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Pillarisation is the politico-denominational segregation of a society, or the separation of a society into groups by religion and associated political beliefs. These societies were "vertically" divided into two or more groups known as pillars; the best-known examples of this have occurred in the Netherlands and Belgium. Each pillar may have social organizations; these may include their own newspapers, broadcasting organisations, political parties, trade unions and farmers' associations, schools, universities, scouting organisations, sports clubs and other organizations. Such segregation means that many people have little or no personal contact with people from another pillar; the Netherlands had three pillars: Protestant and Social-democratic. Pillarisation was initiated by Abraham Kuyper and his Christian Democratic and neo-Calvinist Anti-Revolutionary Party in the late 19th century; the Catholic pillar had the highest degree of organisation, because Catholic clergy promoted the organisation of Catholics in confessional institutions.

Yet, the conservative Protestant pillar and the Socialist pillar, which consisted of industrial workers, were nearly as knit. The Protestant Christian Historical Union did not organise a pillar of its own but linked to the Protestant pillar shaped by the ARP. People who were not associated with one of these pillars middle- and upper-class latitudinarian Protestants and atheists, arguably set up their own pillar: the liberal or "general" pillar. Ties between general organisations were much weaker than within the other three pillars. Liberals rejected the voluntary segregation of the society, denied the existence of a "liberal pillar"; the political parties associated with this group were the Free-minded Democratic League and Liberal State Party. Communists and ultra-orthodox Protestants set up similar organisations; the development of pillarisation in the Netherlands was favoured by the emancipation of working and lower-middle classes on the one hand, the execution of elite control on the other hand.

The emancipation of the working class led to the establishment of socialist parties, trade unions, cooperative shops and collectively organised leisure activities. This "full care" of the socialist movement for its members existed in other European countries; the emancipation of the conservative and strongly religious lower-middle class fostered the emergence of the Protestant pillar. While the Dutch bourgeoisie was rather liberal and adhered to "enlightened" Protestantism, a large part of the lower-middle class embraced a more orthodox Calvinist theology, as taught by preacher and politician Abraham Kuyper. In 1866 Kuyper founded the gereformeerd current of Protestantism. Kuyper's worldview asserted the principle of "sphere sovereignty", rejecting both ecclesiasticism and statist secularism, he argued. In 1879 he founded the Anti-Revolutionary Party as the political wing of his religious movement and core of the Protestant pillar. At the same time and old elites tried to maintain their control over the newly emancipated social groups.

For instance, the Catholic clergy set up confessional unions to prevent Catholic workers from joining socialist unions. One reason behind the formation of Christian parties was to counter the feared rise of left-wing mass parties; the following table shows the most important institutions by pillar: After World War II liberals and socialists, but Protestants and Catholics, began to doubt the pillarised system. They founded the People's Movement Nederlandse Volksbeweging. Progressives of all pillars were united in the aim to renew the political system, but pillarisation was ingrained in Dutch society, could not be defeated that easily. In order to force this breakthrough, the socialist Social Democratic Workers' Party, the left-liberal VDB and the Christian-socialist CDU united to form the PvdA, a progressive party, open to all people; the new party did not, gain enough support under Catholics or Reformed, the PvdA became encapsulated in the socialist pillar. Television broadcasting was pillarised, but everyone watched the same broadcasts nonetheless, since only one channel was available in the Netherlands in the 1950s.

During the 1960s the pillars broke down under political criticism from D66 and the group Nieuw Links in PvdA. Because of this and of increased mobility, many people could see that people from the other pillars were not that different from themselves. Increased wealth and education made people independent of many of the pillarised institutions, young people did not want to be associated with these organisations anymore. In 1973, two main Protestant parties, ARP and CHU, merged with the Catholic KVP to form the Christian Democratic Appeal, they first participated in the 1977 general elections. In 1976, the Catholic trade union Nederlands Katholiek Vakverbond started to cooperate with the trade union of the Socialist pillar, to merge into the F

