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Pilcrow

The pilcrow called the paragraph mark, paragraph sign, alinea, or blind P, is a typographical character for individual paragraphs. The pilcrow can be used as an indent for separate paragraphs or to designate a new paragraph in one long piece of copy, as Eric Gill did in his 1930s book An Essay on Typography; the pilcrow was a type of rubrication used in the Middle Ages to mark a new train of thought, before the convention of visually discrete paragraphs was commonplace. The pilcrow is drawn similar to a lowercase q reaching from descender to ascender height, it may be drawn with the bowl stretching further downwards, resembling a backwards D. The word pilcrow originates from the Greek word paragraphos; this was rendered in Old French as paragraphe and changed to pelagraphe. The earliest reference of the modern pilcrow is in 1440 with the Middle English word pylcrafte; the first way to divide sentences into groups in Ancient Greek was the original paragraphos, a horizontal line in the margin to the left of the main text.

As the paragraphos became more popular, the horizontal line changed into the Greek letter Gamma and into litterae notabiliores, which were enlarged letters at the beginning of a paragraph. This notation soon changed to the letter K, an abbreviation for the Latin word kaput, which translates as "head", i.e. it marks the head of a new thesis. To mark a new section, the Latin word capitulum, which translates as "little head", was used, the letter C came to mark a new section in 300 BC. In the 1100s, C had replaced K as the symbol for a new chapter. Rubricators added one or two vertical bars to the C to stylize it. Scribes would leave space before paragraphs to allow rubricators to draw the pilcrow. With the introduction of the printing press, space before paragraphs was still left for rubricators to draw by hand; this is. The pilcrow remains in use in modern time in the following ways: In legal writing, it is used whenever one cites a specific paragraph within pleadings, law review articles, statutes, or other legal documents and materials.

In academic writing, it is sometimes used as an in-text referencing tool to make reference to a specific paragraph from a document that does not contain page numbers, allowing the reader to find where that particular idea or statistic was sourced. The pilcrow sign followed by a number indicates the paragraph number from the top of the page, it is used when citing books or journal articles. In proofreading, it indicates an instruction that one paragraph should be split into two or more separate paragraphs; the proofreader inserts the pilcrow at the point. In some high-church Anglican and Episcopal churches, it is used in the printed order of service to indicate that instructions follow. King's College, Cambridge uses this convention in the service booklet for the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols; this is analogous to the writing of these instructions in red in some rubrication conventions. Online, it is used in some wikis to denote permalinks; the pilcrow is used in desktop publishing software such as desktop word processors and page layout programs to mark the presence of a carriage return control character at the end of a paragraph.

It is used as the icon on a toolbar button that shows or hides the pilcrow and similar hidden characters, including tabs and page breaks. In typing programs, it marks a return; the pilcrow may indicate a footnote in a convention using a sequence of distinct typographic symbols in sequence to distinguish the footnotes on a given page. The pilcrow character was in the 1984 Multinational Character Set extension of ASCII at 0xB6, from where it was inherited by ISO/IEC 8859-1 and thence by Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN. In addition, Unicode defines U+204B ⁋ REVERSED PILCROW SIGN, U+2761 ❡ CURVED STEM PARAGRAPH SIGN ORNAMENT, U+2E3F ⸿ CAPITULUM; the capitulum character is obsolete, being replaced by pilcrow, but is included in Unicode for backward compatibility and historic studies. The symbol was included in the default hardware codepage 437 of IBM PCs at code point 20, sharing its position with the ASCII control code DC4. US international keyboard layout: AltGr+. HTML: &para. Mobile devices, including tablets, may require additional software.

Tools may be required to generate a pilcrow, or other special characters. Depending on the font used, this character varies in appearance and, may be replaced by an alternate glyph entirely. In Chinese, the traditional paragraph sign is a thin circle about the same size as a Chinese character; this same mark serves as a “zero” character, as a stylistic vari

2002–03 Stoke City F.C. season

The 2002–03 season was Stoke City's 96th season in the Football League and the 36th in the second tier. Stoke now back in the First Division appointed young manager Steve Cotterill prior to the start of the season. Cotterill had got an impressive reputation following his success with Cheltenham Town but after just 13 matches in charge he shocked the club by quitting in favour of becoming assistant manager at Sunderland. Dave Kevan took over as caretaker, his task was to ensure Stoke survived which looked a tough ask as Stoke went 16 matches without a win and when Stoke did manage to get a positive result they lost 6–0 at Nottingham Forest. Following that defeat Pulis improved his defence and results were being ground out and it went to the final day of the season against Reading, with Stoke knowing that if they win they will stay up and thanks to Ade Akinbiyi they won 1–0 and finished four points above the relegation zone. With Gudjon Thordarson failing to gain a new contract the Stoke board moved to appoint Steve Cotterill from Cheltenham Town.

