Zierikzee is a small city in the southwest Netherlands, 30 km southwest of Rotterdam. It is situated in the municipality of Zeeland; the city hall of Schouwen-Duiveland is located in its largest city. Zierikzee is connected to Oosterschelde through a canal. In 2001, the town of Zierikzee had 10,313 inhabitants; the built-up area of the town was 3.0 km², contained 4,295 residences. The statistical area "Zierikzee", which can include the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 10,730. Zierikzee located on the island of Schouwen, received city rights in 1248. There was a sea battle in 1304. In 1953, Zierikzee was damaged by the catastrophic North Sea flood of 1953; the English town of Hatfield sent a friendship has developed. The two towns have been twinned. In 1997 the municipality of Zierikzee merged into that of Schouwen-Duiveland. In 2015, the last surviving example of the city's defensive cannons; the coastguard had recovered it during a criminal investigation. The diver had found it off the Kent coast.
Media related to Zierikzee at Wikimedia Commons Zierikzee travel guide from Wikivoyage
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. His work is known for its influence on the philosophy of science, he is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, dubbed "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field; this led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could be extended to gravitational fields, he published a paper on general relativity in 1916 with his theory of gravitation.
He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe. Except for one year in Prague, Einstein lived in Switzerland between 1895 and 1914, during which time he renounced his German citizenship in 1896 received his academic diploma from the Swiss federal polytechnic school in Zürich in 1900. After being stateless for more than five years, he acquired Swiss citizenship in 1901, which he kept for the rest of his life. In 1905, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich; the same year, he published four groundbreaking papers during his renowned annus mirabilis which brought him to the notice of the academic world at the age of 26. Einstein taught theoretical physics at Zurich between 1912 and 1914 before he left for Berlin, where he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power. Because of his Jewish background, Einstein did not return to Germany, he settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the US begin similar research; this led to the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported the Allies, but he denounced the idea of using nuclear fission as a weapon, he signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 150 non-scientific works, his intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius". Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879.
His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, Pauline Koch. In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current; the Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews, Albert attended a Catholic elementary school in Munich, from the age of 5, for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium, where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left the German Empire seven years later. In 1894, Hermann and Jakob's company lost a bid to supply the city of Munich with electrical lighting because they lacked the capital to convert their equipment from the direct current standard to the more efficient alternating current standard; the loss forced the sale of the Munich factory. In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and a few months to Pavia; when the family moved to Pavia, Einstein 15, stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium.
His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method. He wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning. At the end of December 1894, he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. During his time in Italy he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field". Einstein always excelled at math and physics from a young age, reaching a mathematical level years ahead of his peers; the twelve year old Einstein taught himself algebra and Euclidean geometry over a single summer. Einstein independently discovered his own original proof of the Pythagorean theorem at age 12. A family tutor Max Talmud says that after he had given the 12 year old Einstein a geometry textbook, after a short time " had worked through the whole book, he thereupon devoted himself to higher mathematics...
Soon the flight of his mathematical genius was so high I could not follow." His passion for geometry and algebra led the twelve year old to become convinced that nature could be understood as a "mathematical structure". Einstein started teaching himself calculus at
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He derived the transformation equations underpinning Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity. According to the biography published by the Nobel Foundation, "It may well be said that Lorentz was regarded by all theoretical physicists as the world's leading spirit, who completed what was left unfinished by his predecessors and prepared the ground for the fruitful reception of the new ideas based on the quantum theory." He received many honours and distinctions, including a term as chairman of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, the forerunner of UNESCO, between 1925 and 1928. Hendrik Lorentz was born in Arnhem, Netherlands, the son of Gerrit Frederik Lorentz, a well-off nurseryman, Geertruida van Ginkel. In 1862, after his mother's death, his father married Luberta Hupkes. Despite being raised as a Protestant, he was a freethinker in religious matters.
From 1866 to 1869, he attended the "Hogere Burger School" in Arnhem, a new type of public high school established by Johan Rudolph Thorbecke. His results in school were exemplary. In 1870, he passed the exams in classical languages which were required for admission to University. Lorentz studied physics and mathematics at the Leiden University, where he was influenced by the teaching of astronomy professor Frederik Kaiser. After earning a bachelor's degree, he returned to Arnhem in 1871 to teach night school classes in mathematics, but he continued his studies in Leiden in addition to his teaching position. In 1875, Lorentz earned a doctoral degree under Pieter Rijke on a thesis entitled "Over de theorie der terugkaatsing en breking van het licht", in which he refined the electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell. On 17 November 1877, only 24 years of age, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was appointed to the newly established chair in theoretical physics at the University of Leiden; the position had been offered to Johan van der Waals, but he accepted a position at the Universiteit van Amsterdam.
