Petronius' development of his characters in the Satyricon, namely Trimalchio, transcends the traditional style of writing of ancient literature. In the literature written during Petronius' lifetime, the emphasis was always on the typical considerations of plot, laid down by classical rules; the character, hardly known in ancient literature, was secondary. Petronius goes beyond these literary limitations in his exact portrayals of detailed speech, behavior and appearance of the characters.
Another literary device Petronius employs in his novel is a collection of specific allusions. The allusions to certain people and events are evidence that the Satyricon was written during Nero's time; these suggest that it was aimed at a contemporary audience which consisted in part of Nero's courtiers and Nero himself. One such allusion, found in chapter 9, refers to the story of the good wife Lucretia, well-known at the time: "If you're a Lucretia," he said, "You've found a Tarquin"; the message Petronius tries to convey in his work is far from moral and does not intend to produce reform, but is written above all to entertain and should be considered artistically. His writings can be a valuable tool to better comprehend the customs and ways of life of Roman society at that particular time, since the author strives to preserve the plausibility of his representation, as can be noted by the frequent use of allusions and detailed descriptions of characters and behaviours; as the title implies, the Satyricon is a satire a Menippean satire, in which Petronius satirizes nearly anything, using his taste as the only standard.
It is speculated. Although the author's own opinion is never alluded to, the opinions of the characters involved in the story are evident, as is how Encolpius criticizes Trimalchio. Petronius' high position soon made him the object of envy for those around him. Having attracted the jealousy of Tigellinus, the commander of the emperor's guard, he was accused of treason, he did not wait for a sentence. Instead, he chose to take his own life. Tacitus again records his elegant suicide in the sixteenth book of the Annals: Yet he did not fling away life with precipitate haste, but having made an incision in his veins and according to his humour, bound them up, he again opened them, while he conversed with his friends, not in a serious strain or on topics that might win for him the glory of courage, and he listened to them as they repeated, not thoughts on the immortality of the soul or on the theories of philosophers, but light poetry and playful verses. To some of his slaves he gave a flogging to others.
He dined, indulged himself in sleep, that death, though forced on him, might have a natural appearance. In his will he did not, as did many in their last moments, flatter Nero or Tigellinus or any other of the men in power. On the contrary, he described the prince's shameful excesses, with the names of his male and female companions and their novelties in debauchery, sent the account under seal to Nero, he broke his signet-ring, that it might not be subsequently available for imperiling others. According to Pliny the Elder: "T. Petronius, a consular, when he was going to die through Nero's jealousy and envy, broke his fluorspar wine-dipper so that the emperor's table would not inherit it, it had cost 300,000 sesterces". T. Petronius and G. Petronius have been said to have been the same man. In recent times, a popular quotation written by Charlton Ogburn in 1957, on reorganization is spuriously attributed to a Gaius Petronius. In one version it reads: We trained hard... but it seemed that every time we were beginning to form up into teams we would be reorganized.
I was to learn in life that we tend to meet any new situation by reorganizing.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius was an optimate and pro-Sullan politician and general. He was elected consul alongside Sulla in 80 BC; as proconsul he was the principal Senatorial commander during the Sertorian War, fighting alongside Pompeius Magnus against the Roman rebel Quintus Sertorius. He was given the agnomen “Pius” because of his constant and unbending attempts to have his father recalled from exile. Metellus Pius, a member of the distinguished plebeian gens Caecilia was the son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, consul in 109 BC, his career began in that same year, when he accompanied his father to Numidia as his contubernalis during the Jugurthine War, returning to Rome in 107 BC, when his father was forcibly recalled by the actions of Gaius Marius. In 100 BC, after his father was banished as a result of the political manoeuvrings of Gaius Marius and Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, Metellus Pius launched a campaign to have his father brought back from exile, he produced a petition in 99 BC to this effect, his constant pleading on the subject resulted in Quintus Calidius, the Plebeian Tribune of 98 BC passing a law which allowed his father to return.