Gurchet Chitarkar

Gurchet Chitarkar is a Punjabi comedian and actor. He performs in stage acts and has done tours of Canada, America, European countries, Malaysia, Dubai, he is a Gold Medalist in India in Painting. 7 time Gold Medalists in Stage Acts in India. Gurchet has worked in Punjabi feature films including Punjab Bolda, Taur Mitran Di, Chakk De Phatte, Heer Ranjha: A True Love Story, Power Cut family 420 once again feature movie, cross connection, aashique not allowed, majajan Stage play - bebe ji me sant bann gaya, Jija Ji NRI,, Hayo Rabba, Asi Bolange Sach, Ghara de Jinde, Sadda Bapu Bikau Hai, Bapu da Khunda. Fauji Di Family Najare No.1 Family 420 Family 421 Family 422 Family 423 Family 424 Family 425 Family 426 Family 427 Family 428 Family 429 Family 430 Family 431 Dheeth Jawaai Charno Ek Maa Gurchet Chitarkar on IMDb

Huang Zhun (composer)

Huang Zhun is a Chinese composer. She studied in the Drama Department of Lu Xun Academy of Fine Arts, graduating in 1944, studied composition with Xian Xinghai, she performed as a mezzo-soprano from 1941–42. She worked in the Dalian Art Work Group in 1946, she worked in Northeast Film Studio and Beijing Film Studio, in 1949 took a position as a composer and as a music director for Shanghai Film Studio where she worked until 1987. She has composed many films such as Long Live Red Detachment of Women. Huang Zhun was born in Zhejiang, her first composition was made in 1947 by the Northeast Film Studio for the first feature film in the Liberated Areas, "Leaving him to fight Lao Jiang". She completed the theme song "The Army Loves the People, The People Love the Army" in 1948; this song became popular in the northeast region of China. After that, she moved to work in Beijing Film Studio and Shanghai Film Studio as a composer, where she wrote the musical score for dozens of films, such as Family and Woman Basketball Player No. 5.

In particular, she composed the score for the film Red Detachment of Women. This work had a big influence at the time. After this, her composition of the theme song "The Fishing Kittens" won the National Children's Song Award, she composed more than two hundred songs throughout her life, one of them, "The Teacher", won the first prize of the 2nd National Children's Song Award. Another, won the National Youth Favorite Song's third prize. 20th Century Masterpiece of Chinese Music 1989 for Red Detachment of Women theme song 50th Anniversary of Chinese TV and Film Music Prize, 1999 The theme song "The Fishing Kittens" won the National Children's Song Award Huang Zhun has composed over forty film scores. Selected works include: Old Man and Nymph, 1956 Red Detachment of Women, 1960 Two Sisters on Stage, 1964 Special Task, 1978 Meeting Ceremony, 1980 Strange Marriage, 1981 Horsekeeper, 1982 Wrangler, 1982 Little Goldfish, 1982 The Last Choice, 1983 Deal Under the Noose, 1985 Gourmet, 1985She has published books including: Selected Songs of Huang Zhun Life and Melodies Music and My Life

Sozopolis (Pisidia)

Sozopolis in Pisidia, called Apollonia and Apollonias during Seleucid times, was a town in the former Roman province of Pisidia, is not to be confused with the Thracian Sozopolis in Haemimonto in present-day Bulgaria. Sozopolis in Pisidia must have been situated in the border region of that province, since some ancient accounts place it in Phrygia, its site may correspond to present-day Uluborlu in Turkey. Older sources put it "Souzon, south of Aglasoun". Modern scholars locate its site near Isparta Province. Stephanus of Byzantium says that Apollonia in Pisidia was called Mordiaeon or Mordiaïon, was celebrated for its quinces; the coins of Apollonia record Alexander the Great as the founder, the name of a stream that flowed. Two Greek inscriptions of the Roman period copied by Francis Arundell give the full title of the town in that age, "the Boule and Demus of the Apolloniatae Lycii Thraces Coloni," by which he concluded that the city was founded by a Thracian colony established in Lycia, but that conclusion is not universally accepted.

Sozopolis in Pisidia was the birthplace of Severus of Antioch. The icon of the Theotokos of Pisidian Sozopolis, celebrated by Eastern Orthodox Christians on 3 September, originated in this city. Fragments of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti in Greek have been found in the area. Sozopolis sent its bishop and two other representatives to the Council of Constantinople in 381, its bishop attended the Council of Ephesus in 431; the see is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Apollonia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray

Lincoln Cemetery (Cook County)

Lincoln Cemetery is a cemetery in Worth Township, Cook County, United States. It was founded in 1911. Although not within the municipal boundaries of the city, the cemetery maintains a Chicago address at 12300 South Kedzie Avenue, sharing its zip code with the city's Mount Greenwood neighborhood whose southern border lies a mile north of the cemetery gate; the cemetery is noteworthy for the number of famous African-American Chicagoans buried there, among them several notable blues and jazz musicians. Robert Sengstacke Abbott, newspaper publisher Albert Ammons, Jazz/boogie-woogie pianist Lillian Hardin Armstrong, Jazz singer/pianist/second wife of Louis Armstrong Big Bill Broonzy, Bluesman Gwendolyn Brooks, Poet Bessie Coleman, early African-American aviator Johnny Dodds, Jazz clarinetist Warren "Baby" Dodds, Jazz drummer Charles "Pat" Dougherty American baseball pitcher in the pre-Negro Leagues Andrew Rube Foster, American baseball player and executive in the Negro Leagues William "Bill" Francis Third baseman and manager in the Negro Leagues.

