Fairplay is the statutory town, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Park County, United States. Fairplay is located in South Park at an elevation of 9,953 feet; the town is the fifth-highest incorporated place in the State of Colorado. The population was 679 at the U. S. Census 2010. A historic gold mining settlement, the town was founded in 1859 during the early days of the Pike's Peak Gold Rush; the town was named by settlers who were upset by the generous mining claims given to the earliest prospectors and promised a more equitable system for its residents. The town of Fairplay was incorporated in 1872, it is the largest community in the grassland basin of Colorado known as South Park, sitting on the west edge of the basin at the junction of U. S. Highway 285 and State Highway 9, it is on a hillside just east of the Middle Fork South Platte River, near where Highway 9 ascends the river valley northward to Alma and Hoosier Pass. It is a quiet town, the roads surrounding it have a low volume of traffic.
Although it was founded during the initial placer mining boom, the mines in the area continued to produce gold and silver ore for many decades up through the middle of the 20th century. The town consists of modern retail businesses along the highway, as well as a historic town on the bluff above the river along Front Street; the northern extension of Front Street along the river has been preserved and has become the site of relocated historic structures as an open-air museum called South Park City, intended to recreate the early days of the Colorado Gold Rush. Most of the residences in town are located on the hillside west of US Highway 285 and east of State Highway 9, in the vicinity of the schools and Park County Courthouse; the majority of the streets in town were paved in 2005. The Town of Fairplay is the visual basis for the Town of South Park in the television series South Park; the people in the show are influenced by Boulder, where creators Matt Stone and Trey Parker attended college at the University of Colorado.
From 1966 to 1984, the asbestos-ridden McNamara Building in Fairplay, now demolished, had been the community hospital. It was named for Dr. Edward Bradley McNamara, a former U. S. Army doctor in World War II, he died working in the emergency room of his namesake hospital in August 1973. The hospital, built with Hill-Burton Act funds, had financial woes from the start. Before it was condemned and vacated in 2009, it had been used by several successive clinics and by Park County for office space. A previous eight-bed Park County Hospital had operated in Fairplay as early as 1892 and preceded the McNamara Hospital. Both facilities had been for emergencies and minor surgery, for nursing home care. In 1874, the Presbyterian missionary Sheldon Jackson built in Fairplay the still-standing Sheldon Jackson Memorial Chapel, since renamed the South Park Community Church, a one-room Victorian Gothic Revival structure, listed in 1977 on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all of it land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 610 people, 259 households, 169 families residing in the town. The population density was 576.3 people per square mile. There were 337 housing units at an average density of 318.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.1% White, 1.3% African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 2.8% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population. There were 259 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.79. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 37.5% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 5.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,385, the median income for a family was $51,979. Males had a median income of $34,286 versus $26,429 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,742. About 6.6% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. The Burro Days festival is held on the last weekend of July; the event celebrates the town's mining heritage. The main feature of the festival is a 29-mile burro race over rough terrain and 3,000-ft elevation gain from downtown Fairplay to the 13,000-ft summit of Mosquito Pass. Teams consist of one burro; the race takes about five hours to complete. The first prize included an ounce of gold. There are several other burro races in Colorado, the most notable takes place in Leadville; the Fairplay event is the World Championship of Burro Racing, an ultra-marathon and the longest burro race in the state.
For many years the Burro race took place from Leadville to Fairplay, or vice versa, crossing over Mosquito Pass. This followed the route that Father John Lewis Dyer of the Methodist Episcopal Church used for circuit riding and for carrying mail. With time, the rivalry between the two cities ended this cooperative endeavor; the 64th burro race, held in Fairpla
The forest fire Hayman Fire started on June 8, 2002, 35 miles northwest of Colorado Springs, Colorado and 95 miles southwest of Denver and became the largest wildfire in the state's recorded history at over 138,114 acres. See: Colorado wildfires Hundreds of firefighters fought the fast-moving fire, which caused nearly $40 million in firefighting costs, burned 133 homes, 138,114 acres, forced the evacuation of 5,340 people. Smoke could be seen and smelled across the state from Vail, 108 miles northwest, to Burlington, 188 miles east, from Broomfield, 50 miles north, to Walsenburg, 130 miles south; the Hayman Fire burned from June 8th, 2002, until it was classified as contained on July 18, 2002. The cause of the wildfire was found to be arson; when then-Governor Bill Owens responded to a reporter’s question following an aerial tour of the fires, Owens said "It looks as if all of Colorado is burning today." Many western slope residents blamed Owens for driving away tourists with the press's truncated version of the quote The ‘’’Hayman Fire’’’ was named for a mining ghost town near Tappan Gulch.
