Greco-Roman or Graeco-Roman wrestling is a style of wrestling, practiced worldwide. It was contested at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has been included in every edition of the summer Olympics held since 1908; this style of wrestling forbids holds below the waist. This restriction results in an emphasis on throws because a wrestler cannot use trips to take an opponent to the ground, or avoid throws by hooking or grabbing the opponent's leg. According to United World Wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is one of the six main forms of amateur competitive wrestling practised internationally today; the other five forms are Freestyle wrestling, Grappling/Submission wrestling, Beach wrestling, Pankration athlima, Alysh/Belt wrestling and Traditional/Folk wrestling. The name "Greco-Roman" was applied to this style of wrestling as a way of purporting it to be similar to the wrestling found in the ancient civilizations surrounding the Mediterranean Sea at the ancient Greek Olympics. At that time, the athletes wore skintight shorts but wrestled each other naked.
It is speculated that many styles of European folk wrestling may have spurred the origins of Greco-Roman wrestling. According to United World Wrestling, a Napoleonic soldier named Jean Exbrayat first developed the style. Exbrayat performed in fairs and called his style of wrestling "flat hand wrestling" to distinguish it from other forms of hand-to-hand combat that allowed striking. In 1848, Exbrayat established the rule. "Flat hand wrestling" or "French wrestling" developed all throughout Europe and became a popular sport. The Italian wrestler Basilio Bartoletti first coined the term "Greco-Roman" for the sport to underline the interest in "ancient values." Many others in the 18th and 20th centuries sought to add value to their contemporary athletic practices by finding some connections with ancient counterparts. The 18th century work Gymnastics for Youth by Johann Friedrich Guts Muths described a form of schoolboy wrestling called "orthopale" that did not mention any lower-body holds. Real ancient wrestling was quite different.
The British never enjoyed Greco-Roman wrestling in comparison to its less restrictive counterpart and despite the efforts of William Muldoon to promote it in the United States after the Civil War. But on the continent, the style was promoted. All the continental European capital cities hosted international Greco-Roman tournaments in the 19th century, with much prize money given to the place winners. For example, the Czar of Russia paid 500 francs for wrestlers to train and compete in his tournament, with 5,000 francs awarded as a prize to the tournament winner. Greco-Roman wrestling soon became prestigious in continental Europe and was the first style registered at the modern Olympic Games, beginning in Athens in 1896 with one heavyweight bout, grew in popularity during the 20th century, it has always been featured in the Olympic Games, except during the Paris Olympic Games in 1900 and the St. Louis Olympic Games of 1904, when freestyle first emerged as an Olympic sport; the most well-known of Greco-Roman wrestlers in the 19th century was Georg Hackenschmidt born in Dorpat, Russian Empire, nicknamed "The Russian Lion."
Hackenschmidt in 1898 at the age of 21 and with 15 months of training defeated the experienced Paul Pons in a match in Saint Petersburg, Russia. In 1900, he won professional tournaments in Moscow and St. Petersburg and a series of international tournaments after that. After defeating Tom Jenkins in both freestyle and Greco-Roman matches in England, Georg Hackenschmidt wrestled freestyle in order to compete better against English and American opponents. Winning more than 2,000 victories in Greco-Roman and freestyle, Hackenschmidt served as the physical education adviser to the House of Lords after his retirement. Professional matches in Greco-Roman wrestling were known for their great brutality. Body slams, choke-holds, head-butting was allowed, caustic substances were used to weaken the opponent. By the end of the 19th century, gouging with the nails and violently slamming the arms together around the opponent's stomach were forbidden. Greco-Roman matches were famous for their length. Professionally, it was not uncommon for there to be matches lasting three hours.
