Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Fossil Creek is a perennial stream near the community of Strawberry in the U. S. state of Arizona. A tributary of the Verde River, Fossil Creek flows from its headwaters on the Mogollon Rim to meet the larger stream near the former Childs Power Plant. Fossil Springs, near the headwaters, emits upwards of 20,000 US gallons per minute that flow into the creek year-round. Calcium carbonate, precipitating from the 72 °F water from the springs, creates travertine dams and deposits for several miles downstream; the Fossil Creek system is the fourth largest producer of travertine in the United States. Fossil Creek is one of only two streams in Arizona included in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System; the creek and its riparian corridor provide habitat for a wide variety of flora and fauna, some listed as endangered or otherwise imperiled. Its former power-plant complex is listed as a National Historic District. Since restoration of the stream's natural flow in 2008, an increase in recreational visits has raised concerns about overuse and has led to road closings and other restrictions.
Parking is available only by advanced permit between April 1 and October 1. Fossil Creek arises at an elevation of 6,510 feet above sea level on the Mogollon Rim in Coconino County north of Strawberry. For about the first 3 miles, the creek's flow is intermittent. From high on the rim, the creek runs north, entering Gila County immediately, it continues north through the wilderness to the confluence of an intermittent stream in Calf Pen Canyon, which enters from the right. Turning west, the creek receives another intermittent stream from the right in Sandrock Canyon, at the head of Fossil Creek Canyon. Before it reaches Fossil Springs, the creek becomes the boundary between Gila County on the stream's left and Yavapai County on its right, it remains the boundary all the way to the Verde River; the perennial stretches of the stream begin at Fossil Springs, at river mile 14 or river kilometer 23, in the Fossil Springs Wilderness of the Coconino National Forest at an elevation of about 4,100 feet.
Below the springs, the creek flows southwest, passing the remnants of a former dam. Unnamed intermittent streams enter from right. Before Fossil Creek reaches the former Irving Power Plant, it leaves the Fossil Springs Wilderness, below the plant, it enters the Mazatzal Wilderness of the Tonto National Forest. Forest Road 708 follows the creek for 2.5 miles along this stretch, crossing the creek once at Fossil Creek Bridge. After Cimarron Creek Wash enters from the right, Fossil Creek turns south. In the next stretch, Stehr Lake is to Deadman Mesa to the left. Hardscrabble Creek enters from the left just before Fossil Creek turns west again and enters the Verde River; the flow of water from Fossil Springs has been estimated to range from 43 to 56 cubic feet per second year-round, it emerges from underground at a constant 72 °F. The United States Geological Survey installed a stream gauge at the Fossil Creek Bridge in 2010; the maximum daily discharge at that station was 885 cubic feet per second on February 19, 2011, the minimum was 39 cubic feet per second on August 6, 2011.
Fossil Creek Canyon is about 1,600 feet deep and varies in width from 2 miles at Fossil Springs to less than 1 mile in places further downstream. Rocks in the canyon vary in age from the Precambrian through the Cenozoic. North of the springs the canyon cuts through Paleozoic sedimentary rocks including the Redwall Limestone, Naco Group, Supai Group, Schnebly Hill Formation, Coconino Sandstone, Kaibab Formation. South of the springs, the rocks of the canyon are Tertiary volcanics dark-gray basalt and yellow-gray tuff. Fossil Springs, the source of about 80 percent of the water in Fossil Creek, issues from several vents in close proximity to one another at the base of the Mogollon Rim; the rim is the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau. Water percolating through limestone layers in the rim becomes laden with dissolved carbon dioxide and calcium carbonate; when the water emerges at the springs, it begins to release carbon dioxide as a gas and calcium carbonate as travertine, a porous form of calcite found around hot springs such as Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park.
