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Pine Creek (Pennsylvania)

Pine Creek is a tributary of the West Branch Susquehanna River in Potter, Tioga and Clinton counties in Pennsylvania in the United States. The creek is 87.2 miles long. Within Tioga County, 23.25 miles of Pine Creek are designated as a Pennsylvania Scenic River. Pine Creek is the largest tributary of the West Branch Susquehanna River and has the largest watershed of all the West Branch’s tributaries. Pine Creek is named for the many pine trees; the Iroquois called Pine Creek Tiadaghton, which according to Owlett, either meant "The River of Pines" or "The Lost or Bewildered River". Pine Creek is the largest "creek" in the United States. Pine Creek's source is in 5 miles southeast of Ulysses, it flows southeast 16 miles to Galeton, where it receives its first major tributary, the West Branch Pine Creek. It flows east 12 miles to Tioga County and the village of Ansonia. Here it receives its second major tributary, Marsh Creek, turns south again for 16 miles; this stretch is the start of the Pine Creek Gorge, about 1,000 feet deep in places.

At the village of Blackwell, Pine Creek receives Babb Creek. It continues southwest 14 miles and enters Lycoming County, where it turns southeast for 28 miles to its mouth. At Waterville it receives Little Pine Creek. Pine Creek continues south and forms part of the border between Clinton counties, its confluence with the West Branch Susquehanna River is at this border, between the boroughs of Avis and Jersey Shore. The elevation at the source of Pine Creek is 2,420 feet, while the mouth is at an elevation of 520 feet; the difference in elevation—1,900 feet —divided by the length of the creek—86.5 miles —gives an average drop or relief ratio of 22.0 ft/mi. The meander ratio is 1.08, so the creek is straight in its bed. Pine Creek's watershed covers 979 square miles, the largest watershed of all tributaries of the West Branch Susquehanna River. Pine Creek and Pine Creek Gorge are a popular outdoor recreation destination; the West Rim Trail is a 30-mile-long hiking trail along the west rim of the Pine Creek Gorge.

The Pine Creek Rail Trail runs beside the creek through the gorge from Ansonia to Jersey Shore. The railroad through the gorge opened in 1883 as the Jersey Shore, Pine Creek and Buffalo Railway, passing into the control of the Fall Brook Coal Company in 1884, the New York Central Railroad via a lease in 1899, with full integration into the NYC in 1914. Conrail took over the line in 1976, the last train ran through the gorge on October 7, 1988; the Fair Play Men were illegal settlers who established their own system of self-rule from 1773 to 1785 in the West Branch Susquehanna River valley of Pennsylvania in what is now the United States. Because they settled in territory claimed by Native Americans, they had no recourse to the Pennsylvania colonial government. Accordingly, they established what was known as the Fair Play System, with three elected commissioners who ruled on land claims and other issues for the group. In a remarkable coincidence, the Fair Play Men made their own declaration of independence from Britain on July 4, 1776, beneath the "Tiadaghton Elm" on the west bank of Pine Creek near the mouth.

The Bridge in Porter Township was built in 1889. The Bridge in Brown Township was built in 1890; the English Center Suspension Bridge was built in 1891. List of Pennsylvania rivers U. S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations Pine Creek Gorge official website The Columbia Gazetteer of North America, 2000, entry on Pine Creek Pennsylvania Scenic Rivers website

Windsor chair

A Windsor chair is a chair built with a solid wooden seat into which the chair-back and legs are round-tenoned, or pushed into drilled holes, in contrast to standard chairs, where the back legs and the uprights of the back are continuous. The seats of Windsor chairs were carved into a shallow dish or saddle shape for comfort. Traditionally, the legs and uprights were turned on a pole lathe; the back and sometimes the arm pieces are formed from steam bent pieces of wood. It is not clear, it is known that, as early as the 16th century, wheelwrights started coping out chair spindles in the same way they made wheel spokes. The design was a development of West Country and Irish'stick-back' chairs, but the evidence on origin is not certain, it is thought that the first Windsor chair made its appearance in the county of Buckinghamshire, where the main centre of production moved to High Wycombe. The first Windsors were of the comb-back variety. By the 18th century steam-bending was being used to produce the characteristic "bow" of the Windsor chair.