The fire resulted directly in the death of one civilian, $39.1 million in suppression costs, total private property losses valued at $40.4 million, indirectly led to the death of five firefighters. Overall, 600 structures were burned in the fire including 133 homes, 1 commercial building and 466 outbuildings. While the fire burned, record amounts of particulate matter were measured in the air; as a result of the fire, flooding in the burn area increased. Many roads and bridges in the area were washed out; this included the main highway that runs through the area. Other indirect destruction included sediment runoff into a reservoir, used as a water source for Denver; the removal of this sediment cost $25 million. Most of the burn area is inside of the Pike National Forest; the fire caused the closure of a large part of the national forest land as well as nearby Eleven Mile State Park and Spinney State Park. Tourism saw a sharp decline in the area and it is estimated that local businesses lost 50% of their seasonal revenues as a result of the fire-induced closures.
Ann Dow, 50, suffered a fatal asthma attack on the evening of June 10, 2002 when heavy smoke from the fire drifted over the Dows' home south of Florissant. She lapsed into unconsciousness and paramedics could not revive her, her death certificate lists the cause as "acute asthma attack due to or as a consequence of smoke inhalation." Five firefighters died from injuries sustained from a June 21, 2002 traffic accident en route to the Hayman fire from Oregon: Zach Zigich, Retha Shirley, Jacob Martindale, Danial Rama, Bart Bailey. They are listed in the memorial to fallen firefighters on the Wildland Firefighter Foundation's website. A forestry technician with the U. S. Forest Service, Terry Barton, set the fire in a campfire ring during a total burn ban triggered by a National Weather Service red flag warning. Barton's claim that she was attempting to burn a letter from her estranged husband was disputed by one of her teenage daughters who testified that a psychology teacher had told Ms. Barton to write her feelings in a letter and burn it.
Many locals believe she set the fire on purpose so she could stay home and fight a local Colorado fire instead of being called to fight fires in other states, such as Arizona or California. This would enable her to be with her kids that summer. According to radio talk show host Glenn Sacks, investigators speculated that Barton started the fire so she could be a hero for putting it out and saving the forest; the fire spread out of the campfire ring and torched over 138,000 acres and burned across four different counties. A federal grand jury indicted Barton on four felony counts of arson. Barton pleaded guilty to two charges: setting fire to federal forest land and lying to investigators and was given a six-year sentence in federal prison. U. S. District Judge Richard Matsch refused, however, to impose the $14 million restitution asked for by prosecutors, saying he would not sentence her to a "life of poverty." Additionally, the State of Colorado sentenced Barton to 12 years in prison to run concurrently with the 6-year federal sentence.
The state sentence was overturned on appeal, however, on grounds that the presiding judge had "the appearance of prejudice" because smoke from the fire had motivated him to voluntarily leave his home for one night. In March 2008, Barton was re-sentenced by a different judge to 15 years of probation and 1,000 hours community service. Several insurance companies filed a $7 million suit against the government in the fall of 2008, claiming that Barton was negligent in her duties. In November, Judge Wiley Daniel ruled that the government was not responsible for Barton's actions because she was acting as an angry spouse and not as a government worker. In August 2018, Barton's sentence was extended another 15 years in the form of unsupervised probation. Judge William Brian ordered that Barton continue to make payments toward the $14.5 million in restitution she owed as of the 2018 re-sentencing. The judge ordered that Barton get a full-time job. Rodeo-Chediski Fire of 2002, a concurrent large wildfire in Arizona Healthy Forests Initiative, a federal law passed after the severe wildfires of 2002 The Hayman Fire Report Wildland Firefighter Foundation list of fallen firefighters maps of the Hayman Fire, Park County Bulletin The National Forest Foundation's Conservation and Restoration Plan for the Hayman Burn Area
National Wilderness Preservation System
The National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States protects federally managed wilderness areas designated for preservation in their natural condition. Activity on formally designated wilderness areas is coordinated by the National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness areas are managed by four federal land management agencies: the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management; the term "wilderness" is defined as "an area where the earth and community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain" and "an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions." As of 2016, there are 765 designated wilderness areas, totaling 109,129,657 acres, or about 4.5% of the area of the United States. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the American transportation system was on the rise, concern for clean air and water quality began to grow.