William Muldoon's bout with Clarence Whistler at the Terrace Garden Theater in New York lasted eight hours before ending in a draw. In the 1912 Olympics, a match between Anders Ahlgren of Sweden and Ivar Boehling of Finland lasted for nine hours before a draw was called and both wrestlers awarded the silver medal; the International Amateur Wrestling Federation took over the regulation of Greco-Roman wrestling in 1921. Since matches have been cut short, today all movements that put the life or limb of the wrestler in jeopardy are forbidden. In Olympic competition, countries of the former Soviet Union, Turkey, South Korea, Japan and Finland have had great success. Carl Westergren of Sweden won three Greco-Roman gold medals in 1920, 1924, 1932, was the first Greco-Roman wrestler to do so. Alexander Karelin did the same in 1988, 1992, 1996. Ivar Johansson of Sweden won gold medals in Greco-Roman in 1932 and 1936 and a gold me
San Luis, Pinar del Río
San Luis is a municipality and town in the Pinar del Río Province of Cuba. It is centered on agriculture, stock raising, it was founded in 1827, established as a municipality in 1879, when it split from San Juan y Martínez. Until 1977, its territory included the seaport village of La Coloma part of Pinar del Río; the municipality is located west of Pinar del Río and includes the villages of Barbacoa, Buenavista, El Corojo, El Retiro, Palizada, Santa María and Tirado. In 2004, the municipality of San Luis had a population of 34,085. With a total area of 765 km2, it has a population density of 44.6/km2. Municipalities of Cuba List of cities in Cuba San Luis Municipal Museum Media related to San Luis, Pinar del Río at Wikimedia Commons
Yoel Romero Palacio is a Cuban mixed martial artist and former freestyle wrestler. He is signed to the Ultimate Fighting Championship, competing in the Middleweight division; as a freestyle wrestler, Romero was an Olympic silver medalist. He won six world and Olympic medals in total; as of July 26, 2018, he is ranked the #1 contender in the official UFC middleweight rankings. Romero competed in both the 2000 Summer Olympics and the 2004 Summer Olympics, representing his home nation of Cuba, he won the silver medal in the 2000 freestyle competition. He finished in fourth place in 2004. While competing in freestyle wrestling, Romero has defeated three different Olympic gold medal winners, five different world champions. Among them were Americans Cael Sanderson and Les Gutches, both of whom Romero has multiple victories over, he represented Cuba at senior level in the FILA Wrestling World Championships, held in non-Olympic years, from 1997–2005. At the 1999 World Wrestling Championships Romero became world champion by defeating the 1996 Olympic gold medalist, Khadzhimurad Magomedov of Russia.
He controversially missed out on becoming world champion again in 2002. After landing a three-point throw against Adam Saitiev to take a 3–2 lead, Romero was penalized a point for passivity with 20 seconds remaining. In overtime, after a scramble which saw Romero end on top, it was judged Saitiev had scored in the interim. Romero medaled in five total world championships, only missing out with his fifth-place finish in 1997, sixth-place finish in 2003, when he was battling injuries. Other notable achievements include a gold medal at the 2003 Pan American Games, a quadrennial competition held the year before the Olympics, as well as multiple medal-winning finishes at the FILA Wrestling World Cup. Romero competed infrequently after 2005: he was suspended for all of 2006 by the Cuban Wrestling Federation for throwing his match against Mindorashvili at the 2005 World Championships. After winning the Grand Prix of Germany in the summer of 2007, he did not return to Cuba, choosing instead to remain in Germany.
Romero joined the Ringer-Bundesliga, a professional wrestling league in Germany, in which teams compete for team titles. Romero competed as a starting member of SV Johannis Nuremberg, as well as helping coach and train the team, he began to transition into MMA. After defecting to Germany in 2007, Romero made his professional mixed martial arts debut in December 2009. Between 2008 and 2011 Romero was trained by Sergej Kuftin and Zike Simic, both from Peter Althof's "Martial Arts Gym Nuremberg". Over the next three years, he amassed an undefeated record of 5–0 in various promotions throughout Germany and Poland, he won his debut via TKO against Sascha Weinpolter. In his second bout he scored a 62-second finish via TKO against Ricky Pulu, he took on Polish standout Michał Fijałka in his third bout. After a dominant performance, Yoel won in the third round via TKO, at first ruled a controversial disqualification, due to a knee on the ground thrown by Romero. In 2011, he won his next three fights via TKO in the first round.
