A pika is a small mountain-dwelling mammal found in Asia and North America. With short limbs round body, an coat of fur, no external tail, they resemble their close cousin the rabbit, but with short rounded ears; the large-eared pika of the Himalayas and nearby mountains is found at heights of more than 6,000 metres, among the highest of any mammal. Pikas prefer rocky slopes and graze on a range of plants grasses and young stems. In the autumn, they pull hay, soft twigs and other stores of food into their burrows to eat during the long cold winter; the pika is known as the "whistling hare" for its high-pitched alarm call when diving into its burrow. The name "pika" appears to be derived from the Tungus piika, the scientific name Ochotona is from the Mongolian word ogdoi which means pika, it is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs which includes the Leporidae. Only one genus, Ochotona, is recognised within the family; the two species found in North America are the American pika, found in the mountains of the western United States and far southwestern Canada, the collared pika of northern British Columbia, the Yukon, western Northwest Territories, Alaska.
Pikas are native to cold climates in Asia, North America, parts of Eastern Europe. Most species live on rocky mountainsides, where there are numerous crevices for them to shelter in, although some pikas construct crude burrows. A few burrowing species are native to open steppe land. In the mountains of Eurasia, pikas share their burrows with snowfinches, which build their nests there. Pikas require cold temperatures to live, can die if exposed to temperatures above 77.9 °F. Changing temperatures have forced some pika populations to restrict their ranges to higher elevations. Pikas rounded ears, they are about 15 to 23 centimetres in body length and weigh between 120 and 350 grams, depending on species. Like rabbits, after eating they produce soft green feces, which they eat again to take in further nutrition, before producing the final, fecal pellets; some pikas, such as the collared pika, have been known to store dead birds in their burrows for food during winter. These animals are herbivores, feed on a wide variety of plant matter, including forbs, sedges, shrub twigs and lichen.
As with other lagomorphs, pikas have gnawing incisors and no canines, although they have fewer molars than rabbits, have a dental formula of: 22.214.171.124.0.2.3 Rock-dwelling pikas have small litters of fewer than five young, while the burrowing species tend to give birth to more young, to breed more possibly due to a greater availability of resources in their native habitats. The young are born after a gestation period of between 30 days. Pikas are diurnal or crepuscular, with higher-elevation species being more active during the daytime, they show their peak activity just before the winter season. Pikas do not hibernate, so they spend time during the summer collecting and storing food they will eat over the winter; each rock-dwelling pika stores its own "haypile" of dried vegetation, while burrowing species share food stores with their burrow mates. Haying behavior is more prominent at higher elevations. Many of the vocalizations and social behaviors that pikas exhibit are related to haypile defense.
Eurasian pikas live in family groups and share duties of gathering food and keeping watch. Some species are territorial. North American pikas are asocial. Pikas have distinct calls; the call can either be short and quick, a little longer and more drawn out. The short calls are an example of geographic variation; the pikas determine the appropriate time to make short calls by listening for cues for sound localization. The calls are used for individual recognition, predator warning signals, territory defense, or as a way to attract the opposite sex. There are different calls depending on the season. In the spring, the songs become more frequent during the breeding season. In late summer, the vocalizations become short calls. Through various studies, the acoustic characteristics of the vocalizations can be a useful taxonomic tool; the average lifespan of pikas in the wild is seven years. A pika's age may be determined by the number of adhesion lines on the periosteal bone on the lower jaw; the lifespan does not differ between the sexes.
