A coachbuilder or body-maker manufactures bodies for passenger-carrying vehicles. Coachwork is the body of an automobile, horse-drawn carriage, or railroad passenger car; the word "coach" was derived from the Hungarian town of Kocs. Custom or bespoke coachbuilt bodies were made and fitted to another manufacturer's rolling chassis by the craftsmen who had built bodies for horse-drawn carriages and coaches. Separate coachbuilt bodies became obsolete when vehicle manufacturers found they could no longer meet their customers' demands by relying on a simple separate chassis mounted on leaf springs on beam axles. Unibody or monocoque combined chassis and body structures became standardised during the middle years of the 20th century to provide the rigidity required by improved suspension systems without incurring the heavy weight, consequent fuel, penalty of a rigid separate chassis; the improved more supple suspension systems gave vehicles better roadholding and much improved the ride experienced by passengers.
As well as true bespoke bodies the same coachbuilders made short runs of more-or-less identical bodies to the order of dealers or the manufacturer of a chassis. The same body design might be adjusted to suit different brands of chassis. Examples include Salmons & Sons' Tickford bodies with a patent device to raise or lower a convertible's roof, first used on their 19th century carriages, or Wingham convertible bodies by Martin Walter. Coachbuilt body is the British English name for the coachbuilder's product. Custom body is the standard term in North American English. Coachbuilders are: carrossiers in French, carrozzeria in Italian, Karosseriebauer in German and carroceros in Spanish. Coachbuilt body is the British English name for mass produced vehicles built on assembly lines using the same but simplified techniques until more durable all-steel bodies replaced them in the early 1950s. Unless they were for mass produced vehicles justifying the cost of tooling up dies and presses coachbuilt bodies were made of hand-shaped sheet metal alluminium alloy.
Pressed or hand-shaped the metal panels were fastened to a wooden frame of light but strong timber. Many of the more important structural features of the bespoke or custom body such as A, B and C pillars were cast alloy components; some bodies such as those alloy bodies fitted to many Pierce-Arrow cars contained little or no timber though they were mounted on a conventional steel chassis. The coachbuilder craftsmen who might once have built bespoke or custom bodies continue to build bodies for short runs of specialised commercial vehicles such as luxury motor coaches or recreational vehicles or motorhome bodied upon a rolling chassis provided by an independent manufacturer. A conversion is built inside an existing vehicle body. A British trade association the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers, was incorporated in 1630; some British coachmaking firms operating in the 20th century were established earlier. Rippon was active in the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Barker founded in 1710 by an officer in Queen Anne's Guards.
Brewster, the oldest in the U. S. was formed in 1810. The maker would provide the coachworks with a chassis frame, brakes, steering system, lighting system, spare wheel and rear mudguards and bumpers and dashboard; the easily damaged honeycomb radiator enclosed and protected by a shell became the main visual element identifying the chassis' brand. To maintain some level of control over the final product, chassis manufacturers' warranties would be voided by mating them with unapproved bodies; when popular automobile manufacturers brought body building in-house, larger dealers or distributors of ultra-luxury cars would pre-order stock chassis and the bodies they thought most to sell, inventory them in suitable quantities for sale off their showroom floor. In time, the practice of commissioning bespoke coachwork dwindled to a prerogative of wealth. All ultra-luxury vehicles of automobiling's Golden Era before World War II sold as chassis only. For instance, when Duesenberg introduced their Model J, it was offered as chassis only, for $8,500.
Other examples include the Bugatti Type 57, Cadillac V-16, Ferrari 250, Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8, all Rolls-Royces produced before World War II. Delahaye had no in-house coachworks, so all its chassis were bodied by independents, who created some of their most attractive designs on the Type 135. Most of the Delahayes were bodied by Chapron, Franay, Figoni et Falaschi and many more carrossiers; the practice remained in limited force after World War II, with both luxury chassis and high-performance sports cars and gran turismos, waning by the late 1960s. Rolls-Royce acquiesced, debuting its first unibody model, the Silver Shadow, in 1965, before taking all R-R and Bentley bodying in-house. Independent coachbuilders survived for a time after the mid-20th century, making bodies for the chassis produced by low-production companies such as Rolls-Royce and Bentley. Producing body dies is expensive, only considered practical when large numbers are involved—though, the path taken by Rolls-Royce and Bentley after 1945 for their own in-house production.
