Pinellas County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 916,542; the county is part of the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. Clearwater is the county seat, St. Petersburg is the largest city; when Europeans first reached the Pinellas peninsula, the Tampa Bay area was inhabited by people of the Safety Harbor culture. The Safety Harbor culture area was divided into chiefdoms. One documented chiefdom in what is now Pinellas County was that of the Tocobaga, who occupied a town and large temple mound, the Safety Harbor Site, overlooking the bay in what is now Safety Harbor; the modern site can be visited as part of the County's Philippe Park. During the early 16th century Spanish explorers discovered and began exploring Florida, including Tampa Bay. In 1528 Panfilo de Narvaez landed in Pinellas, 10 years Hernando de Soto is thought to have explored the Tampa Bay Area. By the early 18th century the Tocobaga had been annihilated, having fallen victim to European diseases from which they had no immunity, as well as European conflicts.
Spanish explorers named the area Punta Piñal. After trading hands multiple times between the British and the Spanish, Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1821, in 1823 the U. S. Army established Fort Brooke. In 1834 much of west central Florida, including the Pinellas peninsula, was organized as Hillsborough County; the next year Odet Philippe became the first permanent, non-native resident of the peninsula when he established a homestead near the site of the Tocobaga village in Safety Harbor. It was Philippe who first introduced both citrus cigar-making to Florida. Around the same time, the United States Army began construction of Fort Harrison, named after William Henry Harrison, as a rest post for soldiers from nearby Fort Brooke during the Second Seminole War; the new fort was located on a bluff overlooking Clear Water Harbor, which became part of an early 20th-century residential development called Harbor Oaks. University of South Florida archaeologists excavated the site in 1977 after Alfred C.
Wyllie discovered an underground ammunition bunker. Clearwater would become the first organized community on the peninsula as well as the site of its first post office; the Armed Occupation Act, passed in 1842, encouraged further settlement of Pinellas, like all of Florida, by offering 160 acres to anyone who would bear arms and cultivate the land. Pioneer families like the Booths, the Coachmans, the Marstons, the McMullens established homesteads in the area in the years following, planting more citrus groves and raising cattle. During the American Civil War, many residents fought for the Confederate States of America. Brothers James and Daniel McMullen were members of the Confederate Cow Cavalry, driving Florida cattle to Georgia and the Carolinas to help sustain the war effort. John W. Marston served in the 9th Florida Regiment as a part of the Appomattox Campaign. Many other residents served in other capacities. Otherwise the peninsula had no significance during the war, the war passed the area by.
Tarpon Springs became West Hillsborough's first incorporated city in 1887, in 1888 the Orange Belt Railway was extended into the southern portion of the peninsula. Railroad owner Peter Demens named the town that grew near the railroad's terminus St. Petersburg in honor of his hometown; the town would incorporate in 1892. Other major towns in the county incorporated during this time were Clearwater and Largo. Construction of Fort De Soto, on Mullet Key facing the mouth of Tampa Bay, was begun in 1898 during the Spanish–American War to protect Tampa Bay from potential invading forces; the fort, a subpost of Fort Dade on adjacent Egmont Key, was equipped with artillery and mortar batteries. Into the early years of the 20th century, West Hillsborough had no paved roads, transportation posed a major challenge. A trip to the county seat, across the bay in Tampa, was an overnight affair and the automobiles that existed on the peninsula at that time would become bogged down in the muck after rainstorms.
Angry at what was perceived as neglect by the county government, residents of Pinellas began a push to secede from Hillsborough. They succeeded, on January 1, 1912 Pinellas County came into being; the peninsula, along with a small part of the mainland were incorporated into the new county. Aviation history was made in St. Petersburg on January 1, 1914 when Tony Jannus made the world's first scheduled commercial airline flight with the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line from St. Petersburg to Tampa; the popular open-air St. Petersburg concert venue Jannus Live memorializes the flight; the early 1920s saw the beginning of a land boom including Pinellas. During this period municipalities issued a large number of bonds to keep pace with the needed infrastructure, such as roads and bridges; the travel time to Tampa was cut in half—from 43 to 19 miles —by the opening of the Gandy Bridge in 1924, along the same route Jannus' airline used. It was the longest automobile toll bridge in the world at the time.
