It was characterized by new explorations of form and shadow, and dramatic intensity. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, the new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples. To the north, the Theatine architect Camillo-Guarino Guarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian born Filippo Juvarra contributed Baroque buildings to the city of Turin and the Piedmont region. A synthesis of Bernini and Cortona’s architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, michelangelos late Roman buildings, particularly St.
Peters Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering only slowly in the following century. While this was good for the industries and the arts, the new wealth created an inflation. Rome was known just as much for its new sumptuous churches as for its vagabonds, one of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, there is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, but it still maintains rigor. These concerns are more evident in his reworking of Santa Maria della Pace. Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peters Square, the piazza, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centred on an Egyptian obelisk.
Berninis own favourite design was his church of SantAndrea al Quirinale decorated with polychome marbles. His secular architecture included the Palazzo Barberini based on plans by Maderno, Berninis rival, the architect Francesco Borromini, produced designs that deviated dramatically from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance. His building plans were based on geometric figures, his architectural forms were unusual and inventive. Borrominis architectural spaces seem to expand and contract when needed, showing some affinity with the style of Michelangelo. A work, the church of SantIvo alla Sapienza, displays the same playful inventiveness and antipathy to the flat surface, following the death of Bernini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome
Princes Risborough is a small town in Buckinghamshire, about 9 miles south of Aylesbury and 8 miles north west of High Wycombe. Bledlow lies to the west and Monks Risborough to the east and it lies at the foot of the Chiltern Hills, at the north end of a gap or pass through the Chilterns, the south end of which is at West Wycombe. The A4010 road follows this route from West Wycombe through the town and it was long and narrow, taking in land below the Chiltern scarp, the slope of the scarp itself and land above the scarp extending into the Chiltern hills. The manor and the parish extended from Longwick in the north through Alscot, since 1934 the civil parish of Princes Risborough has included the town of Princes Risborough, the village of Monks Risborough and part of Horsenden but has excluded Longwick. It is within the Wycombe district of Buckinghamshire and operates as a council within Wycombe district. The town is overlooked by the Whiteleaf Cross, carved in the chalk of the hillside, the plural forms are hrisenan beorgas.
The spelling in the various documents where the name is found is, as usual, at the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, Risborough was a royal manor held by the King, having been a village of King Harold before the conquest. It was part of the Hundred of Risborough, which comprised Bledlow, Horsenden and it was assessed at 30 hides both before and after the conquest, of which 20 hides related to the demesne. The manor had land for 24 ploughs, four of them in the lords demesne, There were 30 villagers and they together with 12 bordars had 20 ploughs. There were 2 mills, worth 14s 8d a year, meadow for 7 ploughteams, in total it paid £47 a year in white silver, less 16d. Before 1066 it only paid £10 at face value, furthermore, a burgess of Oxford paid 2s and a saltboiler of Droitwich an amount left blank. A freeman held 3 virgates and had the right to sell his land, the persons mentioned would have been only the heads of families, and so the total population of the manor would have been in the region of 200 people.
Before the Norman Conquest Risborough had been held by King Harold and afterwards it formed part of the lands of the new king, William the Conqueror. As a royal manor it could be used by the king to make provision for members of the royal family or others whom he might wish to reward. In the 12th century it was held by Walter Giffard, the 2nd Earl of Buckingham and it was granted to the Constable of Normandy, Robert de Humeto, who obtained a charter from King Henry II, and remained in his family until about 1242. King Henry III granted the manor to Richard, Earl of Cornwall, succeeded by his son, who died in 1300, when it escheated to the Crown. King Edward I in 1302/05 granted it to Queen Margaret for her life, subject to the rights of Margaret, Countess of Cornwall, in one third part for life as part of her dower. King Edward II gave the reversion to his favourite, Piers Gaveston, and his wife
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member, the term column applies especially to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal and made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces, other compression members are often termed columns because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, column refers to such an element that has certain proportional. A column might be an element not needed for structural purposes, many columns are engaged. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns, egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres.
Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians and they included double-bull structures in their capitals. The Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 ×70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I, many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. The Minoans used whole tree-trunks, usually turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a set in the stylobate. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos, the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals. These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization, particularly in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their bases have and through these we may see their use. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most easily distinguished by the form of the column and their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders.
Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages. Early columns were constructed of stone, some out of a piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture, other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of stone, mortared or dry-fit together
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object. A wide variety of styles and motifs have been developed for architecture. In textiles and other objects where the decoration may be the justification for its existence. The vast range of used in ornament draw from geometrical shapes and patterns, plants. In a 1941 essay, the architectural historian Sir John Summerson called it surface modulation, the earliest decoration and ornament often survives from prehistoric cultures in simple markings on pottery, where decoration in other materials has been lost. Ornament implies that the object has a function that an unornamented equivalent might fulfill. Where the object has no function, but exists only to be a work of art such as a sculpture or painting. In recent centuries a distinction between the arts and applied or decorative arts has been applied, with ornament mainly seen as a feature of the latter class. Ornament increased over the Romanesque and Gothic periods, but was reduced in Early Renaissance styles.
