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Pieter Brueghel the Younger

Pieter Brueghel the Younger was a Flemish painter, known for numerous copies after his father Pieter Bruegel the Elder's work as well as his original compositions. The large output of his studio, which produced for the local and export market, contributed to the international spread of his father's imagery. Traditionally Pieter Brueghel the Younger has been nicknamed "de helse Brueghel" or "Hell Brueghel" because it was believed he was the author of several paintings with fantastic depictions of fire and grotesque imagery; these paintings have now been attributed to his brother Jan Brueghel the Elder. Pieter Brueghel the Younger was born in Brussels, the oldest son of the famous sixteenth-century Netherlandish painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder and Mayken Coecke van Aelst, his father died in 1569. Following the death of his mother in 1578, together with his brother Jan Brueghel the Elder and sister Marie, went to live with their grandmother Mayken Verhulst. Mayken Verhulst was the widow of the prolific artist Pieter Coecke van Aelst and an accomplished artist in her own right, known for her miniature paintings.

According to the early 17th-century Flemish biographer Karel van Mander Mayken Verhulst was the first teacher of her two grandsons. The Brueghel family moved to Antwerp sometime after 1578 and Pieter entered the studio of the landscape painter Gillis van Coninxloo, his teacher left Antwerp in 1585 and in the 1584/1585 registers of the Guild of Saint Luke, "Peeter Brugel" is listed as an independent master. On 5 November 1588 Pieter married Elisabeth Goddelet; the couple had seven children. One son called Pieter Brueghel III was a painter. Pieter Brueghel the Younger operated a large studio in Antwerp which produced inexpensive copies of his father's work for local sale and export, he was often in financial difficulties due to drinking. He had at least 9 pupils including Andries Danielsz, he died in Antwerp, aged 72. Pieter Brueghel the Younger painted landscapes, religious subjects and village scenes. A few flower still life paintings by Pieter have been recorded, his genre paintings of peasants emphasize the picturesque, are regarded by some as lacking Pieter the Elder's subtlety and humanism.

He and his workshop were prolific copyists of Pieter Bruegel the Elder's most famous compositions. His name and work were forgotten in the 18th and 19th centuries until he was rediscovered in the first half of the 20th century. Pieter Brueghel the Younger created original works in the idiom of his father which are energetic and bright and adapted to the 17th-century style. One of the artist's most successful original designs was the painting of The Village Lawyer; the different titles of the work indicate that it may have been interpreted in these different ways in the 17th century. The title The Village Lawyer is the best suited since the person behind the desk is wearing a lawyer's bonnet, the collection of taxes did not occur in such setting and the paperwork and bags on the desk look like those for requests and decrees; the picture shows peasants lining up with presents such as chickens and eggs to please the lawyer, a common occurrence, whereas tithe payments were made in grain. The painting shows his interest in and close observation of village life.

Pieter Brueghel the Younger's workshop made many copies of the composition in different formats. There exist 19 signed and dated versions of this work out of some 25 originals and 35 questionable versions. Another original composition of Pieter Brueghel the Younger is the Whitsun Bride, known in at least five autograph versions. One of the copies was held by the Metropolitan Museum; the picture depicts a Flemish springtime custom of crowning a queen at Whitsuntide. The festival is focused around a flower gathered in the fields by children; this painting distinguishes itself in style and colour from his father's work. The painting uses bright colours, with much vermilion and a rich blue-green in the figures and blue for the sky; the colours display a unity of tone distinctive of the 17th century. The picture displays a unity in drawing and composition. Another original composition by Pieter Brueghel the Younger are four small tondos representing the Four Stages of the River; as his style never evolved from the manner of his early career it is difficult to date his work.