The first chairs made this way were shipped to London from the market town of Windsor, Berkshire in 1724. There is speculation that the chair derives its name from the town of Windsor, which became the centre for the trade between the producers and the London dealers, thus the name "Windsor Chair" is more about the style of chair than where it was made, with many diverse forms of Windsor chair being made worldwide. Traditionally there were three types of craftsmen involved in the construction of a Windsor chair, there was the chair bodger, an itinerant craftsman who worked in the woods and made just the legs and stretchers, on a pole lathe. There was the benchman who worked in a small town or village workshop and would produce the seats and other sawn parts; the final craftsman involved was the framer. The framer would take the components produced by the bodger and the benchman and would assemble and finish the chair. English settlers introduced the Windsor chair to North America, with the earliest known chairs being imported by Patrick Gordon who became lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania in 1726.

There is speculation that the first American Windsor chair, based on the traditional British design, was made in Philadelphia in 1730. There are about seven distinctive forms; these include: Sack-backHoopback Comb-backContinuous arm Low back Rod back Fan backIt is common to find American Windsors made in the 18th century that contain three different species of wood. Pine, bass or tulip poplar are common for the seat. Non ring porous hardwoods such as Maple are stiff and make crisp turnings, were used for the undercarriage. Ring porous species such as Oak and hickory all rive and steam bend nicely; these woods are straight grained and flexible and thus work well for slender parts such as the spindles. The seat of a Windsor chair is an essential part since it provides the stability to both the upper and lower portions; the thickness of the seat allows the legs to be anchored securely into their respective tapered sockets, providing the undercarriage with strength and stability. A timber that will provide the strength and stability whilst allowing it to be shaped, in order to achieve the desired look and feel, requires a strong durable timber, with interlocking grain, to provide the right characteristics.

English Windsors have elm seats because its interlocking grain gives good cross-grain strength that resists splitting where holes are placed close to the edge of a seat. There are no real satisfactory alternatives to elm although other woods have been tried, for example and ash in Britain and various types of pine in the USA; because of elm's strength compared to pine, tulip poplar or bass, English Windsor chair seats are not as thick as American Windsors. The English Windsor chair seats are not saddled as as their American counterparts- because of elm's relative strength, because elm is comparatively more difficult to sculpt than the softer woods chosen by American chair makers. Woodwrights use tools such as the adze, scorp or inshave to form the hollowed out, form fitting, ergonomic top of the seat; the legs are splayed at angles fore-and-aft as well as side-to-side to provide actual and visual support of the person sitting. Early chairs made in America have stretchers connecting the front and back legs and a cross stretcher connecting the two side stretchers, creating what is known as an "H" stretcher assembly.

A common misconception about this assembly is that the stretchers hold the legs together in order to keep them from pulling apart. In the traditional Windsor design, the wedged tenon joint which joins each leg to the seat is strong enough in itself to prevent the legs from creeping outward; the stretcher system pushes the legs apart to retain the necessary tension which reduces slack. "Through-holed and wedged" is one of the primary means of joining Windsor chair parts. A cylindrical or tapered hole is bored in the first piece, the matching cylindrical or tapered end of the second piece is inserted in the hole as a round tenon, a wedge is driven into the end of this tenon, flaring it tight in the hole; the excess portion of the wedge is cut flush with the surface. This supplies a mechanical hold. In general, early Windsor chair joints are held together mechanically, making glue a redundant detail in their assembly. Early British Windsors were painted versions were stained and polished. American Windsors were painted, in the 18th century they were grain painted with a light color overpainted with a dark color before being coated