As a result of his fidelity, he was given the agnomen “Pius” for the constancy and inflexibility with which he fought for his father's political rehabilitation and return to Rome. Sometime during 90s BC, Metellus Pius was elected to the College of Pontiffs as a result of his family's eminence and influence; the outbreak of the Social War saw him employed as a legate in late 89 BC of the consul Pompeius Strabo, where he won some battles against the Marsi. As a result of these victories, he was elected Praetor in the following year. During his praetorship, he was tasked with enrolling the Italian allies as new Roman citizens within sixty days, in accordance with the Lex Plautia Papiria. Once this was completed, Metellus Pius was again posted to the Social War, replacing Gaius Cosconius on the southern front, he harassed the territory around Apulia, captured the town of Venusia, defeated the leading Italian leader, Quintus Poppaedius Silo, who died in the storming of Venusia. Cicero, at the time a young man remembered hearing Metellus speak at contiones in Rome during this period, most during his praetorship.
Cicero remarked of Metellus' ability:'although no real orator, he was nonetheless not without some capacity for public speech'. In 87 BC, Metellus Pius’ command was extended, with his appointment as Propraetor, responsible for continuing the war against Samnium; that year, saw a dispute between the two consuls Lucius Cornelius Cinna and Gnaeus Octavius flare up into war. Cinna, expelled from Rome, met up with the exiled Gaius Marius, both laid siege to Rome. During the early phase of this conflict, the Senate, fearing that they may need additional troops and commanders, ordered Metellus Pius to negotiate a peace with the Samnites. Marching to Rome, he made camp at the Alban Hills, accompanied by Publius Licinius Crassus. Here he met up with Gnaeus Octavius, who had abandoned Rome, but both men soon fell out with each other, over Metellus Pius’ troops demanding that their commander take over overall command from Gnaeus Octavius; the Senate asked him to negotiate with Cinna on their behalf, during which time he recognized Cinna as the legitimate consul.
However, with Cinna’s occupation of Rome and the executions initiated by Gaius Marius, Metellus Pius decided to abandon Rome and head to North Africa. Arriving in Africa by early 86 BC, Metellus Pius started raising an army from his private clients, with the intent of joining Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the principal opponent of Cinna and Marius, he was joined by Marcus Licinius Crassus, but both men fell out, Crassus was forced to leave and join up with Sulla in Greece. Metellus acted as propraetorian governor of the province, but this was unrecognized by Cinna and his regime at Rome, it wasn’t until 84 BC that the Marians at Rome were able to send out their own governor, Gaius Fabius Hadrianus. Upon his arrival, he drove out Metellus Pius. From here, Metellus Pius made his way to Liguria by late 84 BC or early 83 BC. By 83 BC, Sulla had returned from the east and was marching to Rome for his confrontation with the Marian regime. Moving Metellus Pius was the first to meet him along the Via Appia, bringing new troops with him.
He, like many of the aristocracy, only joined Sulla when it was prudent to do so, not because they approved of his measures, such as his first march on Rome. Regardless, recognizing Metellus as possessing propraetorian imperium and his influence as a member of the powerful Metellan faction, Sulla made him his principal subordinate. By July 83 BC, the Senate, under the direction of the consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, declared Metellus Pius a public enemy. In 82 BC, he was sent by Sulla to secure the northern parts of Italy, accompanied by the young Gnaeus Pompeius, Metellus Pius attacked and defeated Gaius Carrinas at Picenum, he achieved a victory over Papirius Carbo and Gaius Norbanus at Faventia, pacifying Cisalpine Gaul for Sulla. With Sulla’s victory in 82 BC, he began rewarding his supporters, made Metellus Pius the Pontifex Maximus in 81 BC, following the murder of Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, he was a Monetalis from 82 BC to 80 BC. During this entire period, he was shown to be one of Sulla’s best subordinates.
An optimate and traditionalist he was a natural supporter of the Senate’s prerogatives, he had no other objective apart from fighting the populism of Marius and Cinna, did not participate in the atrocious