Queen Creek Tunnel
The Queen Creek Tunnel is a 1,217-foot-long tunnel on US 60 in the Superstition Mountains, just east of Superior, Arizona. Completed in 1952, the Queen Creek Tunnel links Phoenix with Safford by way of Superior and Globe/Miami, it replaced the smaller Claypool Tunnel, built in 1926. The new tunnel was cut through the solid rock of the Queen Creek gorge 3 miles from the 4,625-foot mountain summit.. It is 42 feet wide at its base; the cost of the tunnel at the time of its construction was $550,000 and it was built by the Fischer Contracting Company. At the 1952 dedication ceremony, a drill rig used in boring the tunnel was used as a platform for the speakers, other officials, a brass band; the completion of the tunnel was the final part of a Arizona Highway Department program begun in 1937 to improve the original 20-mile section of US 60 between Superior and Miami, constructed in 1920–22. The roadbed in the tunnel climbs at a 6% grade, the original lighting was insufficient to allow motorists good depth perception.
The original lighting was improved with the installation of fluorescent lights in the 1960s. Assistance in design of the new lighting was given by Arizona Public Service and the California Division of Highways. In October 2016, the tunnel lighting system was upgraded to light-emitting diode technology; the lighting system adjusts the lighting level based upon ambient light and weather conditions outside with an adaptive control system. The system offers improved visibility, reduced energy consumption, lower maintenance. Arizona Department of Transportation plans to widen US 60 in the area and may bypass the tunnel to avoid the impact of such a project on an environmentally sensitive canyon. Pictures of the Queen Creek tunnel and nearby roads and structures
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Superior is a town in Pinal County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 2,837. Superior was founded as a mining town for the Silver Queen and the Magma mines; such films as U Turn by Oliver Stone, Eight Legged Freaks, How the West Was Won, Blind Justice, The Prophecy, The Gauntlet with Clint Eastwood, Young Billy Young are set in Superior. In 2005, a sci-fi film named The Salena Incident called Alien Invasion Arizona, was filmed in Superior. During the 1870s, at the height of the American Indian Wars. After losing 50 men. Accepting defeat. Superior was called Queen Hastings, under the latter name was platted in 1900. Queen had a population of around 100 circa 1880. There was a general store, 2 hotels, numerous saloons, a post office; the Queen post office closed Sept. 15, 1881. The Superior townsite was laid out in 1902, named after the Lake Superior and Arizona Copper Company; the Superior post office opened on December 29, 1902. The first claims here were staked in 1875, the Silver Queen Mining Company was organized in 1880.
With depth, rich copper ore was discovered. Boyce Thompson bought the old Silver Queen mine in 1910, by 1912, the Magma Copper Company was in production. A narrow gauge railroad connecting to the Phoenix and Eastern Railroad was built in 1915, converted to standard gauge. A smelter was built in 1924. A new concentrator replaced the original one in 1946. After 71 years of production, the Magma mine closed in August 1982 due to high operating costs and declining copper prices. Operations resumed in September 1990, but the mine closed again on June 28, 1996. During its the 86-year life; the Magma mine produced 27.6 million short tons of ore averaging about 4.9% copper, recovering 1,299,718 short tons of copper, 36,550 short tons of zinc 686,000 ounces of gold and 34.3 million ounces of silver. The old Magma No. 9 shaft atop Apache Leap is being used to explore the huge Resolution Copper deposit below. Superior is located 70 miles east of Phoenix and the same distance north of Tucson. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,254 people, 1,237 households, 847 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,684.6 people per square mile. There were 1,470 housing units at an average density of 761.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 72.68% White, 0.46% Black or African American, 1.63% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 23.05% from other races, 1.75% from two or more races. 69.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,237 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.20. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 21.7% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,069, the median income for a family was $31,250. Males had a median income of $34,297 versus $21,607 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,490. About 22.5% of families and 27.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.0% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those age 65 or over. The Boyce Thompson Arboretum State Park is a 323-acre botanical collection that includes a wide range of habitats and a 1.5-mile walking trail. Founded in 1925, the arboretum is the oldest botanical garden in Arizona. Superior has a hot semi-arid climate. In January, the average high temperature is 61 °F with a low of 43 °F. In July, the average high temperature is 98 °F with a low of 76 °F. Annual precipitation is higher at greater altitudes. Despite its high precipitation due to favourable aspect, Superior is too low for significant snow in winter.