Because dies for pressing metal panels are so costly, from the mid 20th century, many vehicles, most notably the Chevrolet Corvette, were clothed with large panels of fiberglass reinforced resin, which only require inexpensive molds. Glass has since been re
A hardtop is a rigid form of automobile roof, which for modern cars is constructed from metal. A hardtop roof can be either fixed, detachable for separate storing or retractable within the vehicle itself. Pillarless hardtop is a body style of cars without a B-pillar, which are styled to give the appearance of a convertible. A detachable hardtop is a rigid, removable roof panel, stored in a car's trunk/boot. A retractable hardtop is a type of convertible that forgoes a folding textile roof in favor of an automatically operated, multi-part, self-storing roof where the rigid roof sections are opaque, translucent, or independently operable; the pillarless hardtop is a hardtop with no B-pillar, styled to look like a convertible. If window frames are present, they are designed to retract with the glass; this creates an impression of uninterrupted glass along the side of the car. A pillarless hardtop is inherently less rigid than a pillared body, requiring extra underbody strength to prevent shake. Production hardtops shared the frame or reinforced body structure of the contemporary convertible model, reinforced to compensate for the lack of a fixed roof.
Hardtops tend to be more collectible than sedan models of the same vehicle. Some hardtop models took the convertible look further, including such details as simulating a convertible-top framework in the interior headliner and shaping the roof to resemble a raised canvas top. By the late-1960s such designs could be highlighted with an optional vinyl cover applied on the steel roof; the hardtop began to disappear along with convertibles in the mid-1970s out of a concern that U. S. federal safety regulations would be difficult for pillarless models to pass. The ascendancy of monocoque construction made the pillarless design less practical; some models adopted modified roof styling, placing the B pillars behind tinted side window glass and painting or molding the outer side of each pillar in black to make them less visible, creating a hardtop look without omitting the pillar. Some mid- to late-1970s models continued their previous two-door hardtop bodies, but with fixed rear windows or a variety of vinyl roof and opera window treatments.
By the end of the 1990s all hardtop designs disappeared as structural integrity standards continued to increase. Early automobiles had no roof or sides, however by 1900 several cars were offered with fabric roofs and primitive folding tops. However, cars with closed bodies grew in popularity and soon became the norm. In 1915–1918, the first pillarless hardtop cars were produced called "convertible cars"; the Springfield design featured folding upper frames on the doors and the rear glass frames are removable and stored under or behind the seats. In the late teens, Cadillac offered a sedan with removable "B" pillars. Another form of early pillarless hardtop is the "California top", originating in Los Angeles and most popular from 1917—1927; these were designed to replace the folding roofs of touring cars, in order to enclose the sides of the car for better weather protection. One objective of these aftermarket tops was to bring the cost of the closed car nearer to the prices of corresponding open cars.
Automobile dealers were encouraged to equip an open car with a California top to demonstrate that they were "cool and clean in summer, warm and dry in winter." The hard tops were equipped with celluloid windows that retracted like a roller blind for open sided motoring offering a low-cost compromise between an open and closed car. There were a variety of hardtop-like body styles dating back to 1916. Chrysler Corporation built seven pillarless Town and Country hardtop coupes as concept vehicles in 1946, included the body style in its advertising that year. Mass-production of hardtops began with General Motors, which launched two-door, pillarless hardtops in 1949 as the Buick Roadmaster Riviera, Oldsmobile 98 Holiday, Cadillac Coupe de Ville, they were purportedly inspired by the wife of a Buick executive who always drove convertibles, but never lowered the top. The Kaiser-Frazer 1949 Virginian was an early example of a four-door hardtop albeit with a removable thin, chrome- and-glass'B' pillar held on by five screws.
The car was designed to have a convertible look and padded nylon or cotton was applied over the roof to contribute to the soft-top appearance. Two-door hardtops became popular with consumers in the 1950s while the two-door sedan body fell out of favor among buyers. In 1955, General Motors introduced the first four-door hardtops. To popularize the introduction of the body style with no B-pillar, GM gave special trim designations for all their brands in North America; the term Seville was used for Cadillac, Riviera was used for Buick, Holiday was used for Oldsmobile, Catalina was used for Pontiac, Bel Air was used for Chevrolet. GM wasn't the only manufacturer to designate special names for their pillarless models. Fords were Victorias, Chryslers were Newports. Nash used pillarless Studebakers were Starliners. By 1956 every major U. S. automaker offered two- and four-door hardtops in a particular model lineup. General Motors restyled their new models and now offered four-door hardtops from every division and in nearly every series except the lowest priced lines.