There are 30 species listed. Order LagomorphaFamily Ochotonidae: pikas Genus Ochotona Subgenus Pika: northern pikas Alpine pika or Altai pika, Ochotona alpina Helan Shan pika or silver pika, Ochotona argentata Collared pika, Ochotona collaris Hoffmann's pika, Ochotona hoffmanni Northern pika or Siberian pika, Ochotona hyperborea Pallas's pika, Ochotona pallasi American pika, Ochotona princeps Turuchan pika, Ochotona turuchanensis Subgenus Ochotona: shrub-steppe pikas Gansu pika or gray pika, Ochotona cansus Plateau pika or black-lipped pika, Ochotona curzoniae Daurian pika, Ochotona dauurica Tsing-ling pika, Ochotona huangensis Nubra pika, Ochotona nubrica Steppe pika, Ochotona pusilla Afghan pika, Ochotona rufescens Moupin pika, Ochotona thibetana Thomas's pika, Ochotona thomasi Ochotona yarlungensis Ochotona qionglaoensis Subgenus Conothoa: mountain pikas Chinese red pika, Ochotona erythrotis Forrest's pika, Ochotona forresti Gaoligong pika, Ochotona gaoligongensis Glover's pika, Ochotona gloveri Himalayan pika, Ochotona himalayana Ili pika, Ochotona iliensis Koslov's pika, Ochotona koslowi Ladak p
The Republic of Vietnam National Police Field Force designated Police de Campagne by the French and variously as National Police Field Force, Field Police or Field Force for short by the Americans, was a paramilitary élite branch of the Republic of Vietnam National Police. Active during the Vietnam War, the CSDC operated with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam and the American Central Intelligence Agency from 1966 to 1975; the CSDC was created in January 1966 by the South Vietnamese government as an armed support unit for the National Police. The missions performed by the CSDC went well beyond the normal duties of a civil police force, functionally serving as another branch of the South Vietnamese armed forces, being organized and trained for paramilitary operations in the field on both rural and urban areas. Assigned to intelligence-gathering, counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism duties, CSDC companies and battalions were employed in various other tasks such as guarding important public buildings, VIP protection, public security, riot control and search, urban combat operations.
Between 1967 and 1972 the CSDC was involved in the highly-controversial CIA-run Phoenix Program, participating in the "neutralization" – which involved arbitrary arrests without charge, routine torture, extrajudicial executions – of suspected members of the civil infrastructure or "shadow administration" of the Viet Cong. CSDC members' were National Policemen that volunteered to Field Force service, although the unit accepted military personnel either transferred or retired from the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, including ex-members of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces following its disbandment in December 1970; the Field Police Command Staff reported directly for operational orders to the National Police Command and was co-located to the CSQG Headquarters at Saigon. Under the designation of'Armed Support Unit', the CSDC Command in 1969 was in charge of the Field Police units and of the River and Coastal Police. Rechristened'Reaction Unit' in 1972, the Field Police Command integrated the Provincial Investigation Force and in 1973 changed again its designation to'Mobile Operations Department'.
The basic unit of the Field Police was the company, organized into a 24-man company headquarters and several 40-man combat platoons, each with four 10-man squads. Until 1968, one company was assigned to each province and main cities and fielded a number of platoons ranging from two to 13 according to the number of rural or urban districts. For example, up to five districts a single company was assigned, but if a province or town counted more than six districts, two companies could be deployed. After 1969, a major re-organization was implemented, with the provincial companies being expanded to battalions. By August 1971, the CSDC strength totaled 16,500 officers and enlisted men organized into 44 provincial battalions comprising some 90 companies, 242 district platoons and one independent armoured cavalry platoon. Two independent companies of four platoons each were based at Vũng Tàu and Danang, two autonomous port cities which had their own municipal police services separated from the province in which they were located.
To provide supervision and support to all these provincial and urban Field Police units, Regional Headquarters and Service Companies were located at each of the country’s four Military Regions. A CSDC company was commanded by an Inspector, who came under the operational command of the National Police provincial chief whilst platoons assigned to the districts were under operational control of the district police chief who, in turn, was directly answerable to the district political chief. A predominantly light infantry force, the CSDC operated a single independent armoured cavalry platoon, provided with eight World War II-vintage US M8 Greyhound light armoured cars. Headquartered at Saigon, it was tasked of providing security to the National Police HQ and the adjoining National Bank building and their environs. In addition, the Field Police maintained two Tactical Mobile Groups – TMG totalling 5,000 men and designated BD 5 and BD 222 which conferred the National Police the capacity to engage independently in either defensive or offensive actions according to its mission of operational defense.
