Pinewood Studios

Pinewood Studios is a British film and television studio located in Iver Heath on the outskirts of Slough. The studio has been the base for many productions over the years from large-scale films to television programmes and pop promos, it is well known as the home of the James Bond and Carry On film franchises. Pinewood Studios was built on the estate of a large Victorian country house, it was purchased by Canadian financier and MP for Brentford and Chiswick Lt. Col. Grant Morden, who added refinements such as a ballroom, a Turkish bath and an indoor squash court. Due to its seclusion, it was used as a discreet meeting place for high-ranking politicians and diplomats. In 1934, building tycoon Charles Boot turned it into a country club; the ballroom was converted into a restaurant and many of the bedrooms became furnished suites. In 1935, millionaire Methodist and flour magnate J. Arthur Rank created a partnership with Boot and together transformed the estate into a film studio. Boot based designs for the studio complex upon the latest ideas being employed by film studios in Hollywood, California.

Boot named the new studio Pinewood because "of the number of trees which grow there and because it seemed to suggest something of the American film centre in its second syllable". In December of that year construction began, with a new stage completed every three weeks; the studios were finished nine months having cost £1 million. Five stages were completed and a provision for an enclosed water tank capable of holding 65,000 gallons, still in use. In the years that followed he undertook further work on both the Pinewood Film Studios and the Denham Film Studios, both of which had by become a part of their newly formed Rank Organisation. On 30 September 1936, the studio complex was opened by Dr Leslie Burgin, Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade; the first film director to use the facilities was Herbert Wilcox, completing London Melody featuring Anna Neagle, portions of, filmed at British and Dominions Imperial Studios in Elstree before a fire there halted production. The first film to be made at Pinewood was Talk of the Devil, directed by Carol Reed.

There followed a prolific period of Pinewood and British film history, with Pinewood following the studios adopting the "unit system", an American industry practice. This enabled several pictures to be filmed and Pinewood achieved the highest output of any studio in the world. During the Second World War, Pinewood was requisitioned and subsequently the Crown Film Unit, No. 5 Army Film and Photographic Unit, Royal Air Force Film Production Unit, Polish Air Force Film Unit were based there. The Crown Film Unit completed many classic wartime documentaries including Roy Boulting's Desert Victory, Humphrey Jennings' Fires Were Started, Coastal Command and Pat Jackson's Western Approaches were filmed there during this period; as well as the armed forces using Pinewood, The Royal Mint and Lloyd's of London were installed onto sound stages and opened for business for the duration. The Company of Youth, the Rank Organisation acting school which launched several film careers, was founded in 1945; the next year, Pinewood re-opened for business.

Two landmarks in British film produced at Pinewood were released within two months of each other: Oliver Twist, directed by David Lean, Powell and Pressburger's The Red Shoes. Due to a shortfall in funds, brought about by financial overspends the previous year, Rank did not have enough money to market The Red Shoes sufficiently at first in the US, but it became Rank's biggest earner up to that point, grossing over £1 million. In 1948, John Davis was appointed managing director. By the following year, Rank had run up an overdraft of £16 million, announced a loss of £3.5 million due to big budget flops. One of the largest of these had been Caesar and Cleopatra, budgeted at £250,000, but which cost £1,278,000; the Doctor film series, produced by Betty E. Box and directed by Ralph Thomas, began with Doctor in the House, the most successful film at the box-office of its year in Great Britain. All of the Doctor films, running until 1970, were shot at Pinewood; the Carry On franchise began in 1958, produced on behalf of Rank by Peter Rogers, directed by Gerald Thomas.

The Norman Wisdom comedies, the last was released in 1966, were filmed at the facility. The 1960s were buoyant years for Pinewood, no longer dependent on the Rank Organisation to fill its stages, now "Renters" were using half of the stages as Pinewood turned into a four walls facility; the James Bond franchise began at Pinewood with the Terence Young directed Dr. No, has continued to be based at the studios since then. J. Arthur Rank retired as chairman in 1962 and was succeeded by John Davis, who had begun to move the Rank Organisation away from mass film production and towards more profitable and less risky businesses like bingo and holidays; the 1970s were an uncertain period for Pinewood and the film industry in general, with the studios being used more for television programmes, includin

Peter Abbs

Peter Francis Abbs is an English poet and academic, born in Cromer, Norfolk. E is the author of ten books of poetry and numerous works on the philosophy of education and creative writing, he is the father of writer Annabel Abbs. Second son of Eric Charles Abbs, a bus driver, Mary, a shop assistant, Abbs was born at Cromer, grew up on the North Norfolk coast; the bare landscape was to exert a significant influence on his poetry, as was the walled garden at Upper Sheringham Hall, where his grandfather was head gardener. His mother was committed to the Catholic faith and this influenced his boyhood desire to become a priest. After leaving St Joseph’s School in Sheringham in 1954, Abbs travelled to Liverpool to join Saint Peter’s College, a seminary run by the Mill Hill missionary fathers. However, he became disillusioned and in 1956, with the active support of his father, he left to continue his education at Norwich Technical College. Here he completed his O- and A-levels and in 1961 began a joint degree in English and Philosophy at the University of Bristol, which he completed in 1963.