In 1956, the first four-door hardtop station wagons were introduced by Rambler and American Motors Corporation. The foll
Backbone tube chassis is a type of automobile construction chassis, similar to the body-on-frame design. Instead of a two-dimensional ladder-type structure, it consists of a strong tubular backbone that connects the front and rear suspension attachment areas. A body is placed on this structure, it was first used in the English Rover 8hp of 1904 and the French Simplicia automobile in 1909. The backbone chassis was extensively developed by Hans Ledwinka who used it in greater numbers on the Tatra 11 and subsequent vehicles. Ledwinka used backbone frame with central tube and axles with swinging driveshafts on Tatra trucks, became known as Tatra-concept; the truck backbone chassis is a design feature of Czech Tatra heavy trucks. Hans Ledwinka used this style of chassis for the Tatra 11 car in 1923, he developed the design on trucks with 6x4 model Tatra 26, which had excellent off-road abilities. This type of chassis has been used in numerous sports cars, it does not provide protection against side collisions, thus has to be combined with a body that would compensate for this shortcoming.
Examples of cars using a backbone chassis are Simplicia, De Tomaso Mangusta, DMC DeLorean, Lloyd 600, Lotus Elan, Lotus Esprit and Europa, Škoda Popular, Škoda Rapid, Škoda Superb, Tatra 77, Tatra 87, Tatra 97 etc. and TVR S1. Trucks with a backbone chassis include the Tatra 111, Tatra 148 and Tatra 815; some cars use a backbone as a part of the chassis to strengthen it. Examples include the Volkswagen Beetle; the Locost may appear to be using a backbone in addition to the outer space frame. But examination shows that, in standard form, it is adding negligible stiffness and only serves as a convenient support structure for the sheet metal panels forming the transmission tunnel; the Triumph Herald and Triumph Vitesse used a twin flanged box section backbone carrying the main torsional and bending loads, with light channel section side rails to stiffen the body, while the Triumph Spitfire and Triumph GT6 sports cars used only the twin-box section backbone, with separate side members in the body, rear suspension fore and aft loads were taken by the floor, not the backbone chassis directly.
A standard-conception truck's superstructure has to withstand the torsion twist, subsequent wear reduces vehicle's lifespan. The half-axles have better contact with the ground; this has little importance on roads. The vulnerable parts of the drive shaft are covered by a thick tube; the whole system is reliable. However, if a problem occurs, repairs are more complicated; the modular system enables configurations of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 8-axle vehicles with various wheel bases. Manufacturing the backbone chassis is more costly. However, the more axles with all-wheel drive are needed, the cost benefit turns in favor of backbone chassis; the backbone chassis is heavier for a given torsional stiffness than a uni-body. The chassis gives no protection against side impacts. Comparison of standard ladder chassis and backbone chassis with half axles on off-road testing track with emphasis on the twist of superstructure: Ladder chassis Backbone chassis
A coupé or coupe is a two-door car with a fixed roof. In the 21st century there are four-door cars with a coupé-like roofline sold as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the coupé name is a French language word, the past participle of the verb couper, translating as cut. There are two common pronunciations in English: koo-PAY, the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. KOOP in American English, due to people spelling the word without the acute accent, which resulted in them pronouncing it as one syllable; this change occurred and before World War II. This pronunciation is more common in the United States, for example the hot rodders' term Deuce Coupe used to refer to a 1932 Ford; the origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment.
The term "berline coupé" was shortened to "coupé". The coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits; the early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat. Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, the American online resource for automotive information, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." A coupé is a two-door fixed roof car but some manufacturers manage to fit four doors beneath coupe roofs and now describe these cars as four-door coupes. In 1977, International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defined a coupé as having a closed body with limited rear volume, a fixed roof of which a portion may be openable, at least two seats in at least one row, two side doors and a rear opening, at least two side windows. Coupés have been described as "any two-door other than a two-door sedan, smaller than a related four-door in the same model line", "shorter than a sedan of the same model" and that "all two-door two-seaters with a solid roof are coupes."Today, coupé is sometimes used by manufacturers as a marketing term, rather than a technical description of a body style.
This is because coupés in general are seen as more streamlined and sportier overall lines than those of comparable four-door sedans. Automobile manufacturers have therefore begun to use the term loosely, marketing sporty four-door models that feature sloping rooflines as coupés. Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A Berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab uses the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation, first applied to a low-roof model of the Rover P5 from 1962 until 1973, was revived with the 1985 Toyota Carina ED, the 1992 Infiniti J30 and most with the first model 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS.