King Daniel Ganaway Photographer Al Hibbler, American baritone vocalist. Papa Charlie Jackson, American blues singer and banjoist/guitarist Tom "College Boy" Johnson American baseball pitcher in the Negro Leagues Frank Leland, American baseball player and executive in the pre-Negro Leagues Lillian C. Moseley Bronzeville socialite, worked for notables on both sides of the law: Al Capone, Attorney Roy Washington, The Honorable Harold Washington, first African American Mayor of Chicago and the Honorable Judge Abraham Lincoln Marovitz Jimmy Reed, Blues musician

Luigi Serafini (artist)

Luigi Serafini is an Italian artist and designer based in Milan. He is best known for creating the Codex Seraphinianus, an illustrated encyclopedia of imaginary things in what was believed to be a constructed language; this work was published in 1981 by Franco Maria Ricci. During the 1980s Serafini worked as an designer in Milan, his objects were defined by a metalanguage aptitude, like the chairs Santa and Suspiral or the lamps and the glass for Artemide. He has created scenery and costumes for the ballet "The Jazz Calendar" by Frederick Ashton at Teatro Alla Scala and worked for the Piccolo Teatro di Milano, he has created set designs acronyms/logos for RAI, worked with Federico Fellini on La voce della luna. He has a laboratory of ceramics in Umbria, exhibits his work especially in the Netherlands, he has been a visiting artist at the Banff Centre, has exhibited at the Fondazione Mudima di Milano, the XIII Quadriennale, the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna in Rome, Futurarium in Chicago, Didael Gallery in Milan.

In 2003 he made a polychrome bronze sculpture, Carpe Diem, other bas-reliefs for the Materdei subway station in Naples. In July 2008, he completed a polychrome installation "Balançoires sans Frontières" in Castasegna, Switzerland. In May 2007, he held Luna Pac, at PAC in Milan, his work has been profiled in many Italian media and art publications, The Codex Seraphinianus was released in a limited edition of 5000 copies in 1981. It has been reprinted on five occasions, first in a 1983 English language edition. In 2013, Serafini released a deluxe and numbered limited edition of 600 copies. Roland Barthes was interested in the Codex. In 1984 Italo Calvino wrote an essay on it; the French choreographer Philippe Decouflé was inspired by it. Douglas Hofstadter wrote about it at length. In a talk at the Oxford University Society of Bibliophiles held on 11 May 2009, Serafini stated that there is no meaning hidden behind the script of the Codex, asemic. In 1984 Serafini illustrated Pulcinellopedia, under the pseudonym P. Cetrulo, with a suite of pencil drawings about the Neapolitan masque of Pulcinella.

It was reprinted in 2016. The catalogue from Serafini's Italian retrospective, Luna-Pac: Serafini, remains the only comprehensive publication of his oil paintings, sculptures and landscape art. Serafini has illustrated books, including an edition of Franz Kafka's story "In the Penal Colony" and a 1988 book entitled Etimologiario by Maria Sebregondi in the style similar to the Pulcinellopedia. In 2009 Serafini illustrated Le Storie Naturali, a reinterpretation of Les Histoires Naturelles by Jules Renard, published by Rizzoli in a signed, limited edition of 600; this book features numerous pockets containing leaves of fantastic plants printed on heavy paper stock and die-cut to leaf shape. Other unpublished works and illustrations are reported to exist, but aside from the occasional exhibit of art, they are not available or publicly catalogued. Serafini started working on his own website,, in the mid-2000s but since 2009 it only shows a blank page. Metropolitana di Napoli, Stazione Mater dei, 2003 LUNA-PAC SERAFINI-Milano, maggio 2007 on YouTube LUNA-PAC SERAFINI-Milano, maggio 2007 on YouTube He designed for Tonelli Design Low table Strappo, 1989