Romero signed with Strikeforce in July 2011 and made his promotional debut against Rafael Cavalcante on September 10, 2011 at Strikeforce 36. He lost the fight via KO in the second round. A neck injury kept him out of action until 2013. Romero made his UFC and middleweight debut against Clifford Starks on April 20, 2013, at UFC on Fox 7, he won the fight via KO in the first round. The win earned him Knockout of the Night honors. Romero was expected to face Derek Brunson on August 31, 2013, at UFC 164. However, Brunson pulled out of the bout. Promotional newcomer Brian Houston was linked as a replacement, however Houston was not medically cleared to compete at the event and the bout was canceled. In his second UFC bout, Romero faced Ronny Markes on November 6, 2013, at UFC Fight Night 31, he won the fight via knockout in the third round. For his third fight, Romero was again set to face Derek Brunson on January 15, 2014, at UFC Fight Night 35. After trailing for two rounds, Romero won the fight in the third via TKO due to punches that dropped Brunson and subsequent elbows to the body.
Both fighters earned a $50,000 Fight of the Night bonus award. In his fourth fight, Romero faced Brad Tavares at UFC on Fox 11, he won the fight via unanimous decision. Romero faced Tim Kennedy on September 27, 2014, at UFC 178, he won the fight via TKO in the third round, giving Kennedy his first stoppage loss in thirteen years. This fight generated much controversy: Romero was hurt badly at the end of round 2, received extra time to recover between rounds. UFC color commentator Joe Rogan mistakenly blamed this on Romero's cornermen for failing to leave the Octagon on time, when the blame was on a UFC Cutman who applied too much Vaseline to a cut and referee John McCarthy for allowing Romero to stay sitting while trying to get the cutman to return to the octagon to wipe the excess off, it was noticed that Kennedy was illegally holding Romero's glove while striking him at end of round 2. The win earned Romero his second Fight of the Night bonus award. Romero was expected to face Ronaldo Souza on February 28, 2015, at UFC 184.
However, Souza pulled out of the fight on January 2015, due to pneumonia. The bout was rescheduled for April 18, 2015, at UFC on Fox 15. However, Romero was forced out of the fight by a meniscus tear in his knee, he was replaced by Chris Camozzi. Romero faced former light heavyweight champion Lyoto Machida on June 27, 2015, at UFC Fight Night 70, he knocked out Machida at 1:38 of the third round with a se
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Cypress Hill is an American hip hop group from South Gate, California. Cypress Hill was the first Latino American hip hop recording group to have platinum and multi-platinum albums, selling over 20 million albums worldwide, they are considered to be among the main progenitors of West Coast rap and hip hop in the early 1990s, being critically acclaimed for their first four albums. The band has advocated for medical and recreational use of cannabis in the United States. Senen Reyes and Ulpiano Sergio Reyes are brothers born in Pinar del Cuba. In 1971, their family emigrated to the United States from Cuba, they lived in South Gate, California. In 1988, the two brothers teamed up with New York City native Lawrence Muggerud and Louis Freese to form a hip-hop group named DVX; the band soon lost Mellow Man Ace to a solo career, changed their name to Cypress Hill, after a street in South Gate. After recording a demo in 1989, Cypress Hill signed a record deal with Ruffhouse Records, their self-titled first album was released in August 1991.
The lead single was the double A-side "The Phuncky Feel One"/"How I Could Just Kill a Man" which received heavy airplay on urban and college radio. The other two singles released from the album were "Hand on the Pump" and "Latin Lingo", the latter of which combined English and Spanish lyrics; the success of these singles led to the album selling two million copies in the US alone. Cypress Hill contributed the song "Shoot'Em Up" to the soundtrack of the movie Juice; the group made their first appearance at Lollapalooza on the side stage in 1992. Black Sunday, the group's second album, debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 in 1993, recording the highest Soundscan for a rap group up until that time. With their debut still in the charts, they became the first rap group to have two albums in the top 10 of the Billboard 200 at the same time. With "Insane in the Brain" becoming a crossover hit, the album went triple platinum in the U. S. and sold about 3.25 million copies. The band headlined the Soul Assassins tour with House of Pain and Funkdoobiest as support performed on a college tour with Rage Against the Machine and Seven Year Bitch.