Resolution Copper List of historic properties in Superior, Arizona History of Mining at Superior by Gladys Walker & TG Chilton, Mining Foundation of the Southwest, 1991. The Human Habitation in the Superior, Arizona Region: A Selected Cultural and Historical Timeline by Christine Marin, Ph. D, Barriozona Magazine, 2006. Superior Chamber of Commerce
Phoenix metropolitan area
The Phoenix Metropolitan Area – referred to as the Valley of the Sun, the Salt River Valley, or Metro Phoenix – is a metropolitan area, centered on the city of Phoenix, that includes much of the central part of the U. S. State of Arizona; the United States Office of Management and Budget designates the area as the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale Metropolitan Statistical Area, defining it as Maricopa and Pinal counties. As of the Census Bureau's 2017 population estimates, Metro Phoenix had 4,737,270 residents, making it the 11th largest Metropolitan Area in the nation by population; the gross domestic product of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area was $242 billion in 2017, 16th largest amongst metro areas in the United States. It is one of the fastest growing major metropolitan areas, gaining nearly 600,000 residents from 2010 to 2017, nearly 1.4 million since 2000. The population of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area increased by 45.3% from 1990 through 2000, compared to the average United States rate of 13.2%, helping to make Arizona the second fastest growing state in the nation in the 1990s.
The 2000 Census reported the population of the metropolitan area to be 3,251,876. As for the 2010 Census, the two-county metropolitan area was reported to have a population of 4,192,887. Metro Phoenix grew by 941,011 people from April 2000 to April 2010, making it one of the fastest growing metro areas in the country; this contributed to the entire state's exceptional growth, as the area is home to just over two-thirds of Arizona's population. As of the 2010 census, there were 4,192,887 people, 1,537,137 households, 1,024,971 families residing within the MSA; the racial makeup of the MSA was 73.0% White, 5.0% Black, 3.3% Asian, 2.4% Native American or Alaska Native and 16.2% of other or mixed race. 29.5% were Hispanic of any race. In 2010 the median income for a household in the MSA was $50,385 and the median income for a family was $58,497; the per capita income was $24,809. What follows is a list of places in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; the Office of Management and Budget defines a metropolitan area as the core city plus its county and any nearby counties that are economically dependent on the core city.
However, Arizona has large counties and a harsh, rugged desert landscape. For these reasons, much of the land, part of the Metropolitan Statistical Area is rural or uninhabited; the core part of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area is the Phoenix–Mesa, Arizona Urban Area, far smaller than the Metropolitan Statistical Area. Places that fall or within the boundaries of the Phoenix-Mesa, AZ UA are in bold below. Principal city Phoenix pop. 1,626,078Places with 250,000+ inhabitants Mesa pop. 496,401 Chandler pop. 253,458Places with 150,000–249,999 inhabitants Scottsdale pop. 249,950 Glendale pop. 246,709 Gilbert pop. 242,354 Tempe pop. 185,038 Peoria pop. 168,181Places with 75,000 to 149,999 inhabitants Surprise pop. 134,085 Avondale pop. 84,025 Goodyear pop. 79,858 Places with 30,000 to 74,999 inhabitants. 68,453 Casa Grande pop. 55,477 Maricopa pop. 48,007 Apache Junction pop. 40,538 Queen Creek pop. 39,184 El Mirage pop. 35,216Places with 10,000–29,999 inhabitants Florence pop. 26,074 Fountain Hills pop. 24,583 Eloy pop.
19,168 Paradise Valley pop. 14,293 Coolidge pop. 12,698Fewer than 10,000 inhabitants Wickenburg pop. 7,409 Tolleson pop. 7,205 Youngtown pop. 6,760 Guadalupe pop. 6,525 Litchfield Park pop. 6,009 Cave Creek pop. 5,622 Carefree pop. 3,783 Superior pop. 3,068 Kearny pop. 2,095 Gila Bend pop. 2,069 Mammoth pop. 1,611 Over 50,000 inhabitants San Tan Valley pop. 81,321Over 10,000 inhabitants Sun City pop. 37,499 Sun City West pop. 24,535 Anthem pop. 21,700 New River pop. 14,952 Sun Lakes pop. 13,975 Arizona City pop. 10,475 Gold Canyon pop. 10,159Under 10,000 inhabitants Aguila Ak-Chin Village Arlington Bapchule Cactus Forest Chuichu Circle City Eleven Mile Corner Komatke La Palma Liberty Morristown Olberg Palo Verde Queen Valley Rio Verde Sacaton Stanfield Tonopah Tortilla Flat Valley Farms Waddell Wintersburg Wittmann As of 2010, the Phoenix Metropolitan area consists of Maricopa and Pinal counties, comprising a total area of about 14,600 square miles. Because of the size of counties in Arizona though Maricopa and Pinal counties together contain nearly 4.5 million people, most of the area is uninhabited, which gives the MSA an low density compared to other major MSAs in the nation.