The release, affected by stream turbulence and other factors, does not occur all at once but continues downstream. Nineteenth-century observers of the creek reported seeing many occurring travertine dams with deep pools behind them. A study conducted in 1996 identified the eroded remnants of at least 80 such dams. After the creek's natural flow was restored in 2008, hundreds of new travertine dams began to form along a 6-mile stretch below Fossil Springs. About 13 short tons of travertine per day are deposited along the stream; this rate of deposition makes Fossil Creek the fourth largest travertine system in the United States. Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric use of the Fossil Creek watershed, it is possible that people lived here as long as 10,000 years ago. More Yavapai and Apache peoples have lived in the area used by 19th-century cattlemen and shepherds. Fossil Creek first appeared on maps in Arizona in the 1860s, when Arizona Territory's first governor, John Noble Goodwin, passed through the region.
Members of the Goodwin group noted "petrifactions", travertine-encased rocks and twigs that looked like fossils, hence the name Fossil Creek. Few streams in Arizona have a flow as large and steady as Fossil Cree
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Payson is a town in northern Gila County, United States. Its location puts it near to the geographic center of Arizona. Payson has been called "The Heart of Arizona"; the town has many outdoor activities year round. As of the 2010 census, the population of Payson was 15,301. Payson considers its founding year 1882, at which time the town was known as "Green Valley". On March 3, 1884, a post office was established with the help of Illinois Representative Levi Joseph Payson; the first postmaster was Frank C. Hise. In honor of the representative's help, the town's name was changed to "Payson". Payson had its first rodeo in 1884, it considers its rodeo. In 1918 author Zane Grey made his first trip to the area surrounding Payson, he would come back with regularity through 1929, would purchase two plots of land near Tonto Creek, including 120 acres from Sampson Elam Boles under Myrtle Point. Grey wrote numerous books about the area and filmed some movies, such as To the Last Man, in the Payson area in the 1920s.
During Prohibition the manufacture and distribution of liquor was plentiful. The transactions took place on historic Bootleg Alley. During the 1930s an effort began to try to get Payson a better road to connect it to the outside world. At that time the town was isolated, with a trip from Phoenix to Payson taking eight to twelve hours. Throughout the 1950s work on a paved road from Phoenix to Payson progressed, the road was completed in 1958. A few years ago this highway, State Route 87, was expanded to four lanes. Located in northern Gila County at 34°14′22″N 111°19′39″W, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, the town has a total area of 19.5 square miles. The Mogollon Rim, the southern boundary of the Colorado Plateau, lies to the north of Payson, with elevations exceeding 7,500 feet, they are stocked with fish by the Arizona Fish Department. Payson is bordered to the east by the town of Star Valley. Other nearby communities are Pine, Strawberry and Rye, all within Gila County. Globe, the Gila County seat, is 80 miles to the south via State Routes 87 and 188.
State Route 87, the Beeline Highway, leads southwest 90 miles to Phoenix and northeast 90 miles to Winslow. State Route 260 leads east from Payson 90 miles to Show Low. "Zane Grey Country" is a term for the area around Payson. This term was most used in the 1970s and 1980s, appeared in the header of the local newspaper, the Payson Roundup. In recent times it has fallen somewhat out of favor, as the term "Rim Country" has become more popular among locals. Owing to its elevation of 5,000 feet, Payson has what is classified as a Mediterranean climate, though atypical for this climate with its early-summer drought and late-summer rainfall. While average temperatures do reach the high 80s to mid 90s in summer, the town’s altitude keeps it protected from the 100 °F + temperatures found at Arizona’s lower elevations. Monsoon storms develop in the afternoon, bring heavy rainfall to the area and lower the temperature. Summer nights cool down into the 50s. Winter is mild, with cold nights. January's average nighttime low is 25.3 °F or −3.7 °C with some nights in the teens, but by mid-afternoon, the temperature has risen into the 50s.