The term originated for marketing reasons. The German press accepted the concept of a four-door coupé and applied it to similar models from other manufacturers such as the 2009 Jaguar XJ. Other manufacturers accepted it, producing recent competing models like Volkswagen Passat CC, BMW F06 and a five-door coupé, the Audi A7; the German automobile club ADAC on its website adopted this concept. In Germany, the definition of the coupé was divided into the classic coupé and 4-door coupé. A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats, they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U. S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s. A quad coupé is two small rear doors and no B pillar; the three window coupé (commonly jus
Lincoln Town Car
The Lincoln Town Car is a model line of full-size luxury sedans, marketed by the Lincoln division of the American automaker Ford Motor Company from 1980 to 2011. Taking its nameplate from a limousine body style, the Town Car first appeared in 1959 as a sub-model of the Continental Mark IV, returning as a Lincoln Continental trim line from 1969 to 1980. Following a revision of the Lincoln model line, the Lincoln Town Car became a distinct product line for 1981, replacing the Continental. Town Cars were produced across three generations, each using the rear-wheel drive Ford Panther platform. While designed with its own exterior and interior and mechanical components were shared with the Mercury Grand Marquis and Ford Crown Victoria. During its production, the Town Car was offered nearly as a four-door sedan. Outside of the retail segment, many examples of the Town Car were sold for fleet and livery use, serving as a popular limousine platform throughout its production. From 1983 to its 2011 discontinuation, the Town Car was the longest car produced by Ford Motor Company, becoming the longest mass-production car produced in North America from 1997 to 2011.
While marketed in the United States and Canada, the Town Car saw exports worldwide. From 1980 to 2007 it was assembled at Wixom Assembly in Wixom, Michigan alongside the Lincoln Continental, Lincoln LS, Mark VI, Mark VII, Mark VIII. Following the closure of Wixom Assembly, production was moved to St. Thomas Assembly in Southwold, Canada alongside the Ford Crown Victoria and Mercury Grand Marquis. In 2011, production of all three Panther-platform vehicles ended as the St. Thomas facility was closed in September 2011. Following its 2011 withdrawal, Lincoln has not introduced a direct replacement for the Town Car. While matching the Town Car in both wheelbase and width, the revived Lincoln Continental is marketed as a successor to the Lincoln MKS; the Town Car nameplate remains in use by Lincoln, denoting livery/limousine/hearse variants of the Lincoln MKT. In the 1920s, a town car was a body design used for limousines; the description originated from the horse-drawn carriage that featured an open chauffeur's compartment with a fixed roof for the passengers.
During that era, the fixed rear roof horse-drawn carriage became a limousine and the tern "de Ville" in French meant for "for town". The "sedan de Ville" was used as a model name by Cadillac, the primary rival to the Lincoln Continental from the 1950s to the 1990s. In 1922, Edsel Ford purchased a custom-built Lincoln L-Series town car as a personal vehicle for his father, Henry Ford. For 1959, Cadillac and Lincoln introduced the de Ville and Town Car sedan nameplates, with the two rivals taking divergent design paths; as its mid-range model line, the Cadillac Sedan de Ville was styled with fastback or wraparound rear windows. Lincoln marketed the Town Car within its flagship Continental model range, styled as a formal-roof sedan with extended rear legroom. In place of the reverse-slant roofline used by Continentals, the Town Car/Limousine was styled with a notchback roofline with a padded vinyl top. In addition to the restrained styling, the change in the roofline was functional, as it allowed for the rear seat to be moved several inches rearward without any modification in wheelbase.
From 1959 to 1960, 214 Town Cars and 83 Limousines were sold. The Continental Limousine is among the rarest vehicles produced by Ford Motor Company. For 1970, the Town Car name returned as a trim package option, including leather seating surfaces and deeper cut-pile carpeting. For 1971, a limited-edition Golden Anniversary Continental Town Car commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of Lincoln. For 1972, the Town Car was introduced as a sub-model of the Lincoln Continental model line. On nearly all examples, a vinyl top covered the rear half of the roof, with a full-length configuration optional. A raised molding over the roof incorporated coach lamps on the B-pillars. For 1973, Lincoln introduced a two-door variant of the Continental Town Car, named the Town Coupe; as with the Town Car, the Town Coupe was offered with a standard vinyl roof. As part of the 1975 redesign of the Lincoln roofline, the Town Car adopted the oval opera windows of the Mark IV coupe, with the Town Coupe given a large rectangular opera window.