In 1993, Cypress Hill had two tracks on the Judgment Night soundtrack, teaming up with Pearl Jam on the track "Real Thing" and Sonic Youth on "I Love You Mary Jane". The group played at Woodstock 94, introducing new member Eric Bobo, son of Willie Bobo and a percussionist with the Beastie Boys. Rolling Stone magazine named the group as the best rap group in their music awards voted by critics and readers. Cypress Hill played at Lollapalooza for two successive years, topping the bill in 1995, they appeared on the "Homerpalooza" episode of The Simpsons. Prior to Bobo joining the crew, Panchito "Ponch" Gomez sat in as a percussionist, their third album III: Temples of Boom was released in 1995, the album was certified Platinum by the RIAA. Cypress Hill contributed a track "I Wanna Get High" to the High Times sponsored Hempilation album to support NORML. Sen Dog took a break from the band to form a Los Angeles-based rap rock band, SX-10. Meanwhile, in 1996, Cypress Hill appeared on the first Smokin' Grooves tour, featuring Ziggy Marley, The Fugees, Busta Rhymes and A Tribe Called Quest.
The band released a nine track EP Unreleased and Revamped with rare mixes. In 1997, band members focused on their solo careers. Muggs released Soul Assassins: Chapter 1 featuring contributions from Dr. Dre, KRS-One, Wyclef Jean and Mobb Deep. B-Real appeared with Busta Rhymes, Coolio, LL Cool J and Method Man on "Hit Em High" from the multi-platinum Space Jam Soundtrack, he appeared with RBX, Nas and KRS-One on "East Coast Killer, West Coast Killer" from Dr. Dre's Dr. Dre Presents the Aftermath album, contributed to an album entitled The Psycho Realm with the band of the same name. Though the focus that year was not on group efforts, the band played Smokin' Grooves with George Clinton and Erykah Badu. Cypress Hill released IV in 1998 which went gold in the US, on the backs of hit singles "Tequila Sunrise" and "Dr. Greenthumb". Sen Dog released the Get Wood sampler as part of SX-10 on the label Flip. In 1999, Cypress Hill helped with the PC crime video game Kingpin: Life of Crime. Three of the band's songs from the 1998 IV album were in the game.
B-Real did voice work for some of the game's characters. In 1999, the band released a greatest-hits album in Spanish, Los grandes éxitos en español. In 2000, Cypress Hill fused genres with their fifth album, Skull & Bones, a two-disc album; the first disc, "Skull" was composed of rap tracks while "Bones" explored further the group's forays into rock. The album reached the Top 5 on number 3 in Canada; the first single was "Rap Superstar" for urban radio. Following the release of the album, Cypress Hill landed a slot opening for The Offspring on the Conspiracy of One tour; the band released Live at the Fillmore, a concert disc recorded at the Fillmore in 2000. Cypress Hill continued their experimentation with rock on the Stoned Raiders album in 2001. However, its sales were a disappointment, as the disc did not reach the top 50 of the US album charts. In 2001, the group appeared in the film. Cypress Hill recorded "Just Another Victim" for WWE as a theme song for Tazz. At the time, WWE was using original music for all of the wrestlers.
The band released Till Death Do Us Part on March 23, 2004. The
Carretera Central (Cuba)
The Carretera Central, meaning "Central Road", is a west-east highway spanning the length of the island of Cuba. Formal construction began in 1927 during the Gerardo Machado administration, it runs along the island of Cuba from west between Pinar del Río and Oriente. It is a two-way single road, it represented an extraordinary economic value during Machado and Fulgencio Batista's administrations. It facilitated effective inter-province commuting; the Carretera Central starts in the village of La Fé, a hamlet of Sandino, in the western province of Pinar del Río, links all major cities and province capitals except Cienfuegos. It runs about 1,250 km to Baracoa in the eastern Guantánamo province; the table below shows the route of the Carretera Central. Note: Provincial seats are shown in bold. Roads in Cuba Vía Blanca Carretera Central photos Carretera Central on EcuRed