While the concept of the Kunstwollen has few followers today, his analysis of the development of forms has been confirmed and refined by the wider corpus of examples known today. Styles of ornamentation can be studied in reference to the culture which developed unique forms of decoration. The Ancient Egyptian culture is arguably the first civilization to add decoration to their buildings. Their ornament takes the forms of the world in that climate, decorating the capitals of columns and walls with images of papyrus. Assyrian culture produced ornament which shows influence from Egyptian sources and a number of themes, including figures of plants. Ancient Greek civilization created many new forms of ornament, with variations from Doric, Ionic. The Romans Latinized the pure forms of the Greek ornament and adapted the forms to every purpose, a few medieval notebooks survive, most famously that of Villard de Honnecourt showing how artists and craftsmen recorded designs they saw for future use. As printing became cheaper, the single ornament print turned into sets, from the 16th to the 19th century, pattern books were published in Europe which gave access to decorative elements, eventually including those recorded from cultures all over the world.
Napoleon had the great pyramids and temples of Egypt documented in the Description de lEgypte, owen Jones published The Grammar of Ornament in 1856 with colored illustrations of decoration from Egypt, Turkey and Spain
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti was an Italian humanist author, architect, priest, linguist and cryptographer, he epitomised the Renaissance Man. Although Alberti is known mostly for being an artist, he was a mathematician of many sorts, Albertis life was described in Giorgio Vasaris Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects. Leon Battista Alberti was born in 1404 in Genoa and his mother is unknown, and his father was a wealthy Florentine who had been exiled from his own city, allowed to return in 1428. Alberti was sent to boarding school in Padua, studied Law at Bologna and he lived for a time in Florence, travelled to Rome in 1431 where he took holy orders and entered the service of the papal court. During this time he studied the ancient ruins, which excited his interest in architecture, Alberti was gifted in many ways. He was tall, strong and an athlete who could ride the wildest horse. He distinguished himself as a writer while he was still a child at school, in 1435, he began his first major written work, Della pittura, which was inspired by the burgeoning pictorial art in Florence in the early 15th century.
In this work he analyses the nature of painting and explores the elements of perspective, composition, in 1447 he became the architectural advisor to Pope Nicholas V and was involved with several projects at the Vatican. His first major commission was in 1446 for the facade of the Rucellai Palace in Florence. This was followed in 1450 by a commission from Sigismondo Malatesta to transform the Gothic church of San Francesco in Rimini into a memorial chapel, the Tempio Malatestiano. In 1452, he completed De re aedificatoria, a treatise on architecture, using as its basis the work of Vitruvius, the work was not published until 1485. It was followed in 1464 by his less influential work, De statua, Albertis only known sculpture is a self-portrait medallion, sometimes attributed to Pisanello. Alberti was employed to design two churches in Mantua, San Sebastiano, which was never completed, and for which Albertis intention can only be speculated, and the Basilica of SantAndrea. The design for the church was completed in 1471, a year before Albertis death.
As an artist, Alberti distinguished himself from the ordinary craftsman and he was a humanist, and part of the rapidly expanding entourage of intellectuals and artisans supported by the courts of the princes and lords of the time. Alberti, as a member of family and as part of the Roman curia, had special status. He was a welcomed guest at the Este court in Ferrara, the Duke of Urbino was a shrewd military commander, who generously spent money on the patronage of art. Alberti planned to dedicate his treatise on architecture to his friend, among Albertis smaller studies, pioneering in their field, were a treatise in cryptography, De componendis cifris, and the first Italian grammar
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order which was the earliest, followed by the Ionic order, when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders, characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and it was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the column of Phocas. The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus, probably an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket.
Its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period, the earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, and it may have a rosette at the center of each side. Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight and their height to width ratio is about 10,1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Vesta, the Tivoli Orders Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops, the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette, the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent and these capitals are typically dated to the 1st centuries of our era, and constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara.
