The Pilbara is a large, thinly populated region in the north of Western Australia. It is known for its Aboriginal peoples. At least two important but differing definitions of the region exist, it is one of nine regions of the Regional Development Commissions Act 1993, is the name of a bioregion under the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia. The region, as defined by the Regional Development Commissions Act 1993, has an estimated population of 61,688 as of June 2018; the Pilbara covers an area of 502,000 km2. It includes landscapes of coastal plains and mountain ranges with gorges; the major settlements of the region are Port Hedland and Newman. The three main ports in this region are Port Hedland and Port Walcott; the area is known for its petroleum, natural gas and iron ore deposits, which contribute to Australia's economy. Other than mining, pastoral activities as well as fishing and tourism are the main industries. Local government in the Pilbara is currently: Ashburton – Shire of Ashburton East Pilbara – Shire of East Pilbara Karratha – City of Karratha Port Hedland – Town of Port Hedland The Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre Wangka Maya says that the name for the Pilbara region derives from the Aboriginal word bilybara, meaning "dry" in the Nyamal and Banyjima languages.
Alternatively, The Western Australia Gas Industry claims that the region takes its name from pilbarra, an Aboriginal word for the mullet. The Pilbara Creek is a tributary of a significant river in the region. Sea mullet and barramundi can still be caught in the Yule River today; this Pilbara Creek lent its name to the Pilbara Goldfield, discovered in 1885, after which time the name was used to refer to the region. The first European to explore the area was Francis Thomas Gregory in 1861. Settlements along the coast at Cossack and Shellborough were established over ensuing decades as agricultural and pastoral centres. However, after c. 1900, these went into decline with the growth of other, more productive agricultural areas of the state. Mining in the area started in 1937 in Wittenoom Gorge, following the discovery of iron ore in the Hamersley Ranges in the 1960s, the area became pivotal to the state's economy, towns built to accommodate mining and allied services boomed. On 3 October 1952, the British conducted their first atomic bomb tests on the Montebello Islands as part of Operation Hurricane.
The Aboriginal population of the Pilbara predates, by 30–40,000 years, the European colonisation of the region. Archaeological evidence indicates that people were living in the Pilbara during the harsh climatic conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum; the early history of the first peoples is held within an oral tradition, archeological evidence and petroglyphs. Near the town of Dampier is a peninsula known as Murujuga, which contains a large collection of world heritage listed petroglyphs, dating back thousands of years. Rock art in the Pilbara appears to have been etched into the hard rock surfaces, compared to predominantly paintings on the softer sandstone in the Kimberley; this does not preclude that painting is not performed in the Pilbara. In 2006, it was estimated that 15% of the population of the Pilbara was of Indigenous background 6,000 people. Working conditions in the pearling and pastoral industries for Aboriginals in the Pilbara region around 1900 have been described as slavery with no wages paid, kidnapping as well as severe and cruel punishments for misbehaviour and absconding all common practices.
Some incidents, such as the Bendu Atrocity of 1897, attracted international condemnation. The first strike by Indigenous people in Australia took place in 1946 in the Pilbara, when Aboriginal pastoral workers walked off the stations in protest at low pay and bad working conditions, a strike that lasted for over three years. Family clans in the Pilbara who were supported by mining prospector, Don McLeod, developed skills for mining and the concentration of rare metals. For a short period money accumulated, which according to Aboriginal law was to be used for traditional ways; the funds were used to establish an independent Aboriginal-controlled school. The concept has expanded into a movement with around 20 similar schools established in northern Western Australia by the mid 1990s. Many Pilbara communities face the many complex effects of colonisation, lack adequate access to housing and education. A 1971 survey of 1,000 Aboriginal people conducted by Pat McPherson found that most had one or more serious diseases.