On 25 January 1878, Lorentz delivered his inaugural lecture on "De moleculaire theoriën in de natuurkunde". In 1881, he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. During the first twenty years in Leiden, Lorentz was interested in the electromagnetic theory of electricity and light. After that, he extended his research to a much wider area while still focusing on theoretical physics. Lorentz made significant contributions to fields ranging from hydrodynamics to general relativity, his most important contributions were in the area of electromagnetism, the electron theory, relativity. Lorentz theorized that atoms might consist of charged particles and suggested that the oscillations of these charged particles were the source of light; when a colleague and former student of Lorentz's, Pieter Zeeman, discovered the Zeeman effect in 1896, Lorentz supplied its theoretical interpretation. The experimental and theoretical work was honored with the Nobel prize in physics in 1902. Lorentz' name is now associated with the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, the Lorentz force, the Lorentzian distribution, the Lorentz transformation.
In 1892 and 1895, Lorentz worked on describing electromagnetic phenomena in reference frames that move relative to the postulated luminiferous aether. He discovered that the transition from one to another reference frame could be simplified by using a new time variable that he called local time and which depended on universal time and the location under consideration. Although Lorentz did not give a detailed interpretation of the physical significance of local time, with it, he could explain the aberration of light and the result of the Fizeau experiment. In 1900 and 1904, Henri Poincaré called local time Lorentz's "most ingenious idea" and illustrated it by showing that clocks in moving frames are synchronized by exchanging light signals that are assumed to travel at the same speed against and with the motion of the frame. In 1892, with the attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, Lorentz proposed that moving bodies contract in the direction of motion. In 1899 and again in 1904, Lorentz added time dilation to his transformations and published what Poincaré in 1905 named Lorentz transformations.
It was unknown to Lorentz that Joseph Larmor had used identical transformations to describe orbiting electrons in 1897. Larmor's and Lorentz's equations look somewhat dissimilar, but they are algebraically equivalent to those presented by Poincaré and Einstein in 1905. Lorentz's 1904 paper includes the covariant formulation of electrodynamics, in which electrodynamic phenomena in different reference frames are described by identical equations with well defined transformation properties; the paper recognizes the significance of this formulation, namely that the outcomes of electrodynamic experiments do not depend on the relative motion of the reference frame. The 1904 paper includes a detailed discussion of the increase of the inertial mass of moving objects in a useless attempt to make momentum look like Newtonian momentum.
The Zuiderzee Works is a man-made system of dams and dikes, land reclamation and water drainage work, in total the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century. The project involved the damming of the Zuiderzee, a large, shallow inlet of the North Sea, the reclamation of land in the newly enclosed water using polders, its main purposes are to create additional land for agriculture. The American Society of Civil Engineers declared these works, together with the Delta Works in the South-West of the Netherlands, as among the Seven Wonders of the Modern World; the "Netherlands" have low flat topography, with half its land area less than one metre above sea level, has for centuries been subject to periodic flooding by the sea. The seventeenth century saw early proposals to tame and enclose the Zuiderzee, but the ambitious ideas were impractical given the technology available. From 1200 to 1900 AD the Dutch reclaimed 940,000 acres of land from the sea and 345,000 acres by draining lakes, a total of 1,285,000 acres, but lost 1,400,000 acres of land to the Zuiderzee.
Hendrik Stevin in 1667 was the first to publish a study proposing to drain the Zuiderzee. After the IJ and Haarlemmermeer were drained in the mid-19th century, van Diggelen and Faddegon proposed that the Zuiderzee be drained. Test drilling by the Zuiderzeevereeniging found that about three quarters of the Zuiderzee would be useful land. Plans were developed during the second half of the nineteenth century to protect areas from the force of the open sea and creating new agricultural land. Cornelis Lely was an ardent supporter, an engineer, government minister, his 1891 plan was the basis for the development of. It consisted of a large dam connecting the northern tip of North Holland with the western coast of Friesland and the creation of four polders in the northwest, the northeast and southwest of what would be renamed the IJsselmeer. Two major lanes of open water were defined for drainage; the initial body of water affected by the project was 3,500 square kilometres. Opposition came from fishermen along the Zuiderzee who would lose their livelihood, from others in coastal areas along the more northerly Wadden Sea.