Carsten Arriens

Carsten Arriens is a former professional tennis player from Germany. Arriens played his first tournament on the ATP Tour in 1991, at the Geneva Open, where he upset world number 33 Omar Camporese. In 1992 he won the Guarujá Open, as a qualifier, it would be his only tour title. He reached the quarter-finals in Long Island. At the 1993 French Open, Arriens won his first Grand Slam match, outlasting Thomas Enqvist in five sets, he was defeated by MaliVai Washington in the second round. He had a quiet year in 1994, with his best result being a quarter-final appearance in the Athens International. In 1995, while playing New Zealander Brett Steven in the opening round of the French Open, Arriens became the first player in the tournament's history to be disqualified. Upon losing the second set, to level the match at 1–1, the German threw his racquet into the net in frustration, from the baseline, he received a warning from Andreas Egli, the chair umpire, but after retrieving his racquet again hurled it away, this time at his chair.

It however struck a linesman on his lower leg and the tournament referee was called, which culminated in Arrien's disqualification. That year, Arriens made the second round of the US Open, with a win over Karol Kučera and came up against fourth seed Boris Becker, who beat him in straight sets, he made three quarter-finals in the 1995 ATP Tour, at Dubai and Scottsdale. In Dubai he defeated world number seven Alberto Berasategui, he has coached several players including Louk Sorensen and Alexander Waske. He was Team captain of the Germany Davis Cup team from 2013 to 2014


Darshaan was a British-bred, French-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and a Champion sire and broodmare sire. Darshaan was a brown horse bred by his owner Aga Khan IV, he was sired by the British stallion Shirley Heights, winner of the 1978 Epsom Derby and the last Epsom Derby winner to be both the son of a previous winner, Mill Reef, the sire of a subsequent winner, Slip Anchor. Darshaan's dam Delsy, was a daughter of Abdos, she produced Darara who won the Prix Vermeille and became a successful broodmare. Trained by Alain de Royer-Dupré, Darshaan was ridden by Yves Saint-Martin in all his races; as a two-year-old in 1983, he won the Group 1 Critérium de Saint-Cloud, setting a race record time of 2:07.40 for 2,000 metres that still stood going into 2010. At age three, Darshaan won the Prix Hocquart, Prix Greffulhe, the French Classic, the Prix du Jockey Club. In the International Classification for 1984, he was the highest rated French-trained three-year-old, the third highest-rated three-year-old in Europe behind El Gran Senor and Chief Singer.

Darshaan was an outstanding sire who stood at stud at the Aga Khan's Gilltown Stud farm, in County Kildare, Ireland. In 1999, he was described as the foremost active broodmare sire in Europe, his 2000 fee was Irpounds 50,000. The leading sire in France in 2003, among his progeny were: Hellenic - won G1 Yorkshire Oaks Kotashaan - winner of five Group 1 races in the United States including the Breeders' Cup Turf and San Juan Capistrano Handicap. Wins included the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe. Darshaan daughters made him the leading broodmare sire in Great Britain & Ireland in 2002, he was the damsire of Group 1 winners: Ebadiyla - winner of the 1997 Prix Irish Oaks. At age twenty, he died at Gilltown Stud on 21 May 2001. Darshaan's pedigree, racing statistics, progeny at the Aga Khan Studs website

Richard Timberlake

Richard H. Timberlake, Jr. is an American economist, Professor of Economics at the University of Georgia for much of his career. He has become a leading advocate of free banking, the belief that money should be issued by private companies, not by a government monopoly, he wrote about the Legal Tender Cases of the U. S. Supreme Court in his book Constitutional Money: A Review of the Supreme Court's Monetary Decisions. Born in Steubenville, Timberlake was in the US military in World War II, he became a pilot in the U. S. Air flew 26 missions as a co-pilot in the 8th Air Force, he was awarded three Purple Hearts. He obtained a Bachelor of Arts at Kenyon College in 1946, a Master's at Columbia University in 1950, a Ph. D in 1959 from the University of Chicago where he studied under Milton Friedman and Earl J. Hamilton, he taught economics at Muhlenberg College, Norwich University, Rensselaer Polytechnic, Florida State University, the University of Georgia from 1963–1990, when he retired. Timberlake's research has been on the history of money, central banking, monetary policy.