A conservation movement began to take place with the intent of establishing designated wilderness areas. Howard Zahniser created the first draft of the Wilderness Act in 1956, it took nine years and 65 rewrites before the Wilderness Act was passed in 1964. The Wilderness Act of 1964, which established the NWPS, was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 3, 1964; the Wilderness Act mandated that the National Park Service, U. S. Forest Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service review all federal lands under their jurisdiction for wilderness areas to include in the NWPS; the first national forest wilderness areas were established by the Wilderness Act itself. The Great Swamp in New Jersey became the first National Wildlife Refuge with formally designated wilderness in 1968. Wilderness areas in national parks followed, beginning with the designation of wilderness in part of Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho in 1970. A dramatic spike in acreage added to the wilderness system in 1980 was due in large part to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980.
A smaller spike in 1984 came with the passage of many bills establishing national forest wilderness areas identified by the Forest Service's Roadless Area Review and Evaluation process. The Bureau of Land Management was not required to review its lands for inclusion in the NWPS until after October 21, 1976, when the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 was signed into law. Over 200 wilderness areas have been created within Bureau of Land Management administered lands since consisting of 8.71 million acres in September 2015. As of August 2008, a total of 704 separate wilderness areas, encompassing 107,514,938 acres, had become part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. With the passage of the Omnibus Public Lands Act in March 2009, there were 756 wilderness areas; as of September 2015, the system includes 765 wilderness areas totaling 109,129,657 acres. On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate an area as wilderness under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964.
Multiple agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the U. S. Forest Service, are responsible for the submission of new areas that fit the criteria to become wilderness to congress. Congress reviews these cases on a state by state basis and determines which areas and how much land in each area will become part of the WPS. There have been multiple occasions in which congress designated more federal land than had been recommended by the nominating agency. Whereas the Wilderness Act stipulated that a wilderness area must be "administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness", the Eastern Wilderness Act, which added 16 National Forest areas to the NWPS, allowed for the inclusion of areas, modified by human interference; the Wilderness Act provides criteria for lands being considered for wilderness designation. Though there are some exceptions, the following conditions must be present for an area to be included in the NWPS: the land is under federal ownership and management, the area consists of at least five thousand acres of land, human influence is "substantially unnoticeable," there are opportunities for solitude and recreation, the area possesses "ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, scenic, or historical value."
Wilderness areas are subject to specific management restrictions. During these activities, patrons are asked to abide by the "Leave No Trace" policy; this policy sets guidelines for using the wilderness responsibly, leaving the area as it was before usage. These guidelines include: Packing all trash out of the wilderness, using a stove as opposed to a fire, camping at least 200 feet from trails or water sources, staying on marked trails, keeping group size small; when observed, the "Leave No Trace" ethos ensures that wilderness areas remain untainted by human interaction. In general, the law prohibits logging, mechanized vehicles, road-building, other forms of development in wilderness areas, though pre-existing mining claims and grazing ranges are permitted through grandf
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state
Fountain Creek (Arkansas River)
Fountain Creek is a stream that originates in Woodland Park in Teller County and flows through El Paso County to its confluence with the Arkansas River near Pueblo in Pueblo County, Colorado. The 74.5-mile-long creek, once known as the Fontaine qui Bouille, is a tributary of the Arkansas River. The Fountain Creek Watershed—located in Teller, El Paso, Pueblo counties—is 930 square miles in area, its borders are the Palmer Divide and a minor divide east of Colorado Springs. Monument Creek, which originates on Rampart Range, is the main tributary. Other key tributaries are Jimmy Camp Creek. Fountain Creek and its tributaries flow through Woodland Park, Green Mountain Falls, Palmer Lake, Manitou Springs, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Fountain Creek's elevation ranges from 14,114 to 4,640 feet from Pikes Peak to where it meets the Arkansas River in Pueblo. With the significant elevation changes, there are diverse ecosystems and extreme temperature and precipitation variations. Within the watershed are regional and local parks, including the Fountain Creek Regional Park and Nature Center in Fountain and the Whitewater Kayak Park in Pueblo, creekside trails that are used for jogging, bicycle riding, viewing wildlife.