The average elevation is about 2,000 feet, with the highest point being 2,704 feet. The Phoenix Metropolitan area is notable for its warm, desert climate. On average, the area receives about 9 inches of rain annually, with less than 1 inch of snow every decade. In total, the region will see about 32 days of measurable precipitation each year; the MSA is one of the sunniest major metropolitan areas, receiving 295 days of sunshine, compared to the national average of 205. The average July high is about 104 °F, with the average January low being about 37 °F, still above freezing. Bestplaces gives the Phoenix Metropolitan Area a comfort index of 44/100, the national average. Below is a chart showing climate data collected from Sky Harbor Airport. Note that due to the vast area covered by the MSA, climates differ throughout the valley; the Phoenix Metropolitan area has been the center of the state's economy. As with the state of Arizona, the area relied on the 5 C's for its economic expansion. However, after World War II, the area entered the manufacturing industry, which spurred the growth of what would be one of the largest urban areas in the nation.
The two largest industries
Sacaton Mountains (Arizona)
The Sacaton Mountains are a range of granitic inselbergs in Pinal County, located south of Phoenix near Casa Grande, Arizona. The highest peak is Sacaton Peak at an elevation of 2755 ft. Other peaks include Agency Peak, Hayden Peak, Thin Mountain, Fivemile Peak, Signal Peak. Interstate 10 passes through the Sacaton Mountains. List of mountains and hills of Arizona by height
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl refers to the unrestricted growth in many urban areas of housing, commercial development, roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning. In addition to describing a particular form of urbanization, the term relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development. In Continental Europe the term "peri-urbanisation" is used to denote similar dynamics and phenomena, although the term urban sprawl is being used by the European Environment Agency. There is widespread disagreement about how to quantify it. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area, but others associate it with decentralization, segregation of uses, so forth. The term urban sprawl is politicized, always has negative connotations, it is criticized for causing environmental degradation, intensifying segregation and undermining the vitality of existing urban areas and attacked on aesthetic grounds.
Due to the pejorative meaning of the term, few support urban sprawl as such. The term has become a rallying cry for managing urban growth. Definitions of sprawl vary. Batty et al. defined sprawl as "uncoordinated growth: the expansion of community without concern for its consequences, in short, incremental urban growth, regarded unsustainable." Bhatta et al. wrote in 2010 that despite a dispute over the precise definition of sprawl there is a "general consensus that urban sprawl is characterized by unplanned and uneven pattern of growth, driven by multitude of processes and leading to inefficient resource utilization." Reid Ewing has shown that sprawl has been characterized as urban developments exhibiting at least one of the following characteristics: low-density or single-use development, strip development, scattered development, and/or leapfrog development. He argued that a better way to identify sprawl was to use indicators rather than characteristics because this was a more flexible and less arbitrary method.
He proposed using "accessibility" and "functional open space" as indicators. Ewing's approach has been criticized for assuming that sprawl is defined by negative characteristics. What constitutes sprawl may be considered a matter of degree and will always be somewhat subjective under many definitions of the term. Ewing has argued that suburban development does not, per se constitute sprawl depending on the form it takes, although Gordon & Richardson have argued that the term is sometimes used synonymously with suburbanization in a pejorative way. Metropolitan Los Angeles for example, despite popular notions of being an sprawling city, is the densest metropolitan region in the US, being denser than the New York metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. Most of metropolitan Los Angeles is built at more uniform low to moderate density, leading to a much higher overall density for the entire region; this is in contrast to cities such as New York, San Francisco or Chicago which have compact, high-density cores but are surrounded by large areas of low density.
The international cases of sprawl draw into question the definition of the term and what conditions are necessary for urban growth to be considered sprawl. Metropolitan regions such Greater Mexico City, Delhi National Capital Region and Beijing, are regarded as sprawling despite being dense and mixed use. Despite the lack of a clear agreed upon description of what defines sprawl most definitions associate the following characteristics with sprawl; this refers to a situation where commercial, residential and industrial areas are separated from one another. Large tracts of land are devoted to a single use and are segregated from one another by open space, infrastructure, or other barriers; as a result, the places where people live, work and recreate are far from one another to the extent that walking, transit use and bicycling are impractical, so all these activities require a car. The degree to which different land uses are mixed together is used as an indicator of sprawl in studies of the subject.