Timberlake's research on the development of private moneys occurred at the time of Friedrich Hayek's idea of The Denationalization of Money and expanding upon it in coordination with the free banking movement. He believes that, instead of a government-imposed central bank, there should be a free market in the production of money, with banks choosing how to issue their own, competing currencies. Timberlake examined the causes of the Great Depression, emphasized the switch of the Federal Reserve, starting in 1929, to the real bills doctrine of money management,and an anti-speculation policy that reduced bank reserves and the amount of deposit money that the banks could create; the money supply contracted by 30 % in something that no market economy could tolerate. Along with Hayek of the Austrian school, Milton Friedman of the Chicago school, the Keynesians, Timberlake sees this Fed policy as the primary cause of the Great Depression. However, Timberlake does not reject the gold standard. While many economists blame the gold standard for the monetary collapse, Timberlake cites data that refutes the validity of their complaints.

He shows that the Fed Banks and U. S. Treasury had plenty of gold in the 1929–1933 period. Timberlake concludes that government interference with gold standard adjustments caused most of the trouble in the past, producing cycles of money growth and deflation and depression. Timberlake has been active in politics as a member of the Libertarian Party, he was involved in the Harry Browne presidential campaign, written/signed open letters advocating various positions, such as school choice and rejection of policies that would have raised taxes. In the past he was a vocal and outspoken critic of the science behind anthropogenic climate change, writing a number of op-ed pieces for the Athens Banner Herald. Money and Banking, with Edward Selby The origins of central banking in the United States. Harvard University Press. 1978. ISBN 978-0-674-64480-9. Gold and the Constitution Money and the Nation State, with Kevin Dowd Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History. University of Chicago Press.

1993. ISBN 978-0-226-80384-5, they Never Saw Me Then Constitutional Money: A Review of the Supreme Court’s Monetary Decisions Gold, the Real Bills Doctrine, the Fed: Sources of Monetary Disorder--1922-1938, with Thomas M. Humphrey Articles in: The New Palgrave Dictionary of Money and Finance The Encyclopedia of Business History and Biography'Gold standard' theory of the Great Depression Richard H. Timberlake, Jr. "Critique of Monetarist and Austrian Doctrines on the Utility and Value of Money", Review of Austrian Economics, 1987, 1, pp. 81–96. Richard H. Timberlake, Jr.: "The Specie Circular and Distribution of the Surplus" & "The Specie Circular and Sales of Public Lands: A Comment". Stanley L. Engerman & Robert E. Gallman, The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Volume 2, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 673. Joseph T. Salerno, Money and Unsound, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2010, p. 549. Beranek and Humphrey, Thomas M. and Timberlake, Fisher and the Analysis of the Inflation Premium.

FRB Richmond Working Paper No. 84-5. Available at SSRN: or Biography at Advocates for Self-Government Biography at Econ Journal watch "Richard Timberlake". JSTOR. Podcast of Richard Timberlake on the gold standard

Rudi Gernreich

Rudolf "Rudi" Gernreich was an Austrian-born American fashion designer whose avant-garde clothing designs are regarded as the most innovative and dynamic fashion of the 1960s. He purposefully used fashion design as a social statement to advance sexual freedom, producing clothes that followed the natural form of the female body, freeing them from the constraints of high fashion, he was the first to use cutouts and plastic in clothing. He designed the first thong bathing suit, unisex clothing, the first swimsuit without a built-in bra, the minimalist, transparent No Bra, the topless monokini, he was a four-time recipient of the Coty American Fashion Critics Award. He produced what is regarded as the first fashion video, Basic Black: William Claxton w/Peggy Moffitt, in 1966, he had a long and trend-setting career in fashion design. He was a founding member of and financially supported the early activities of the Mattachine Society, he consciously pushed the boundaries of acceptable fashion and used his designs as an opportunity to comment on social issues and to expand society's perception of what was acceptable.