At the McClelland Royal Commission into British nuclear testing, Aboriginals from the Pilbara provided evidence regarding the explosion on the Montebello Islands. Aboriginal communities are sited over a number of different places. Many have poor infrastructure. Relations between police and aboriginals are often tense. Under the Regional Development Commissions Act Pilbara is situated south of the Kimberley, is made up of the local government areas of Shire of Ashburton, Shire of East Pilbara, City of Karratha and Town of Port Hedland; the Pilbara region covers an area of 507,896 km2 the combined land area of the US States of California and Indiana. It has a population of more than 45,000, most of whom live in the western third of the region, in towns such as Port Hedland, Wickham and Marble Bar. A substantial number of people work in the region on a fly-in/fly-out basis
No. 52 Commando was a battalion-sized British Commando unit of the British Army during the Second World War. The commando was formed from volunteers in Egypt and Palestine. Shortly after formation it became'D' Battalion, Layforce; the commandos were formed by the order of Winston Churchill the British Prime Minister. He called for specially trained troops that would "develop a reign of terror down the enemy coast". At first they were a small force of volunteers who carried out small raids against enemy occupied territory, but by 1943 their role had changed into equipped assault Infantry which specialised in spearheading amphibious landings; the man selected as the overall commander of the force was Admiral Sir Roger Keyes himself a veteran of the landings at Galipoli and the Zeebrugge raid in the First World War. Keyes was replaced by Admiral Louis Mountbatten. By the autumn of 1940 more than 2,000 men had volunteered for commando training, what became known as the Special Service Brigade was formed into 12 units called commandos.
Each commando would number around 450 men commanded by a lieutenant colonel. They were further divided into 15-man sections. Commandos were all volunteers seconded from other British Army regiments and retained their own cap badges and remained on their regimental roll for pay. All volunteers went through the six-week intensive commando course at Achnacarry; the course in the Scottish Highlands concentrated on fitness, speed marches, weapons training, map reading, small boat operations and demolitions both by day and by night. By 1943 the commandos had moved away from small raiding operations and had been formed into brigades of assault infantry to spearhead future Allied landing operations. Three units were left un-brigaded to carry out smaller-scale raids. In December 1940 a Middle East commando depot was formed with the responsibility of training and supplying reinforcements for the commando units in the Middle East. No. 52 Commando was formed in the Middle East at Geneifa in August 1940, from volunteers from units serving in the Middle East and a small number of veterans from the Spanish Civil War who had escaped to Palestine after the French defeat in 1940.
No. 52 Commando had an establishment of three Troops. Each Troop had four sections of 25 other ranks. A total of 371 all ranks. In February 1941, No. 52 Commando was amalgamated with No. 50 Commando, when a force of commandos under Colonel Robert Laycock was formed to carry out raids in the eastern Mediterranean. This force known as ` Layforce' was drawn from ` No. 3 Commando, No. 7, No. 8, No. 11 and the amalgamated No.50/51 Commandos. For reasons of security, the unit were re-designated as such. No. 7 Commando became'A' Battalion, No. 8 became'B' Battalion, No. 11 became'C' Battalion and No. 50/52 became'D' Battalion. As'D' Battalion they fought in the battle of Crete and were disbanded after the survivors returned to Egypt; the following Battle honours were awarded to the British Commandos during the Second World War. Notes Bibliography
Momentum accounting and triple-entry bookkeeping is an alternative accountancy system developed by Japanese academic Yuji Ijiri and is the title of his 1989 monograph. It is a proposed alternative to double-entry bookkeeping, the method favored by the worldwide financial accounting system. In regular double-entry bookkeeping, changes in balances, such as earning revenues and collecting cash, are recorded; these events are recorded with two entries a debit and a credit, assigned on a given date. In momentum accounting, changes in balances are the recognized events. An acceleration in revenue earning, such as a $1,000 per period increase of revenues from $10,000 per month to $11,000 per month, is a recordable event that would require three entries to implement. Warren Henke Triple Entry Accounting Blommaert, A. M. M. "Additional disclosure: triple-entry en momentum accounting: kwaliteitsverbetering van management accountingsystemen door het administreren van winstkrachten en winstsnelheden." Dissertation, Maastricht University, 1994, ISBN 90-207-2482-7.
Blommaert, A. M. M.. "Additional disclosure triple-entry and momentum accounting." The European Accounting Review, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 580–581. Blommaert, A. M. M. and Blommaert, J. M. J. "Drie-dimensionaal boekhouden II: Doeleinden en comptabele implementatie." Maandblad Bedrijfsadministratie en Bedrijfsorganisatie, No. 1116, pp. 46–52. Blommaert, A. M. M. and Blommaert, J. M. J. "Drie-dimensionaal boekhouden I: Doeleinden en comptabele implementatie." Maandblad Bedrijfsadministratie en Bedrijfsorganisatie, No. 1117, pp. 82–90. Sousa Ferreira, A. C. de, M. O. Morais, M. C. Silva and R. R. do Santaos, "Integrated analysis in three dimensions: applying for a Brazilian case.", Revista de Informação Contábil, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 99–112. Fraser, I. A. M. "Triple-entry bookkeeping: a critique." Accounting and Business Research, Vol. 23, No. 90, pp. 151–158. Ijiri, Y. "Variance analysis and triple-entry bookkeeping." In: Yuji Ijiri and innovative approaches to the science of management. The IC2 Management and Management Science Series.