Based at Saigon, BD 5 was in fact an enlarged battalion since it fielded, in addition to one headquarters' company, 12 to 14 combat companies of four platoons each. The battalion operated on the wider Saigon-Gia Định region, assigned to the Saigon Municipal Police Directorate, encharged with the internal security and internal defense of the capital. During the Tet Offensive in January 1968 the unit was committed in the defense of President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu's residence, the Independence Palace alongside other National Police and ARVN units, distinguishing itself at the battles for the Tan Son Nhut Air Base, the Phu Tho Racetrack and the Cha Tam Church, where they inflicted heavy losses on attacking VC units. Headquartered at Saigon, B
Bengaluru Central Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 28 Lok Sabha constituencies in Karnataka state in southern India. This constituency was created in 2008 as part of delimitation, it was carved out of the Bangalore North and South Lok Sabha constituencies during 2009 Indian elections. It first held elections in 2009 and its first member of parliament was P. C. Mohan The Central Lok Sabha constituency is dominated by minority voters, is challenge for candidates, with having to get the support of both linguistic and religious minorities; the constituency has 4.5 lakh Muslims and about 2 lakh Christians. There is a significant number of Marwaris and Jains around Chickpet and Gandhinagar suburbs; the Tamil population is concentrated around the suburbs of Shivajinagar, Gandhinagar and are a deciding factor for the winning candidate. Further, the demography of the constituency ranges from rich to middle class to slums; as of 2014, Bangalore Central Lok Sabha constituency presently comprises the following eight Legislative Assembly segments: Bangalore List of Constituencies of the Lok Sabha Bangalore Central lok sabha constituency election 2019 date and schedule
The Libertarian Party of Manitoba fielded six candidates in the 1995 provincial election, none of whom were elected. Information about these candidates may be found on this page. Beaudry has campaigned for both the provincial Libertarian parties, he listed himself as a clerk in the 1988 federal election. Alexander W. Pressey was born in 1939 to a Ukrainian Canadian family in Manitoba, he is a noted psychologist, with a Master of Arts degree from the University of Manitoba and a Ph. D. from the University of Alberta. He served in the Canadian Armed Forces during the 1950s and 1960s, attaining the rank of captain, he joined the Department of Psychology at the University of Manitoba as an assistant professor in 1964, attained the title of Professor of Psychology in 1973. He is the editor and co-author of Readings in general psychology: Canadian contributions, has published over sixty articles in various journals, he was president of the board of the Manitoba Psychological Society in 1970–71. Pressey criticized the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation for its coverage of Manitoba's bilingualism controversy in 1984, arguing that the broadcaster was biased in favour of the entrenchment of francophone rights.
He criticized the modern environmentalist movement, writing in 2007 that popular belief in man-made global warming is based on superstition. He received 91 votes as a Libertarian candidate in 1995, finishing in fourth place against Progressive Conservative incumbent Rosemary Vodrey
Jelena Karleuša Tošić is a Serbian singer, known for her provocative work and reinvented image, through which she earned significant recognition and influence. Karleuša has been noted for receiving substantial media attention with her outspoken views and occasional controversies. German magazine Focus referred to her as "Madonna of the Balkans", while W magazine compared her to Lady Gaga. Karleuša is the most followed Serbian woman on social media, including two million followers on Instagram. Jelena Karleuša was born on August 17, 1978 in Belgrade, SFR Yugoslavia and was raised in the Fontana neighborhood of New Belgrade, her mother, Divna Karleuša, was a host at Radio Belgrade, while her father, Dragan, is a retired Captain of Serbian Ministry of Internal Affairs, who notably led the investigation of the infamous Kosovo massacre of 1999 and took a part in the Operation Sablja in 2003. Karleuša attended music school and was a member of a choir. At sixteen years of age, Karleuša expressed a desire to become a singer to her mother's support, who at the time wasn't able to financially carry out Jelenas debut album due to inflation and, challenging economic situation in the country.
With help from singer Dragana Mirković, Karleuša managed to release her first record Ogledalce under Diskos in 1995, which saw a commercial success, selling more than 100,000 copies in Yugoslavia. On, she released five more turbo-folk oriented records, but as her career progressed she tried to be perceived as a performer of pop music exclusively. In 2002, she collaborated with Greek label Heaven Music and their eminent songwriter Phoebus on her seventh album, titled Samo za tvoje oči. In February 2004, Karleuša took part in Beovizija music festival to qualify for Serbia and Montenegro's entry for Eurovision Song Contest with "Moli me", however without success, she signed a recording contract with City Records and released Magija in February the following year. In February 2008, Karleuša delivered her best-selling album yet, titled JK Revolution, despite facing scrutiny for the infamous studio session of the lead single "Tihi ubica", which leaked to the public and provoked discussions about her vocal abilities.