There are only a few days of real winter, with 23.3 inches of annual snowfall, but little snow cover. The weather in Payson is as varied as the landscape, a snowstorm is followed by weather so warm that any accumulation melts away within a day or two. In spring the desert blooms with a fiery array of Indian paintbrush and the golds and fuchsias of cactus blossoms and other brightly colored wildflowers. On Monday, November 5, 2001, between about 8 pm and 10:30 pm, Payson was treated to a rare display of the Northern Lights, it is rare and only happens during solar flares because Payson is so far south. The lights appeared in a red color; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,620 people, 5,832 households, 4,070 families residing in the town. The population density was 699.6 people per square mile. There were 7,033 housing units at an average density of 361.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.75% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 1.89% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.34% from other races, 1.17% from two or more races.
5.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,832 households out of which 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.6% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.71. In the town, the population was spread out with 18.1% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 15.3% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 36.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,638, the median income for a family was $38,713. Males had a median income of $30,900 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,513. About 6.5% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of tho
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Gila County, Arizona
Gila County is a county in the central part of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census its population was 53,597; the county seat is Globe. Gila County comprises Arizona Micropolitan Statistical Area. Gila County contains parts of San Carlos Indian Reservation; the county was formed from parts of Maricopa County and Pinal County on February 8, 1881. The boundary was extended eastward to the San Carlos River by public petition in 1889; the original county seat was in the mining community of Globe City, now Globe, Arizona. Popular theory says that the word Gila was derived from a Spanish contraction of Hah-quah-sa-eel, a Yuma word meaning "running water, salty". In the 1880s, a long range war broke out in Gila County that became the most costly feud in American history, resulting in an complete annihilation of the families involved; the Pleasant Valley War matched the cattle-herding Grahams against the sheep-herding Tewksburys. Once partisan feelings became tense and hostilities began, Frederick Russell Burnham, who became a celebrated scout and the inspiration for the boy scouts, was drawn into the conflict on the losing side.
Burnham shot many men in the feud, was himself nearly killed by a bounty hunter. Tom Horn, a famous assassin, was known to have taken part as a killer for hire, but it is unknown as to which side employed him, both sides suffered several murders to which no suspect was identified. In the 1960s, it was home of Gerald Gault, the subject of the 1967 U. S. Supreme Court ruling, in re Gault, that stated juveniles have the same rights as adults when arrested to be notified of the charges against them, the rights to attorneys, for family members to be notified of their arrests and to confront their accusers and to not be punished harsher than adults who are convicted of the same crime if an adult's penalty for the crime would be less than a juvenile convict's. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,795 square miles, of which 4,758 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water. Yavapai County - northwest Maricopa County - west Pinal County - south Graham County - southeast Navajo County - east, northeast Coconino County - north Coconino National Forest Tonto National Forest Tonto National Monument As of the census of 2000, there were 51,335 people, 20,140 households, 14,098 families residing in the county.
The population density was 11 people per square mile. There were 28,189 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.82% White, 0.38% Black or African American, 12.92% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.59% from other races, 1.80% from two or more races. 16.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.84 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 20,140 households out of which 26.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families. 25.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 22.30% from 25 to 44, 26.40% from 45 to 64, 19.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,917, the median income for a family was $36,593. Males had a median income of $31,579 versus $22,315 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,315. About 12.60% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.90% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 53,597 people, 22,000 households, 14,294 families residing in the county; the population density was 11.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,698 housing units at an average density of 6.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.8% white, 14.8% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.3% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 17.9% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 17.4% were German, 13.3% were English, 11.4% were Irish, 3.4% were American. Of the 22,000 households, 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families, 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age was 47.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,580 and the median income for a family was $46,292. Males had a median income of $41,698 versus $30,023 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,600. About 11.6% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Gila County has been a Democratic-leaning county in Republican Arizona – for instance it voted for Adlai Stevenson II in 1952, Hubert Humphrey in 1968 and for John W. Davis in 1924.
In much of the “dealignment” period from 1960 to 1980, when Arizona was the only state never carried by a De
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government