The Continental Town Car proved to be a success for the division, becoming the most popular Lincoln vehicle of the 1970s. Continental Town Cars: 1959-1960, 1970-1979 For 1980, Lincoln became the final American brand to market downsized full-size cars. In its redesign, the Lincoln Continental shifted from the largest production sedan in North America to a design with a smaller exterior footprint than Cadillac; the Continental Town Car returned. Though technically not badged a Lincoln, the Mark VI shared its chassis and much of the body with the Continental to reduce development and production costs. While Lincoln had brought downsized model lines to production, from a marketing standpoint, the consolidation of the Continental, Continental Town Car/Town Coupe, the Mark VI proved catastrophic. Following the early 1980 withdrawal of the slow-selling Lincoln Versailles, Lincoln-Mercury dealers offered three similar vehicles across a wide price range in the same showroom; the discontinuation of the Versailles a
A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate relative to each other about a fixed axis of rotation: all other translations or rotations being prevented, thus a hinge has one degree of freedom. Hinges may be made of moving components. In biology, many joints function as hinges like the elbow joint. There are many types of door hinges; the main types include: Spring hinge a spring-loaded hinge made to provide assistance in the closing or the opening of the hinge leaves. A spring is a component of a hinge, that applies force to secure a hinge closed or keep a hinge opened. Barrel hinge a sectional barrel secured by a pivot. A barrel is a component of a hinge, that has a hollow cylinder shaped section where the rotational bearing force is applied to the pivot, may have a screw shaped section for fastening and/or driving the pivot. Pivot hinges which pivot in the top of the door frame.
Referred to as a double-acting floor hinge. This type is found in ancient dry stone buildings and in old wooden buildings; these are called haar-hung doors. They are a low cost alternative for use with light weight doors. Butt/Mortise hinges in threes or fours, which are inset into the door and frame. Most residential hinges found in the U. S. are made of steel, although mortise hinges for exterior doors are made of brass or stainless steel to prevent corrosion. Case hinges Case hinges are similar to a butt hinge however more of a decorative nature most used in suitcases and the like. Continuous hinges, or piano hinges This type of hinge is known as a piano hinge, it runs the entire length of panel, or box. Continuous hinges are manufactured without holes; these hinges come in various thicknesses, pin diameters, knuckle lengths. Concealed hinges Used for furniture doors, they are made of two parts: One part is the hinge cup and the arm, the other part is the mounting plate. Called "cup hinge", or "Euro hinge", as they were developed in Europe and use metric installation standards.
Most such concealed hinges offer the advantage of full in situ adjustability for standoff distance from the cabinet face as well as pitch and roll by means of two screws on each hinge. Butterfly hinges, or Parliament Hinges These were known as dovetail hinges from the 17th century onwards and can be found on old desks and cabinets from about 1670 until the 18th century; the form of these hinges varied between manufacturers, their size ranged from the large for heavy doors to the tiniest decorative hinge for use on jewellery boxes. Many hinges of this type were exported to America to support the home trade's limited supply, they are still found to be both cheap and decorative on small items. Flag hinges A flag hinge can be taken apart with a fixed pin on one leaf. Flag hinges can swivel a full 360 degrees around the pin. Flag hinges are manufactured as a left hand configuration. Strap used on many kinds of interior and exterior doors and cabinets. H used on flush-mounted doors. Small H hinges tend to be used for cabinets hinges, while larger hinges are for passage doors or closet doors.
HL hinges Large HL hinges were common for passage doors, room doors and closet doors in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. On taller doors H hinges were used in the middle along with the HL hinges. Other types include: Counterflap hinge Flush hinge Coach hinge Rising Butt hinge Double action spring hinge Double action non-spring Tee hinge Friction hinge Security hinge Cranked hinge or stormproof hinge Lift-off hinge Self closing hinge Since at least medieval times there have been hinges to draw bridges for defensive purposes for fortified buildings. Hinges are used in contemporary architecture where building settlement can be expected over the life of the building. For example, the Dakin Building in Brisbane, was designed with its entrance ramp on a large hinge to allow settlement of the building built on piles over bay mud; this device was effective until October 2006, when it was replaced due to damage and excessive ramp slope. Hinges appear in large structures such as elevated railroad viaducts.