In several cases, it is not clear whether a composition is an original composition by Pieter Brueghel the Younger or a copy after a lost work by his father. Apart from these paintings of his own invention, Pieter Brueghel the Younger copied the famous compositions of his father through a technique called pouncing; this large scale activity was only possible thanks to his well-organized workshop. Comparison of some copies with the originals reveals differences, both in terms of colour as well as the omission or addition of certain details; this may indicate that the copyist re-drafted some sections, or based the copies on prints after original works, rather than on the originals themselves. Pieter the Younger made paintings out of his father’s figural designs, including drawings for prints; as Pieter Brueghel the Younger did not always

Xiasi, Kaili City

Xiasi is a town of Kaili city, Guizhou province, China. The town was established in 1931, it has a total area of 154 square kilometres; the population was 35 thousand and Mulao are native ethnic minorities. As a former administrative division of Majiang, Xiasi was changed to Kaili on September 25, 2014. Located in the southwest of Kaili city, Xiasi is a commercial port situated in the upper reaches of the Qingshui river, the tributary of Wu river. Xiasi is famous for that it is the source place of Xiasi Dogs, there are lots of breeding sites for purebred Xiasi dog, it is famous for the Canoe Slalom Training Base, the 2010 Asian Canoe Slalom Championships was held here on May 2010

Officer Corps of the Royal Navy

The officer corps of the Royal Navy is the cadre of personnel holding a commission from the sovereign appointing them in a position of authority in the Royal Navy. There are three main routes of entry to the officer corps. Direct entrants are recruited as civilians and undertake a full course of training to become employable. Professional entrants are individuals who have qualified professionally in the civilian environment and their employment in the Royal Navy will use these qualifications; these are doctors, nursing officers and chaplains. The upper yardman scheme allows for ratings identified as potential officers to be selected for commissioning training and operates in two ways. An upper yardman under 30 years of age will join a direct entry class, undertakes the same training path and is otherwise treated as a direct entrant. Candidates for upper yardman can transfer to any specialisation in the officer corps; the senior upper yardman scheme allows for experienced ratings identified as potential specialist officers to be commissioned.

Candidates for the senior upper yardman scheme will be over 35 years of age and undertake a short training period at Dartmouth before being employed within the same specialisation as their rating career. Initial officer training is undertaken at Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth and at sea undergoing initial sea training. Junior officers are appointed to seagoing ships for common and specialist fleet time and will undertake specialist training as appropriate to their branch. Officers enter the service in one of the available branches. Entry into a sub-specialisation may only be for a short period. There is a general view of a two stage career where one is employed in predominantly operational roles in the early stage of a career, predominantly strategic management in the stage. Specialist fleet training for junior warfare officers concentrates on shiphandling and bridge watchkeeping; the initial warfare officers' course is undertaken at the Maritime Warfare School leading to a first complement job in a surface ship.

Junior submarine warfare officers undertake training at the Submarine School at HMS Raleigh in Torpoint before being appointed to a complement job in a submarine. The junior warfare officer is responsible for navigation and bridge watchkeeping, where they will ensure the navigational safety of all ship operations on behalf of the captain. Following the first complement job a junior officer may be further employed in bridge watchkeeping duties in ships or submarines or may sub-specialise; the available sub-specialisations include mine clearance diving and meteorology, fighter control, frigate navigation or submarine warfare with some of these earning a notification in the Navy List. Career development leads to the principal warfare officer, advanced submarine warfare or advance hydrography and meteorology training; the principal warfare officer will fight the ship on behalf of the captain, deciding what targets to engage and in what order. With experience as a principal warfare officer further development increases the individuals specialisation and employability.

Some warfare officers will specialise in aviation at an early stage, leading to employment in the Fleet Air Arm although there are opportunities to undertake principal warfare officer training. The warfare branch acts as the nominal branch of air traffic control officers and for specialist officers commissioned in the senior upper yardman scheme who are not in the logistics or engineer branches; these senior upper yardman officers need not qualify as watchkeepers however will not be considered for sea command if they have not. This category includes naval police officers and aviation officers. Engineer officers are responsible for the material condition of the various aspects of maritime platforms: ships and naval aircraft and as such lead teams of naval ratings to conduct preventive and corrective maintenance. Engineer officers are responsible to the captain for the operational capability of the platform and as such form part of the command team. Engineers are widely employed in the Defence Equipment and Support engaged in logistic support, procurement or capability development and in the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence, supporting the fleet or other elements of the British Armed Forces.

Engineer officers specialise in one of five sub-branches that serve as a career alignment throughout their career. Logistics officers are responsible for supply, administration, financial and legal services and officers can undertake deep training in any of these fields. Commissioned officers hold powers of military command however only those officers of the warfare branch who are appropriately qualified can be appointed to sea command