Prohibition was unpopular in the area and the peninsula's countless inlets and islands became havens for rumrunners bringing in liquor from Cuba. Others distilled moonshine in the County's still plentiful woods; as was the case in much of Florida, the Great Depression came early to Pinellas with the collapse of t
Fremanezumab, sold under the brand name Ajovy, is a medication used to prevent migraines. It is given by injection under the skin; the most common side effect is redness at the site of injection. Other side effects include allergic reactions, it is in the calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist class of medications. It was approved for medical use in the United States in 2018; the wholesale cost in the United States as of 2019 is $US 369.90 per month. Fremanezumab was shown to be effective in adults with four or more attacks per month; the most common adverse effects are reactions at the injection site, which occurred in 43 to 45% of people in studies. Hypersensitivity reactions occurred in fewer than 1% of patients. Fremanezumab does not interact with other antimigraine drugs such as triptans, ergot alkaloids and analgesics, it is expected to have a low potential for interactions because it is not metabolised by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Fremanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against calcitonin gene-related peptides alpha and beta.
The precise mechanism of action is unknown. It is the only approved anti-CGRP monoclonal antibody. After subcutaneous injection, fremanezumab has a bioavailability of 55–66%. Highest concentrations in the body are reached after five to seven days. Like other proteins, the substance is degraded by proteolysis to small peptides and amino acids, which are reused or excreted via the kidney; the elimination half-life is estimated to be 30 to 31 days. Fremanezumab was discovered and developed by Rinat Neuroscience, was acquired by Pfizer in 2006, was licensed to Teva, it was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 2018. In April 2019, fremanezumab was approved for use in the European Union; the drug has been and is still being evaluated for diseases other than migraine, where the endogenous substance CGRP has been implicated in the pathology. Teva is still developing it for episodic cluster headache but stopped development of fremanezumab for the treatment of chronic cluster headache in 2018 after the primary endpoint of a Phase III trial was not met.
Other antibodies blocking the CGRP pathway: Eptinezumab Erenumab Galcanezumab
Petru Lucinschi is a former Moldovan politician, Moldova's second President. Petru Lucinschi was born on 27 January 1940 in Rădulenii Vechi village, Soroca County, Kingdom of Romania, he has a PhD in Philosophy from the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. From 1971, Lucinschi was a member of the Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Moldavian SSR, he was the only native Moldovan in the leadership of Communist Party of Moldova at that time, when the leadership of Moldavian SSR was completely in the hands of people from outside the republic or Transnistrians. From 1978 to 1989, he was First Secretary of Chișinău City Committee of the Communist Party of Moldova. In 1978, Ivan Bodiul sent him to work for the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Moscow, where Lucinschi remained until 1986. From 1986 to 1989, Lucinschi was second secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan. Upon his return to Moldavian SSR in 1989, he became first secretary of the Communist Party of Moldova.
In early 1991, he was appointed First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, so he again left Moldavian SSR for Moscow. In 1992, he was appointed as Ambassador of Moldova in Russia. On 4 February 1993, he was elected as Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament, being re-elected on 29 March 1994 for a new term, he held the position until 1997. Lucinschi was elected Moldova's second president in November 1996, he served until 2001, when he called a snap election, the Parliament voted in favour of Vladimir Voronin. Lucinschi was married to Antonina, a retired schoolteacher, has two sons and Chiril. Chirill is a businessman and politician, as member of parliament as well as a professional basketball player. Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour Order of Redeemer Grand Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre Order "Star of Romania"
Hair care is an overall term for hygiene and cosmetology involving the hair which grows from the human scalp, to a lesser extent facial and other body hair. Hair care routines differ according to an individual's culture and the physical characteristics of one's hair. Hair may be colored, shaved, plucked or otherwise removed with treatments such as waxing and threading. Hair care services are offered in salons and day spas, products are available commercially for home use. Laser hair removal and electrolysis are available, though these are provided by licensed professionals in medical offices or speciality spas. Care of the hair and care of the scalp skin may appear separate, but are intertwined because hair grows from beneath the skin; the living parts of hair are beneath the skin, while the actual hair shaft which emerges has no living processes. Damage or changes made to the visible hair shaft cannot be repaired by a biological process, though much can be done to manage hair and ensure that the cuticle remains intact.