Quorum Books, Westport, ISBN 0-89930-642-X, pp. 3–25. Ijiri, Y. "Momentum accounting and managerial goals on impulses.’ Management Science, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 160–166. Ijiri, Y. "Three postulates of momentum accounting.’ Accounting Horizons, Vol. 1, March, pp. 25–34. Ijiri, Y. "A framework for triple-entry bookkeeping." The Accounting Review, Vol. 61, No. 4, 1986, pp. 745–759. Ijiri, Y. "A reliability comparison of the measurement of wealth and force." The Accounting Review, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 52–63. Yuji Ijiri, Triple-entry bookkeeping and income momentum, Studies in Accounting Research, Vol. 18. American Accounting Association, Sarasota, 1982. Eric Melse, "Momentum Accounting for trends. Relevance and predictive power of the framework of triple-entry bookkeeping and momentum accounting of Yuji Ijiri." VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2010, ISBN 978-3-639-16051-2. Eric Melse, "Accounting for trends. Relevance and predictive power of the framework of triple-entry bookkeeping and momentum accounting of Yuji Ijiri."
Dissertation, Maastricht University, 2008, ISBN 978-90-902210-5-2. Melse, E. Accounting in three dimensions. A case for momentum revisited; the Journal of Risk Finance, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 334–350 Melse, E. Het verklarend en voorspellend vermogen van Momentum Accounting." Kwartaalschrift Economie. Tijdschrift voor algemeen- en bedrijfseconomische vraagstukken. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2005, pp. 343–371. Melse, E. "Accounting in three dimensions. A case for momentum." Balance Sheet, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 31–36. Melse, E. "What color is your balance sheet?" Balance Sheet, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2004, pp. 17–32. Wagensveld, J. "The future of double-entry." Paper, regional conference of the Northern Accounting Group, British Accounting Association, Newcastle, UK, 13-4-1995. Published as: Ribes, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam, 1995, ISBN 90-5086-215-2. Tuğrul Bozbey, "Çift Yanlı Kayıt Yönteminin Diferansiyel Temelleri Üzerine Dayanarak İkiden Çok Yanlı Kayıt Tutma Yönteminin Geliştirilmesi" Dissertation, Selçuk University, 2006, Melse, E. Triple Entry and Momentum Accounting – Video in Dutch.
Masterclass. Melse, E. TEMA analysis of Lehman Brothers – Video in Dutch. Masterclass
The Canadian County Jail and Stable comprises two buildings constructed at different times. The jail is a building located at 300 South Evans in Oklahoma, it is the abandoned site of the county jail of Canadian County, sits west of the current county jail on the same block. The stable, located at 301 N. Choctaw was listed in 1995; the stable was built sometime between 1908 and 1913. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985; the jail and stable are the oldest remaining county government structures in Canadian County. Designed by noted Oklahoma architect Solomon Andrew Layton, in partnership with W. J. Riley, built by A. C. Kreipke, the jail was designed and built between 1904 and 1907, while the stable was built between 1908 and 1913; the jail is an example of Layton's early Oklahoma work, features unusual Italian Renaissance characteristics for a utilitarian building like a county incarceration facility. It is the only public building that Layton designed in El Reno, still standing.
The jail is a two-story, masonry building that has a symmetrical, T-shaped floor plan, about 47 feet by 58 feet. The exterior walls have alternating horizontal bands of smooth wide surfaces; these are interrupted by the vertical openings of doors. The banded walls appear to rest on a base of smooth stone that terminates about 4 feet above grade with a water table; the west elevation is the front of the building. The main entrance has two doors, with a Doric column at each side, topped with a pediment and entablature; the other major wall openings contain wood-framed windows. Except for the windows flanking the main entrance, the windows are covered with iron bars and red-painted screens; the upper windows contain diagonal muntins. A single brick chimney penetrates the roof, covered with composition shingles. Inspection of the chimney about the time of the NRHP application showed that it needed unspecified repairs. Several alterations have been made during the building's history. For example, air-conditioning units project from three of the windows.