A future project is the Fountain Creek Eco-Fit Education Park, to be located in Colorado Springs, south of the El Pomar Youth Sports Park on 40 acres donated by the City of Colorado Springs in 2011. Connected to areas along the creek using webcam and other Internet technology, the Fountain Creek Eco-Fit Education Park, will provide a means for visitors to learn about the creek through hands-on and interactive play. In 1999, 70 million gallons of raw sewage spilled into the creek during a flood. Sewage backed up into houses and wastewater pipes in the sewer system were cracked. "That wiped out our whole wastewater system... We lost about 68 million gallons of wastewater - untreated sewage," said Steve Berry, a spokesman for the utility. Between 1988 and 2003, there was a total of 74 million gallons of raw sewage that spilled into Fountain Creek. There were continued sewage spills in 2004. In 2005, there were more than 300,000 gallons of nonpotable water and sewage spills, which resulted in a fine of $130,000 to Colorado Springs Utilities by the Colorado Department of Health.
Another 44,000 gallon raw sewage spill into Shooks Run and Fountain Creek on January 5, 2006, producing elevated levels of E. coli in Fountain Creek, resulted in a $10,000 fine for the utility and a required evaluation for how the utility managed sewage blockages within its system. Changes required of the utility to improve the sewage system could cost up to $40 million by 2012. In total, the utility expects to spend $250 million by 2025 to improve its sewer system and prevent sewage spills into Fountain Creek. According to The Gazette in 2007, untreated sewage spills into the creek an average of 10 times every year. Most of the sewage spills occurred before 2006, but there were still spills and penalties through 2011; the sewage spills polluted the Creek, of particular concern to downstream users, like the City of Pueblo. Tests between 2007 and 2009 by the U. S. Geological Survey found levels of the E. coli bacterium above the safe limit in Ruxton Creek, Fountain Creek near Green Mountain Falls, Fountain Creek near 8th Street.
The E. coli levels were high in the summer. Using microbial source tracking and DNA tracking, birds were identified and validated via water quality testing as the source of summer increases in E. coli. Colorado Springs Utilities, after ten years, had its compliance order with the state's Water Quality Control Division closed in 2013; the utility spent more than $170 million on improvements to the sewage system and $450,000 in penalties regarding sewage spills into Fountain Creek and its tributaries. The changes to the wastewater collection system included creation of detention ponds to divert overflow for treatment, a rapid response trailer to manage overflow problems, 80 miles of large-diameter pipes, creek crossing projects, more than 1,200 manhole covers. In 2014, a $145 bonding plan that would have included a regional stormwater project was voted down, it would have created a partnership with El Paso County, Green Mountain Falls, Manitou Springs, Fountain to implement flood control projects.
Fountain Creek was identified as "impaired" due to high levels of selenium, picked up from the soil by ground and surface water, E. coli in parts of the watershed. E. coli exceeds safe levels due to raw sewage spills, livestock, stormwater overflows, farm and ranch runoff. The variability of water flow, such as through floods, sewage spills, groundwater runoff, have made the creek subject to sediment build-up, changes in flow, vegetation changes; the Fountain Creek Vision Task Force was created in 2006 by the Pueblo and El Paso county commissioners to address water quality issues and promote recreation along the creek. The task force focuses on improving water quality for aquatic species and public health, ensuring a healthy wildlife habitat, resolving stormwater overflows, investigating land use impacts, it recommended the creation of the Fountain Creek Watershed Drainage, Flood Control, Greenway District for long-term management and funding. Fountain Creek Watershed Drainage, Flood Control, Greenway District was created on April 30, 2009 under Senate Bill 09-141.
Overseen by nine board members, the "District's primary goals are to create healthy and safe waterways and establish greater recreation and appreciation opportunities, all through regional collaboration." Its projects include wetland restoration, sediment removal, water quality improvements, flood attenuation, erosion man
National Park Service ranger
National Park Service rangers are among the uniformed employees charged with protecting and preserving areas set aside in the National Park System by the United States Congress and the President of the United States. While all employees of the agency contribute to the National Park Service mission of preserving unimpaired the natural and cultural resources set aside by the American people for future generations, the term "park ranger" is traditionally used to describe all National Park Service employees who wear the uniform. Broadly speaking, all National Park Service rangers promote stewardship of the resources in their care - either voluntary stewardship via resource interpretation, or compliance with statute or regulation through law enforcement; these comprise the two main disciplines of the ranger profession in the National Park Service. The term "ranger" is from a Middle English word dating back to 1350–1400. "Rangers" patrolled royal forests and parks to prevent "poachers" from hunting game claimed by the nobility.