Gernreich was the only child of Siegmund Gernreich and Elisabeth Gernreich, a Jewish couple who lived in Vienna, Austria. His father was a stocking manufacturer who had served in World War I and who committed suicide when Gernreich was eight years old. Gernreich learned about high fashion from his aunt, Hedwig Müller, who with her husband Oskar Jellinek, owned a dress shop, he spent many hours in his aunt's shop sketching her designs for Viennese high society and learned about fabrics. He gained early impressions of sexuality, he told one of his favorite models, Leon Bing, about images of "leather chaps with a strap running between the buttocks of street laborers' work pants and the white flesh of women's thighs above gartered black stockings." When he was 12, Austrian designer Ladislaus Zcettel saw his sketches and offered Gernreich a fashion apprenticeship in London, but his mother refused, believing her son was too young to leave home. After the German Anschluss on 12 March 1938, among many other acts, banned nudity.

Austrian citizens were advocates of exercising nude, a rejection of the over-civilized world. His mother took 16-year-old Rudi and escaped to the United States as Jewish refugees, settling in Los Angeles, California. To survive, his mother baked pastries, his first job was washing bodies to prepare them for autopsy in the morgue of Cedars of Lebanon Hospital. He told Marylou Luther, "I grew up overnight. I do smile sometimes when people tell me my clothes are so body-conscious I must have studied anatomy. You bet I studied anatomy." He attended Los Angeles City College, where he studied art and apprenticed for a Seventh Avenue clothing manufacturer. He attended Los Angeles City College from 1938 to 1941, the Los Angeles Art Center School from 1941 to 1942, he worked in Hollywood costume design, but hated it. In 1942, he joined the Lester Horton's modern dance company as both a designer. Gernreich said, "I never was a good dancer... I wanted to become a choreographer, but that never happened." Of his time with the Theater, Gernreich said that dancing made him " aware of what clothes did to the rest of the body."

He designed freelance but left Lester Horton in 1948 and became a fabric salesman for Hoffman Company. Gernreich moved into fashion design from fabric design; the fashion climate at that time was dictated by designers in Paris. In 1949 he worked in New York at George Carmel but didn't like the position because he felt pressured to imitate Parisian fashion. Gernreich said, "Everyone with a degree of talent was motivated by a level of high taste and unquestioned loyalty to Paris. Dior, Balenciaga were gods—kings. You could not deviate from their look."In 1951, still attempting to gain entry into the fashion world, Gernreich got a job with Morris Nagel to design for Versatogs, but Nagel required Gernreich to stick to the Versatogs design formula, which Gernreich hated. He began designing his own line of clothes in Los Angeles and New York until 1951, when fellow Viennese immigrant Walter Bass in Beverly Hills convinced him to sign a seven-year contract with him. William Bass Inc. produced a collection of dresses that they sold to Jack Hanson, the owner of Jax, an emerging Los Angeles boutique that focused on avant-garde clothing, fun and adventuresome.

He designed costumes for Lester Horton until 1952. In 1955, he began designing swimwear for Westwood Knitting Mills in Los Angeles, they hired him in 1959 as the swimwear designer. Genesco Corporation hired him as a shoe designer in 1959, he completed his seven-year contract with Walter Bass in 1960 and founded his firm G. R. Designs in Los Angeles, he changed his company's name to Rudi Gernreich Inc. in 1964. His designs were featured in what is regarded as the first fashion video, Basic Black: William Claxton w/Peggy Moffitt, in 1966. In the early 1960s, Gernreich opened a Seventh Avenue showroom in New York City where he showed his popular designs for Harmon knitwear and his own more expensive line of experimental garments. Gernreich wanted his designs to be affordable and in 1966, he broke American fashion's unwritten rule that name designers don't sell to chain stores. On January 3, 1966, he took the unprecedented action of signing a contract with Montgomery Ward, a chain store. Rudi's fashions proved popular and lasted several seasons, showing that original design would sell at popular prices.

He designed the Moonbase Alpha uniforms worn by the main characters of the 1970s British science-fiction television series Space: 1999, pushing the boundaries of the f