In 1964, inspired by progressive ideas in education, he trained as an English teacher, taking his first post at Filton High School a grammar school on the edge of Bristol. His first book, English for Diversity, proclaiming the power of creativity and imagination, drew from his experience there. After three years of teaching, Abbs took up his first academic position as a research fellow in the University of Wales in Aberystwyth, where he edited the independent quarterly journal Tract from 1971 to 1981, his time in Wales produced his first collection of poetry, For Man and Islands, as well as several works on English and education, including Autobiography in Education and Root and Blossom: the Philosophy and Politics of English Teaching. In 1977 Abbs became Lecturer in Education at the University of Sussex, he took a DPhil from the University in 1986. The University was to become his permanent academic home. Committed to aesthetic education and the potency of Socratic learning, he became opposed to the dominant pedagogic instrumentalism of the day.

In 1986 he began editing The Falmer Press Library of Aesthetic Education, a series of twelve volumes on the theory and practice of teaching the arts. The library proposed the radical idea that the six arts – drama, art, music and literature – belonged together as a single community of expression and understanding, that each discipline, seen both as an expressive and critical activity, should be represented in any balanced school curriculum. While developing his pedagogical philosophy, Abbs continued to write poetry. In 1981 he published a'sonnet autobiography', Icons of Time, praised for the long sequence on the poet’s relationship with his father, it was followed in 1995 in 1999 by Love after Sappho. In his poetry and in his poetics Abbs has urged the need for musical cadence, metaphysical imagination and historic continuity. In work, Viva la Vida, The Flowering of Flint, Voyaging Out, these elements found a further union, both sparse and wide-ranging. In 2000, he became poetry editor of Resurgence and helped produce one of the first anthologies of eco-poetry, Earth Songs.

In 2002, having been made first Professor of Arts Education and Professor of Creative Writing, Abbs took up a new role within the Humanities department at Sussex, where he directed a D. Phil programme in creative writing. During this period Abbs wrote his most passionate defence of what he saw as authentic education: Against the Flow; this sets out his critique of the encroaching managerialism in the organisation of schools and, drawing on both seminal principle and good practice, posited a bold alternative: education for wholeness of being and the creative life. Drawing on his doctorate The Development of Autobiography in Western Culture from Augustine to Rousseau, Abbs's ongoing project, The Story of the Self, is a critical history of Western notions of selfhood; the work focuses on key figures who have shaped the tradition of reflexivity. Related essays on Augustine, Petrarch, Rousseau, Nietzsche and Jung have appeared in recent issues of The London Magazine. Abbs retired in 2006 and is Emeritus Professor of Creative Writing at the University of Sussex.

In 1963, Abbs married Barbara Beazeley. Abbs, Peter. For man and islands. 1981 Songs of a New Taliesin 1991 Icons of Time 1995 Personae 1996 Angelic Imagination 1999 Love After Sappho 2002 Earth Songs: a Resurgence Anthology of Contemporary Eco-poetry 2005 Viva La Vida 2007 The Flowering of Flint 2008 The Greater Journey 2009 Voyaging Out 1969 English for Diversity 1974 Autobiography in Education 1975 The Black Rainbow: essays on the present breakdown of culture 1976 Root and Blossom: the Philosophy and Politics of English Teaching 1977 Proposal for a New College 1979 Reclamations: Essays on Culture, Mass Culture and the Curriculum 1982 English Within the Arts 1983'Introduction' to Father and Son by Edmund Gosse 1987 Living Powers: the arts in education 1988 A is for Aesthetic: Essays on Creative and Aesthetic Education 1989 The Symbolic Order: a contemporary reader on the arts debate 1990 The Forms of Poetry 1990 The Forms of Narrative 1994 The Educational Imperative: In Defence of Socratic and Aesthet


Radio23 was a non-commercial, freeform radio station founded by Programming Director Jeff Hylton Simmons and launched in 2009. It was shut down in July 2015; the successor called Freeform Portland went on air in April 2016. Based out of Portland, where it supported the local artists and community, the station's goal was to provide an international artistic platform for home broadcasters around the world, to teach anyone around the world how to create radio with a computer and an internet connection. Radio23 is connected with radio stations that include Cascade Community Radio, Hearth Music, WFMU, KDVS, CKUT-FM, KZME, KBOO, Error FM, Willamette Radio, with the magazine War and Grooviness. Since its official launch in May 2009, Radio 23 covered many festivals. Radio23's shows include Ola's Kool Kitchen and Nine 11 Thesaurus. Radio23's programming included types of popular music that include rock, jazz, folk, R&B, experimental music, hip-hop, it featured band interviews and live broadcasts. WKEntertainment WFMU List of Internet radio stations Freeform Portland Radio 23 Radio 23 Mirror WFMU-FM 91.1/Jersey City, NJ.