Use of the term "ranger" dates to the 17th century in the United States, was drawn from the word "range". The title "ranger" in the modern sense was first applied to a reorganization of the fire warden force in the Adirondack Park, after fires burned 80,000 acres in the park; the name was taken from Rogers' Rangers, a small force famous for their woodcraft that fought in the area during the French and Indian War beginning in 1755. The term was adopted by the National Park Service; the first Director of the National Park Service, Stephen T. Mather, reflected upon the early park rangers in the US National Parks as follows: They are a fine, earnest and public-spirited body of men, these rangers. Though small in number, their influence is large. Many and long are the duties. If a trail is to be blazed, it is "send a ranger." If an animal is floundering in the snow, a ranger is sent to pull him out. If a Dude wants to know the why, if a Sagebrusher is puzzled about a road, it is "ask the ranger." Everything the ranger knows, he will tell ex-cept about himself.
Horace Albright, second director of the National Park Service, called Harry Yount, gamekeeper of Yellowstone National Park, the "father of the ranger service, as well as the first national park ranger". Yount was hired in 1880 to enforce the prohibition on hunting in the park. In addition to these duties, he would act as a guide and escort for visiting officials, such as he did in 1880 for the Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz. Although he was paid a yearly salary of $1,000 he resigned at the end of 1881. Before leaving, he suggested to the superintendent of Yellowstone that "...the game and natural curiosities of the park be protected by officers stationed at different points of the park with authority to enforce observance of laws of the park maintenance and trails." Yount pointed out that it was nearly impossible for one person to protect the game properly over the park's vast expanse. The park ranger position in the federal government began as a series of specialized positions in the miscellaneous Series.
In 1959, the official park ranger position was established throughout the federal government. Along with its companion series the park technician; the park ranger position was designated for "professional" work like management of the park, or management of division. The park technician series was designed to handle routine technical skills, i.e. giving walks, patrolling roads, fee collection. After years of concern of pay, the National Park Service and the Office of Personnel Management agreed to consolidate the two series into a single group, to be used only for professional positions and temporary or seasonal positions; the agreement required that the park service begin using other appropriate technical series for lower paid positions. The protection ranger series was changed to "GL"-0025 in 2005. 0025 – park ranger series* - The duties are to supervise and perform work in the conservation and use of federal park resources. This involves functions such as park conservation; the work requires a knowledge of techniques involved in handling special programs.
This series is used for fee collectors at campgrounds and entrance stations. 0189 – recreation aid and assistant series - Provides support to recreation programs by performing limited aspects of recreation work, lifeguards 0090 – guide series - Provides or supervises interpretive and guide services to visitors to sites of public interest. Give formal talks about natural and historic features, explains engineering structures and related water developments, answers questions, guides tours; the duties of the modern park ranger are as varied and diverse as the parks where they serve, in recent years have become more specialized - though they intertwine. Regardless of the regular duties of any one discipline, the goal of all rangers remains to protect the park resources for future generations and to protect park visitors; this goal is accomplished by the professionalism and sometimes overlapping of the different functions and specialties. For example, an interpretive ranger may be
United States Army Pikes Peak Research Laboratory
The U. S. Army Pikes Peak Research Laboratory, or the "Pikes Peak Lab", is a modern medical research laboratory for the assessment of the impact of high altitude on human physiological and medical parameters of military interest, it is a satellite facility of the U. S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, located in Massachusetts; the Pikes Peak Lab is at the summit of Pikes Peak 14,115 feet in central Colorado, USA. The summit is 5 acres of flat, rocky terrain and is directly and accessible by automobile via the Pikes Peak Highway; the lab has been maintained by USARIEM since 1969 and is a building of 2,267 sq ft. floor space divided into a kitchen and dining/day room, common area bathroom and shower, common area sleeping quarters accommodating up to 16 research volunteers, a wet laboratory, a research area, a mechanical room housing steel storage tanks for water and sewage. The building is well insulated and protected from the elements, supplied with electrical power, heated by natural gas.
Occupying the summit is the commercially operated lodging, the Summit House, for the 500 to 3000 tourists who come daily to the summit in the summer time by car, cog railway, or trail hiking. US Forest Service rangers of the Pike National Forest have general administrative oversight of the greater area; the Pikes Peak Lab was renamed the USARIEM Maher Memorial Altitude Laboratory in honor of John T. Maher, Ph. D. director of USARIEM's Altitude Research Division from 1981 to 1983