These are included to reduce or eliminate the transfer of bending stresses between structural components in an effort to reduce sensitivity to earthquakes. The primary reason for using a hinge, rather than a simpler device such as a slide, is to prevent the separation of adjacent components; when no bending stresses are transmitted across the hinge it is called a zero moment hinge. People have developed a variety of self-actuating, self-locking hinge designs for spacecraft deployable structures such as solar array panels, synthetic aperture radar antennas, radiators, etc. Pin The rod that holds the leaves together, inside the knuckle. Knuckle The hollow—typically circular—portion creating the joint of the hinge through which the pin is set; the knuckles of either leaf alternate and interlock with the pin passing through all of them. Leaf The portions that extend laterally from the knuckle and revolve around the pin. End play Axial movement between the leaves along the axis of the pin; this motion allows the leaves to rotate without binding and is determined by the typical distance between knuckles when both edges of the leaves are aligned.
Gauge Thickness of the leaves. Hinge width Len
Heavy rescue vehicle
A heavy rescue vehicle is a type of specialty emergency medical services or firefighting apparatus. They are designed to provide the specialized equipment necessary for technical rescue situations, as well as search and rescue within structure fires, they carry an array of special equipment such as the Jaws of life, wooden cribbing, winches, hi-lift jacks, cutting torches, circular saws and other forms of heavy equipment unavailable on standard trucks. This capability differentiates them from traditional pumper trucks or ladder trucks designed to carry firefighters and their entry gear as well as on-board water tanks and equipment for fire extinguishing and light rescue. Most heavy rescue vehicles lack on-board water tanks and pumping gear, owing to their specialized role, but some do carry on-board pumps in order to broaden their response capability. Heavy rescue apparatus can be popular choices for incident command vehicles and local law enforcement, HazMat incidents, light & air, urban search and rescue, more.
Furthermore, many heavy rescue vehicles can be outfitted based on their target environmental setting, such as municipal, industrial, or wildland. These configurations, determined by the operational agency and district, worked out with the manufacturing company, provide a plethora of options for storage, equipment and more. Manufacturers such as Pierce, Smeal, E-ONE, others all have unique options that can be tailored based on the ordering organization's needs and desires. Depending on the size of the vehicle and the equipment it carries, a heavy rescue vehicle might fall into different categories, such as light, heavy rescue, or technical rescue. While each of these categories have overlapping tasks, they may be classified differently for the sake of dispatch on certain kinds of incidents. For instance, in Loudoun County, the Loudoun County Fire and Rescue Department operates Medium and Heavy Rescue apparatus, which are categorized based on equipment carried. In Loudoun, to avoid confusion, a medium rescue is referred to as a Squad Truck or a technical rescue, while a Heavy Rescue, which carries more equipment and is always larger, is referred to as a Rescue.
This differentiation exists to allow vehicles that would not be classified as medium rescues, such as certain rescue engines, or tower/ladder trucks to be dispatched on calls requiring a higher level of technical rescue, if the regular squad has been dispatched. This in turn leaves the heavy rescue apparatus available, as opposed to sending them on a call that could have been handled by a medium rescue. NFPA standards 1006 and 1670 give guidance for the operation of heavy rescue vehicles and state that all "rescuers" must have medical training equivalent to EMT-Basic standard to perform any technical rescue operation, including cutting into the vehicle itself. Therefore, in most all rescue environments, whether it is an EMS Department or Fire Department that runs the rescue, the actual rescuers who cut the vehicle and run the extrication scene are Medical First Responders, Emergency Medical Technicians, or Paramedics, as a traffic collision has a patient involved. In addition to traditional fire brigades and rescue departments, tram or railway companies may have their own heavy rescue squads specialized in responding to tram or train wrecks including derailments.
For example, railway rescue squads may carry specialized equipment for railway crashes, like heavy hydraulic jacks, heavy truck-mounted cranes for lifting and moving derailed locomotives and train cars, equipment for capping leaking tank cars. Heavy rescue vehicles can be outfitted as hazardous material response vehicles. In this role, they carry the necessary specialized equipment to respond to and deal with hazardous material incidents. Apart from a pump and tank for water and/or foam, they will carry things like chemical protection suits, decontamination supplies, material for absorption of chemicals, supplies to plug leaks in storage tanks. Rescue squad Fire apparatus Extrication Glossary of firefighting terms