SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pine

A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae; the Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms. The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’. Before the 19th century, pines were referred to as firs. In some European languages, Germanic cognates of the Old Norse name are still in use for pines—in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, German Föhre—but in modern English, fir is now restricted to fir and Douglas fir. Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall; the smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, the tallest is an 81.79 m tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest.

Pines are long lived and reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some more. The longest-lived is Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old; this tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old, it was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal. The spiral growth of branches and cone scales may be arranged in Fibonacci number ratios; the new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles". These "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the vigour of the trees; the bark of most pines is thick and scaly. The branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls" a tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year.

Pines have four types of leaf: Seed leaves on seedlings are borne in a whorl of 4–24. Juvenile leaves, which follow on seedlings and young plants, are 2–6 cm long, green or blue-green, arranged spirally on the shoot; these are produced for six months to five years longer. Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, are small and not photosynthetic, arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves. Needles, the adult leaves, are green and bundled in clusters called fascicles; the needles can number from one to seven per fascicle, but number from two to five. Each fascicle is produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf; these bud scales remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist depending on species. If a shoot is damaged, the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can replace the lost leaves. Pines are monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious, with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex.

The male cones are small 1–5 cm long, only present for a short period, falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long; each cone has numerous spirally. The seeds are small and winged, are anemophilous, but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, are bird-dispersed. Female cones are sometimes armed to protect developing seeds from foragers. At maturity, the cones open to release the seeds. In some of the bird-dispersed species, for example whitebark pine,), the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds; this is called serotiny. The most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire, for example in Pinus rigida. Conifers evolved about 300 million years ago, pines around 153 million years ago.

The genus Pinus is thought to have diverged from other pines 95 million years ago. Pinus is the largest genus of the Pinaceae, the pine family, the oldest and largest conifer family, it dates back to 206 million years ago. Based on recent transriptome analysis, Pinus is most related to the genus Cathaya, which in turn is related to spruces; these genera, with firs and larches, form the pinoid clade of the Pinaceae. The evolutionary history of the genus Pinus has been complicated by hybridization. Pines are prone to inter-specific breeding. Wind pollination, long life spans, overlapping generations, large population size, weak reproductive isolation make breeding across species more likely; as the pines have diversified, gene transfer between different species has created a complex history of genetic relatedness. Pines are gymnosperms; the genus i

Garywood Christian School

Garywood Christian School was a Christian private school located in Hueytown, Alabama, in the western suburbs of Birmingham. It was affiliated with Garywood Assembly of God, a large Pentecostal church that houses the school's facilities; the school suspended operations in 2007 as a result of the parent church's action toward moving to a new location. The school was founded in 1985 by Rev. John A. Loper Jr.. At its inception, the school offered classes in kindergarten through eighth grades, adding a higher grade each successive school year until all twelve grades were offered; the school offered Bible-based curriculum in all standard school subjects. In 2003, the school offered sponsorship of home school students, giving such students the legal "umbrella organization" required by Alabama law and allowing them additional opportunities, such as sports participation. GCS fielded varsity sports teams in eight-man football, boys' and girls' basketball, volleyball and fast-pitch softball; the teams played under the nickname "Crusaders".

Their uniform colors were blue and white. In 2003, the Crusader football team won the National Association of Christian Athletes Division 3 national championship, the first post-season championship in school history; the teams competed in the National Christian Sports Conference at the time the school suspended operations. One of the school's teachers, Lyn Turk, took part in The Amazing Race 10 and became part of the first all-female team to make it into the final three in the show's history, her team finished third overall. In 2004, Garywood Assembly announced plans to move the church and school facilities to a new location in McCalla, about 10 miles southwest of the current facilities and adjacent to Interstate 459. After a sale of the initial property intended for the new facility, the church purchased another site in 2007 a mile away; because of uncertainty about when the new facility would be ready and when the current facility would have to be vacated pending its sale, the church board voted to suspend operations of the school for at least the 2007-2008 school year.

The suspension was announced on May 7, 2007. As of March 2016, Garywood Assembly had not moved to the new location, continues to operate from its original Hueytown location. Garywood Assembly of God web site

Farafenni

Farafenni is a town in the Gambia, lying on the Trans-Gambia Highway in the North Bank Division, just south of the border with Senegal. It is an important market town; the population of Farafenni is around 30,000 and the main local language is Wolof, although Mandinka and other languages are fairly common. Farafenni is the site of a built hospital and contains a large military base, attacked in 1995 by half-a-dozen men claiming to be Sanyang's collaborators, it is sometimes called Faracity. There is only one senior secondary school, called: Farafenni Senior Secondary School. Both located in the Outskirt of the town. Farafenni Upper Basic School is sponsored by John Cabot Academy in Bristol, UK. Farafenni is a commercial town, it has one big market situated opposite Farafenni Gamtel, nearby there are shops and a small market on Kerewan Highway. Both markets serve the needs of the inhabitants. There is a weekly market called lumo; the lumo place is located at the outskirts of the town, adjacent to the Farafenni Mini Stadium