The classical design was adapted, usually taking a more elongated form. Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas, usually as central figures surrounded, the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or they may bear interesting proportional relationships, one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be carved with a continuous design or left plain. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are exactly 1,1, above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions. The Corinthian column is almost always fluted, if it is not, it is often worth pausing to unravel the reason why
An archivolt is an ornamental molding or band following the curve on the underside of an arch. It is composed of bands of ornamental moldings surrounding an arched opening, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a rectangular opening, the word is sometimes used to refer to the under-side or inner curve of the arch itself. The word originates in the Italian equivalents of the English words arch, university of Pittsburgh, Glossary of Medieval Art and Architecture
Sidney is a city in Shelby County, United States. The population was 21,229 at the 2010 census and it is named after English poet Sir Phillip Sidney and is the county seat of Shelby County. As well, many of the elementary schools are named after famous writers, such as Emerson, Longfellow. Sidney was the recipient of the 1964 All-America City Award, in 2009, it was the subject of the documentary film 45365. The Big Four Bridge is a landmark that has carried rail traffic since 1923. CSX Transportation uses the line and bridge as part of the NYC division of Conrail. CSX operates the rail line, which was better known in earlier years as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The Graceland Cemetery features monuments and memorials of large concrete angels, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.15 square miles, of which 12.02 square miles is land and 0.13 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,229 people,8,344 households, the population density was 1,766.1 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 9,265 housing units at a density of 770.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90. 3% White,3. 7% African American,0. 2% Native American,1. 6% Asian,0. 2% Pacific Islander,0. 8% from other races, and 3. 3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 2% of the population,27. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the family size was 3.01. The median age in the city was 36.1 years. 27. 2% of residents were under the age of 18,8. 6% were between the ages of 18 and 24,25. 6% were from 25 to 44,26. 2% were from 45 to 64, and 12. 4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49. 1% male and 50. 9% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 20,211 people,7,981 households, and 5,371 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,938.5 people per square mile, there were 8,557 housing units at an average density of 820.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 92. 61% White,3. 06% African American,0. 24% Native American,1. 87% Asian,0. 10% Pacific Islander,0. 40% from other races, and 1. 73% from two or more races
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise, to create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, and monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the form from the field. There is sunk relief, which was restricted to Ancient Egypt. However the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, and these two are generally the only used to discuss most work.
Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, works in the technique are described as in relief, especially in monumental sculpture, the work itself is a relief. Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of settings. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with figures and very active poses, such as battles. Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief. Rock reliefs are carved into solid rock in the open air. This type is found in cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a standing stone, many of these carry reliefs. The distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, and the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most high reliefs contain sections in low relief, a low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief.
Other versions distort depth much less and it is a technique which requires less work, and is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required
State Library of New South Wales
The State Library of New South Wales is a large reference and research library open to the public. It is the oldest library in Australia, being the first established in New South Wales in 1826, the library is located on the corner of Macquarie Street and Shakespeare Place, adjacent to the Domain and the Royal Botanic Gardens. The library is a member of the National and State Libraries Australasia consortium, the first library collections were part of the Australian Subscription Library which was started by a group of wealthy Sydney citizens in 1826. It was purchased for £5100 by the New South Wales Government in 1869, in 1895 it was renamed the Public Library of New South Wales until its most recent name change in 1975, when it became the State Library of New South Wales. The Australian Subscription Library was established in 1826 at a meeting at the Sydney Hotel chaired by barrister John Mackaness, Library membership was subject to committee approval. Dr James Mitchell, father of David Scott Mitchell, was a member from 1832 to 1853.
Fortunately for the negotiations with the government were more successful. The foundation stone for new building, on the corner of Bent and Macquarie Streets, was laid by Alexander Macleay. Financial difficulties continued, and by 1869 the subscription library was in serious debt, the New South Wales Government was persuaded to buy it for £5100. In September 1869, the Sydney Free Public Library opened its doors with a stock of 20000 volumes, over 60,000 people visited the library in its first year of operation as the Free Public Library. Robert Cooper Walker was appointed Principal Librarian and he, in collaboration with the Trustees, worked to expand the educational role of the library both through collection expansion and the production of printed catalogues of the librarys collection. The library expanded its operations, opening a branch in 1877. This lending branch was handed to the Sydney Municipal Council in 1909, the librarys collection continued to grow, causing continual storage and overcrowding problems, new additions included a First Folio in 1885 and the papers of William Bligh in 1902.
Australiana was a focus for the library and David Scott Mitchells collecting activities came to the attention of Henry Charles Lennox Anderson. Andersons stated aim of making the library a National, and not a Municipal, Anderson realised that the library did not have the budget or contacts to compete with Mitchell, and attempted to build a working relationship with Mitchell. In 1898, Mitchell announced his intention to leave his collection to the people of New South Wales, although his offer was quickly accepted, construction of a new building to house the collection was delayed for several years. Construction commenced in 1906, one year before Mitchells death, following Andersons resignation in 1907, Frank Murcott Bladen was appointed Principal Librarian. In 1909, Hugh Wright was appointed to the newly created position of Mitchell Librarian, nita Kibble was another early member of the library staff