Cotterill was seen as one of the best young managers in the country and it was hoped that he would be a long term appointment. He brought in Chris Greenacre a striker from Mansfield Town; the season started with a 0–0 draw away at Sheffield Wednesday and their first win came at home to Bradford City. This defeats by Derby and Burnley. Stoke went five matches unbeaten to lift them away from danger but the club was shocked on 10 October 2002 as Cotterill quit the club in favour of becoming assistant manager at Sunderland. Dave Kevan assumed a caretaker manager role and in his four matches in charge Stoke lost them all to start a worrying run of results; the board had expected to appoint George Burley as manager but somewhat Tony Pulis was the man given the job. Pulis had turned down the chance to manage the club in 1999 and his appointment was not a popular one with the supporters. In his first match in charge away at Walsall he received a less than warm welcome and Stoke crashed to a 4–2 defeat.

It took Pulis' team nine more matches to register a victory and after it looked as though Stoke could start pulling away from relegation they suffered humiliation by losing 6–0 at Nottingham Forest and the survival bid looked grim. But Pulis signed a number of players on loan which included Ade Akinbiyi, Paul Warhurst, Lee Mills, goalkeepers Steve Banks and Mark Crossley. Pulis made Stoke a difficult team to beat and after three hard-fought goalless draws against teams trying to gain promotion Stoke gained vital victories against Watford, Rotherham United and Coventry City; this took the relegation fight to the last day of the season with Stoke needing a victory against Reading to ensure their stay in First Division would be extended. A 55th-minute strike from Ade Akinbiyi sealed the win they needed and Stoke could start building for the future. Two 3–0 wins against Wigan Athletic and Bournemouth set up a tie against Premier League Chelsea and two second half goals gave the Londoners a 2–0 victory.

Stoke lost in the first round to Bury 1–0 at Gigg Lane. Key: P = Matches played.

Entertainment Experience

Entertainment Experience was a Dutch tv-program and competition following the creation of a user-generated film-project in which two films were created: one film made by professionals named Tricked, directed by Dutch director Paul Verhoeven. And one "user-generated film" made by contesting teams of participants; the process of making the films was shown on Veronica. The project was launched on September 21, 2011 and finished at the end of 2012; the film script consisted of eight parts. Part one was written by Kim van Kooten. "The crowd" wrote the scripts for the seven following parts. Each of the participating film crews made a single short film, corresponding to their part of the film, while Verhoeven filmed all the scripts for his version. Paul Verhoeven announced the name of his movie on 7 May 2012 on the television show De Wereld Draait Door; the international title of the movie is Tricked.. It was suggested by the participant Trudi van der Stelt AKA'Trudiola'. On 24 September 2012, the movie premiered in the Tuschinski Theater in Amsterdam.

Both the version by Verhoeven and the version of the participating teams were shown. On 28 March 2013, Tricked had its public release in EYE. In March 2013, the user-generated version of the winning participants IO Filmproducties, was picked up by Benelux Film Distributors for nationwide theatrical release and on dvd and video on demand. In 2014 the China edition of the project was launched. In China director John Woo and actress Zhang Ziyi were attached; the public film was composed out of 8 separate parts. The course of the story was determined by the audience. From the beginning of the project several production teams were formed, they filmed their version of the script. The community received parts of the final script, put together by scriptwriter Robert Alberdingk Thijm and Paul Verhoeven, in order to film them; the crews who won a segment: Composers who wrote a winning score: Part 1: Roy van der Hoeven Part 2: Guy Renardeau Part 3: TTM Productions Part 4: Augmented Four Part 5: Luuk Degen Part 6: Meriam Stokman Part 7: Luuk Degen Part 8: Ruud Hermans Seven of the eight scripts are based on various separate scripts, contributed by the audience.

Based on these contributions, Paul Verhoeven and Robert Alberdingk Thijm composed a script each time, which formed the basis for the next script. In total 85 participants contributed to the final scripts. Several recurring contributors are mentioned below; the teams could write their own ending. The winning screenplay was written by Fleur Jansen. On May 24, 2012, the winner of the soundtrack competition was chosen. Dutch band Reveller was the winner with a song called "Hold the Horses". Reveller consist of: March 2012, Entertainment Experience was nominated for a Spin Award in the category Cross Media. In 2012 Entertainment Experience won the One Show Entertainment Merit Award in the Innovation in Branded Content category Tricked was selected for the 7th Rome Film Festival in the category: Medium-length films In April 2013 Entertainment Experience won an International Digital Emmy Award in the Digital Program Non Fiction category Official website Steekspel on IMDb Spin Award Official Selection Rome Film Festival Nominees International Digital Emmy Awards