In March 2009, she walked on the second day. At the end of the year, Karleuša launched a clothing line, called JK Wear. In May 2010 she held All About Diva Show, a 15,000 people concert in the Belgrade Arena, displaying Karleuša's showmanship with her sexual and eccentric appearances, visual effects and choreographies. During the same year, she landed a column in the daily newspaper Kurir on politics and the music scene, which raised a lot controversies, her tenth electropop influenced album Diva, released on 11 June 2012, saw great commercial success, but marked a significant departure from her previous pop-folk records. Her second Belgrade concert, Viva la Diva Show, was held in Ušće, June 2013 in front of 40,000 fans. However, she suffered strong media backlash, weighing about the actual number of people at the concert, which saw technical issues. Karleuša lost her recording contract and got banned from RTV Pink following a disagreement with its owner and CEO, Željko Mitrović. Due to all of these issues, Karleuša declared.
In 2015, she ended her hiatus by signing to Grand Production and becoming a judge, a mentor, on the reality talent show Zvezde Granda. In meantime, Karleuša has developed an online and social media presence through her fashion style, in April 2016 was the first Serbian woman, second overall after Novak Djokovic, to reach one million followers on Instagram; that year, she made a guest performance at Vodafone Park in Istanbul after her husband's team, Besiktas J. K. had won the national championship. The following June, she performed her two new duets, "Bankina" with Aca Lukas and "Ostavljam te" featuring Azis, on the live finale of Zvezde Granda, which were her first releases since 2013. In late January 2019, Karleuša performed "LaJK" featuring Serbian rapper Gazda Paja at the 2019 Music Awards Ceremony; the performance included an intro through which Karleuša reflected on the media backlash regarding her personal life from the past month, since she'd decided to take a break from the media. Jelena Karleuša has a polarized public reception of her work and persona.
Throughout her career, she has attracted significant controversy and media scrutiny for her appearances, which are deemed edgy and over-sexualised, for her outspoken views regarding other public figures and socioeconomic situation in Serbia. However, she has created an undeniable influence over the public life and mass culture in Serbia and its region. In a 2013 public survey, she was cited as the biggest influence of Serbian youth after Novak Djokovic; the title of her 2012 song, "Sodoma i Gomora", appeared as a question on the standardized test for admission to the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Niš, that year. In 2019, Karleuša served as a subject of a master's degree paper titled "Celebrity Diplomacy in the former Yugoslavia: Case Jelena Karleuša" at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science. Regarded as a style icon, Karleuša has acquired significant foreign recognition through fashion over the years. In 2015, she rose to international prominence after she'd accused Kim Kardashian, Beyoncé, of copying he
David D. Siegel was an American law professor and legal commentator. Siegel had a B. A. from Brooklyn College, a J. D. from St. John's University School of Law, an LL. M. from New York University School of Law. Siegel was the author of numerous works of legal commentary on the laws of the New York State, he is acknowledged to have been among the preeminent experts in the area of New York Civil Practice. He has been referred to by former New York Chief Judge Judith Kaye as the New York Court of Appeals' "favorite Master of the Art of Civil Practice." His writings are known for providing practical commentary to practicing attorneys, an art lost in legal academic publications. Siegel is best known for the legal treatise "New York Practice", a mainstay of legal libraries in New York, he is the author of Siegel's Practice Commentaries, the New York State Law Digest, Conflict of Laws in a Nutshell, 3d. Edition, numerous commentaries in McKinney's New York Laws and the United States Code Annotated, his commentaries have been cited in opinions issued by the United States Supreme Court and other federal appellate courts, as well as more than two hundred and fifty times by the New York Court of Appeals and over three thousand times by the trial level and intermediate appellate courts of New York State.
Siegel began teaching at Albany Law School in 1972 and retired from active teaching in 2007. Prior to and concurrent with his teaching at Albany, Siegel taught at St. John's University School of Law. Seigel served on several state legislative committees, drafting the New York City Civil Court Act, the Uniform Justice Court Act, the Uniform City Court Act, the Uniform District Court Act. For many years, Siegel funded an annual scholarship for students participating in the editorial board of the Albany Law Review. Siegel died at his home in Massachusetts on October 9, 2014