A structure added during the 1970s connected the jail with an existing building described as a carriage house. The additional structure was removed in 1991, the door that connected it to the jail was filled with concrete blocks. Another exterior addition, providing more office space, was constructed along the east wall between 1954 and 1960, it connected the jail to the stable. This addition was removed in 1991; the Oklahoma State Health Department ordered Canadian County officials to close the upper floor jail cells in October, 1982, because the building did not have a fire escape. The first floor of the building was allowed to remain open until a new jail facility could be finished. Part of the old jail was used for county offices until October 1986, was used to store guns and drugs confiscated by county deputies. Layton & Forsyth Solomon Andrew Layton "Canadian County Jail."NRHP Registration Form. Prepared September 30, 1985. "Canadian County Jail and Stable." NRHP Registration Form. Prepared March 1995.
B symptoms refer to systemic symptoms of fever, night sweats, weight loss which can be associated with both Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The presence or absence of B symptoms has prognostic significance and is reflected in the staging of these lymphomas. B symptoms are so called because Ann Arbor staging of lymphomas includes both a letter. "A" indicates the absence of systemic symptoms. B symptoms include: Fever greater than 38°C. Pel–Ebstein fever, the classic intermittent fever associated with Hodgkin disease, occurs at variable intervals of days to weeks and lasts for 1–2 weeks before resolving. However, fever associated with lymphoma can follow any pattern. Drenching sweats at night. Unintentional weight loss of >10% of normal body weight over a period of 6 months or less. The presence of B symptoms is a marker for more advanced disease with systemic, rather than local, involvement. B symptoms are a clear negative prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma; the relevance of B symptoms in non-Hodgkin lymphoma is less clear, although B symptoms tend to correlate with disease, either more widespread or of a higher histologic grade.
It has been suggested that, in Hodgkin lymphoma and weight loss are much more prognostically significant than night sweats. In one series of patients with early-stage Hodgkin disease, the presence or absence of night sweats had no impact on cure rates and outcome; however and weight loss had a pronounced negative impact on cure and survival rates, regardless of treatment modality. Similar systemic symptoms can be found in non-cancerous states such as tuberculosis and various inflammatory or rheumatologic conditions. In these settings, the term "B symptoms" is sometimes colloquially applied to refer to such systemic or constitutional symptoms. However, in a pure sense, the term "B symptoms" is restricted to lymphoma staging. Seen in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, Burkitt’s Lymphoma
Kari Erickson is an American curler and Olympian. Erickson started curling in 1988 and had a successful Junior's career, winning the Minnesota State Junior Championship five years in a row, 1989-1993. Three of those years she went on to win the United States Junior Championship. Winning the US Championship allowed her to represent the United States at the World Junior Championships, at which she finished 5th, 2nd, 3rd, respectively. In 1994 Erickson made her first appearance at the United States Women's Championship, making it to the semifinals. After a few year gap she returned to the National Championship 5 more times in a 6 year span: 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002; as US Champion in 1998 and 2001 she represented the United States at the World Women's Championships, finishing 7th in 1998 and 5th in 2001. She has twice competed at the US Olympic Trials, finishing 3rd in 1998 and 1st in 2001. At the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City the Erickson team had a 6-3 at the end of the round robin.
The United States team lost to Switzerland in the semifinals and Canada in the bronze medal match to finish 4th. Erickson's Olympic team included her sister Stacey Liapis at second and her dad Mike Liapis as coach. 1998 World Women's Curling Championship Kari Erickson, Skip Lori Kreklau, Third Stacey Liapis, Second Ann Swisshelm, Lead Risa O'Connell, Alternate2001 World Women's Curling Championship, 2002 Salt Lake City Olympic Games Kari Erickson, Skip Debbie McCormick, Third Stacey Liapis, Second Ann Swisshelm, Lead Joni Cotten, Alternate Erickson is the sister of Stacey Liapis. She has two children. Kari Erickson on the World Curling Tour database Kari Erickson on the CurlingZone database Kari Erickson at International Olympic Committee Kari Erickson at Olympic Channel Kari Erickson at United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee Kari Erickson at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Kari Erickson at World Curling Federation Kari Erickson at World Curling Tour