They feared higher water levels as a result of the closure. Other critics doubted. Queen Wilhelmina's 1913 throne speech urged reclamation of the Zuiderzee; when Lely became Minister of Transport and Public Works that year, he used his position to promote the Zuiderzee Works and gained support. The government started developing official plans to enclose the Zuiderzee. On January 13 and 14, 1916 the dikes at several places along the Zuiderzee broke under the stress of a winter storm, the land behind them flooded, as had happened in previous centuries; this flooding provided the decisive impetus to implement the existing plans to tame the Zuiderzee. In addition, a threatening food shortage during the other stresses of World War I added to widespread support for the project. On June 14, 1918, the Zuiderzee Act was passed; the goals of the Act were threefold: Protect the central Netherlands from the effects of the North Sea. Unlike earlier proposals the act intended to preserve part of the Zuiderzee and create large islands, as Lely warned that rerouting the rivers directly to the North Sea might cause inland flooding if storms raised the sea's level.
He wanted to preserve the Zee's fisheries, for the new land to be accessible by water. The Dienst der Zuiderzeewerken, the government body responsible for overseeing the construction and initial management, was set up in May 1919, it decided against building the main dam first, proceeding to construct a smaller dam, the Amsteldiepdijk, across the Amsteldiep. This was the first step in rejoining the island of Wieringen to the North Holland mainland; the dike, with a length of 2.5 km, was built between 1920 and 1924. As with dike building, polder construction was tested on a small scale at the experimental polder at Andijk. A new study, commissioned after doubts arose over the financial feasibility of the project, recommended that work should continue and be accelerated; the Zuiderzee Works Department initiated the next two major projects at the same time, in 1927. The most important of these was the main dam, the Afsluitdijk, running from Den Oever on Wieringen to the village of Zurich in Friesland.
It was to be 32 km long and 90 meters wide, rising to 7.25 meters above sea-level, with an incline of 25% on each side. Experience showed that till, rather than just sand or clay, was the best primary material for a structure like the Afsluitdijk. An added benefit was that it was available. Work started at four points: on both sides of the mainland and on two purpose-made construction-islands along the line of the future dam. From these points, the dam was expanded as ships deposited till into the open sea in two parallel lines. Sand was poured between these two lines; the nascent dam was streng
An aurora, sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights, southern lights, is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions. Auroras are produced when the magnetosphere is sufficiently disturbed by the solar wind that the trajectories of charged particles in both solar wind and magnetospheric plasma in the form of electrons and protons, precipitate them into the upper atmosphere due to Earth's magnetic field, where their energy is lost; the resulting ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents emits light of varying color and complexity. The form of the aurora, occurring within bands around both polar regions, is dependent on the amount of acceleration imparted to the precipitating particles. Precipitating protons produce optical emissions as incident hydrogen atoms after gaining electrons from the atmosphere. Proton auroras are observed at lower latitudes; the word "aurora" is derived from the name of the Roman goddess of the dawn, who traveled from east to west announcing the coming of the sun.
Ancient Roman poets used the name metaphorically to refer to dawn mentioning its play of colours across the otherwise dark sky. Most auroras occur in a band known as the "auroral zone", 3° to 6° wide in latitude and between 10° and 20° from the geomagnetic poles at all local times, most seen at night against a dark sky. A region that displays an aurora is called the "auroral oval", a band displaced towards the night side of the Earth. Early evidence for a geomagnetic connection comes from the statistics of auroral observations. Elias Loomis, Hermann Fritz and S. Tromholt in more detail, established that the aurora appeared in the auroral zone. Day-to-day positions of the auroral ovals are posted on the Internet. In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the northern lights; the former term was coined by Galileo in 1619, from the Roman goddess of the dawn and the Greek name for the north wind. The southern counterpart, the aurora australis or the southern lights, has features identical to the aurora borealis and changes with changes in the northern auroral zone.