Job sprawl is another land use symptom of urban car-dependent communities. It is defined as low-density, geographically spread-out patterns of employment, where the majority of jobs in a given metropolitan area are located outside of the main city's central business district, in the suburban periphery, it is the result of urban disinvestment, the geographic freedom of employment location allowed by predominantly car-dependent commuting patterns of many American suburbs, many companies' desire to locate in low-density areas that are more affordable and offer potential for expansion. Spatial mismatch is related to economic environmental justice. Spatial mismatch is defined as the situation where poor urban, predominantly minority citizens are left without easy access to entry-level jobs, as a result of increasing job sprawl and limited transportation options to facilitate a reverse commute to the suburbs. Job sprawl has been measured in various ways, it has been shown to be a growing trend in America's metropolitan areas.
The Brookings Institution has published multiple articles on the topic. In 2005, author Michael Stoll defined job sprawl as jobs located more than 5-mile radius from the CBD, measured the concept based on year 2000
Arizona State Route 79
State Route 79 known as the Pinal Pioneer Parkway, is a state highway in the U. S. state of Arizona. SR 79 has a northern terminus at U. S. Route 60 in unincorporated Florence Junction and passes through the town of Florence, its southern terminus is four miles north of Catalina, at State Route 77, 25 miles north of Tucson; the entirety of SR 79 is a direct surface route paralleling Interstate 10, serving as the major route to Florence, but the town of Florence is accessible from State Route 287, State Route 87, Hunt Highway. It serves as the back-road to the Phoenix and Tucson Metropolitan Areas and control cities along this route show either Phoenix or Tucson; the southern portion of SR 79 from Oracle Junction to just south of Florence is designated Pinal Pioneer Parkway, a scenic road of the high desert plain with views of the Santa Catalina and Tortilla Mountains. The 41-mile stretch of road was so designated by the Arizona Highways Department in 1961. Along this road is a memorial marker for Tom Mix, who died after his Cord 812 convertible crashed into what is now designated the Tom Mix Wash while bridge construction was incomplete.
The single-car high-speed accident led to his death after leaving the Oracle Junction Inn in 1940. SR 79 services the Florence Military Reservation, a couple of miles north of Florence and the State, Private built or Federal Prisons in Florence, it is a scenic and historic road between the metropolitan cities of Phoenix and Tucson if I-10 is closed due to an accident, weather or construction. According to INRIX, a traffic-monitoring agency, as of 2011 Arizona State Route 79 was the fastest road in the nation, with the fastest 5% of the vehicles using it clocked at an average speed of 88 miles per hour. SR 79 is the section of what was together U. S. Route 80 and U. S. Route 89. US 80 was removed from Arizona in 1989, US 89 was removed from southern Arizona in 1992; the original SR 79 was designated in 1924 as part of the original state highways from Prescott to Jerome. By 1926, it extended northeast to Flagstaff. In 1941, this was redesignated as U. S. Route 89A, it was redesignated as a newly proposed route from Sedona to SR 69.
In 1955, it was rerouted to US 89A south of Flagstaff, with the old route to Sedona being SR 79T. In 1960, SR 79's new routing was complete, the old route was renumbered SR 179. SR 79 was extended north to US 66 in 1964. In August 1992, this route was cancelled, the current SR 79 was assigned, as the old SR 79 became part of Interstate 17, causing the cancellation of US 89 south of Flagstaff, with one section renumbered to the current SR 79. On the afternoon of October 12, 1940, silent film actor Tom Mix died in a car accident on SR 79 18.5 miles southeast of Florence, Arizona. The entire route is in Pinal County. Business State Route 79 is a business loop in central Arizona, it lies within the town limits of Florence located in Pinal County. The road begins south of town at its parent State Route 79 near the Central Arizona Project canal and travels northbound on Main St passing a "Y" junction with State Route 287 to Coolidge; the road continues northbound to an intersection with Butte Ave, at a traffic light, where the highway turns east and passes the Pinal County Governmental Complex, it terminates at the junction with State Route 79 at the intersection of Butte Ave. and Pinal Parkway Avenue.
It is the only state business loop in the state of Arizona. The junction with SR 287 and 79 is scheduled to be upgraded to a roundabout intersection; the current intersection has safety issues, including 8 driveways/entrance/exit points combining at different angles. The business loop gives access to the historic downtown and business district in Florence, passing by the Pinal County Government Complex, Pinal County Historical Museum and 1891 Pinal County Courthouse