Scalp skin, just like any other skin on the body, must be kept healthy to ensure a healthy body and healthy hair production. If the scalp is cleaned by those who have rough hair or have a hair-fall problem, it can result in loss of hair. However, not all scalp disorders are a result of bacterial infections; some arise inexplicably, only the symptoms can be treated for management of the condition. There are bacteria that can affect the hair itself. Head lice is the most common hair and scalp ailment worldwide. Head lice can be removed with great attention to detail, studies show it is not associated with poor hygiene. More recent studies reveal that head lice thrive in clean hair. In this way, hair washing as a term may be a bit misleading, as what is necessary in healthy hair production and maintenance is simply cleaning the surface of the scalp skin, the way the skin all over the body requires cleaning for good hygiene; the sebaceous glands in human skin produce sebum, composed of fatty acids.
Sebum acts to protect hair and skin, can inhibit the growth of microorganisms on the skin. Sebum contributes to the skin's acidic natural pH somewhere between 5 and 6.8 on the pH spectrum. This oily substance gives hair moisture and shine as it travels down the hair shaft, serves as a protective substance by preventing the hair from drying out or absorbing excessive amounts of external substances. Sebum is distributed down the hair shaft "mechanically" by brushing and combing; when sebum is present in excess, the roots of the hair can appear oily and darker than normal, the hair may stick together. One way to distribute the hair's natural oils through the hair is by brushing with a natural bristle brush; the natural bristles move the oil from the scalp through to the hair's mid-lengths and ends, nourishing these parts of the hair. Brushing the scalp stimulates the sebaceous gland, which in turn produces more sebum; when sebum and sweat combine on the scalp surface, they help to create the acid mantle, the skin's own protective layer.
Washing hair removes oil, as well as unwanted products from the hair and scalp. Hair is washed as part of a shower or bathing with shampoo, a specialized surfactant. Shampoos work by applying shampoo to the hair; the shampoo breaks the surface tension of the water. This is known as the wetting action; the wetting action is caused by the head of the shampoo molecule attracting the water to the hair shaft. Conversely, the tail of the shampoo molecule is attracted to the grease and oil on the hair shaft; the physical action of shampooing makes the grease and dirt become an emulsion, rinsed away with the water. This is known as the emulsifying action. Sulfate free shampoos are less harming on color treated hair than normal shampoos that contain sulfates. Sulfates strip away natural oils as well as hair dye. Sulfates are responsible for the foaming effect of shampoos. Shampoos have a pH of between 4 & 6. Acidic shampoos are the most common type used and maintain or improve the condition of the hair as they don't swell the hairshaft and don't strip the natural oils.
Conditioners are used after shampooing to smooth down the cuticle layer of the hair, which can become roughened during the physical process of shampooing. There are three main types of conditioners: anti-oxidant conditioners, which are used in salons after chemical services and prevent creeping oxidation. Conditioners can provide a physical layer of protection for the hair against physical and environmental damage
Stotesbury Club House is a historic clubhouse located at Wyndmoor in Springfield Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. It was built for Edward T. Stotesbury as an equestrian center building. An addition was completed in 1927, it is a 1 1/2 - "L" - shaped frame building in the Arts and Crafts style. It has a shingled gable dormer; the front facade features an open porch supported by three Doric order columns and the rear has a raised flat-stone patio. Stotesbury sold the house in 1924, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985
Sabrina Starke is a Surinamese-Dutch singer/songwriter from Rotterdam, Netherlands. Her style is a mix of folk, R&B and jazz, her debut album Yellow Brick Road was released on October 1, 2008. It was produced and recorded in Los Angeles, California by Dutch producers Beat Royalty and mixed in Burbank, California by Brad Gilderman; the first single from the album, "Do for Love" was not only a hit song in the Netherlands but became popular in France as the theme tune of the TV show Fortune. On October 27, 2008, Starke signed with Blue Note. On March 9, the album went gold in the Netherlands, she has won the 2008 Edison Award Best Newcomer. 2008: Yellow Brick Road 2010: Bags & Suitcases 2012: Outside the Box 2013: Lean on Me 2015: Sabrina Starke Sabrina Starke's official website Sabrina Starke's official page at Myspace Sabrina Starke's breakthrough performance on Dutch national television