The Aurora Australis is visible from high southern latitudes in Antarctica, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia. A geomagnetic storm causes the auroral ovals to expand, bring the aurora to lower latitudes; the instantaneous distribution of auroras is different, being centered about 3–5° nightward of the magnetic pole, so that auroral arcs reach furthest toward the equator when the magnetic pole in question is in between the observer and the Sun. The aurora can be seen best at this time, called magnetic midnight. Auroras seen within the auroral oval may be directly overhead, but from farther away, they illuminate the poleward horizon as a greenish glow, or sometimes a faint red, as if the Sun were rising from an unusual direction. Auroras occur poleward of the auroral zone as either diffuse patches or arcs, which can be subvisual. Auroras are seen in latitudes below the auroral zone, when a geomagnetic storm temporarily enlarges the auroral oval. Large geomagnetic storms are most common during the peak of the 11-year sunspot cycle or during the three years after the peak.
An aurora may appear overhead as a "corona" of rays, radiating from a distant and apparent central location, which results from perspective. An electron spirals about a field line at an angle, determined by its velocity vectors and perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector B; this angle is known as the "pitch angle" of the particle. The distance, or radius, of the electron from the field line at any time is known as its Larmor radius; the pitch angle increases as the electron travels to a region of greater field strength nearer to the atmosphere. Thus, it is possible for some particles to return, or mirror, if the angle becomes 90° before entering the atmosphere to collide with the denser molecules there. Other particles that do not mirror enter the atmosphere and contribute to the auroral display over a range of altitudes. Other types of auroras have been observed from space, e.g."poleward arcs" stretching sunward across the polar cap, the related "theta aurora", "dayside arcs" near noon.
These are infrequent and poorly understood. Other interesting effects occur such as flickering "black aurora" and subvisual red arcs. In addition to all these, a weak glow observed around the two polar cusps, the field lines separating the ones that close through the Earth from those that are swept into the tail and close remotely; the altitudes where auroral emissions occur were revealed by Carl Størmer and his colleagues, who used cameras to triangulate more than 12,000 auroras. They discovered that most of the light is produced between 90 and 150 km above the ground, while extending at times to more than 1000 km. Images of auroras are more common today than in the past due to the increase in the use of digital cameras that have high enough sensitivities. Film and digital exposure to auroral displays is fraught with difficulties. Due to the different color spectra present, the temporal changes occurring during the exposure, the results are somewhat unpredictable. Different layers of the film emulsion respond differently to lower light levels, choice of a film can be important.
Longer exposures superimpose changing features, blanket the dynamic attribute of a display. Hi
Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics, it is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Through 2018, a total of 209 individuals have been awarded the prize. Only three women have won the Nobel Prize in Physics: Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963, Donna Strickland in 2018. Alfred Nobel, in his last will and testament, stated that his wealth be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one was written a year before he died and was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee who were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences were to award the Prize in Physics. A maximum of three Nobel laureates and two different works may be selected for the Nobel Prize in Physics. Compared with other Nobel Prizes, the nomination and selection process for the prize in Physics is long and rigorous; this is a key reason why it has grown in importance over the years to become the most important prize in Physics. The Nobel laureates are selected by the Nobel Committee for Physics, a Nobel Committee that consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In the first stage that begins in September, around 3,000 people – selected university professors, Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry, etc. – are sent confidential forms to nominate candidates. The completed nomination forms arrive at the Nobel Committee no than 31 January of the following year; these nominees are scrutinized and discussed by experts who narrow it to fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations on the final candidates into the Academy, where, in the Physics Class, it is further discussed.
The Academy makes the final selection of the Laureates in Physics through a majority vote. The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, neither are they told that they have been considered for the prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can be made if the individual died in the months between the decision of the prize committee and the ceremony in December. Prior to 1974, posthumous awards were permitted; the rules for the Nobel Prize in Physics require that the significance of achievements being recognized has been "tested by time". In practice, it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. For example, half of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar for his work on stellar structure and evolution, done during the 1930s; as a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized.
Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a prize, as the discoverers die by the time the impact of their work is appreciated. A Physics Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money; the Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal has an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse; the Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Physiology or Medicine, Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a different design; the image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design of Nature, as a Goddess, whose veil is held up by the Genius of Science.
These medals and the ones for Physiology/Medicine and Literature were designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902. Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the