San Marino, California
San Marino is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. The city is located in the San Rafael Hills, the population was 13,147 at the 2010 census. In 2014, Forbes magazine ranked the city as the 48th most expensive area to live in the United States, in 2014, LA Weekly ranked the city as the 3rd most expensive area to live in the Los Angeles County, topping Beverly Hills and more. There are few to no homes priced under US$1,000,000, the city takes its name from the ancient Republic of San Marino, founded by Saint Marinus who fled his home in Dalmatia at the time of the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. Marinus took refuge at Monte Titano on the Italian peninsula, where he built a chapel, the state which grew from the monastery is the worlds oldest surviving republic. The crown representing the monarchy on the original was replaced with five representing the five members of the Citys governing body. Beneath the citys seal are crossed palm fronds and orange branches, the city celebrated its centennial in 2013, including publication by the San Marino Historical Society of a 268-page book, San Marino, A Centennial History, by Elizabeth Pomeroy.
In September 2014, this book and author Elizabeth Pomeroy received a prestigious Award of Merit for Leadership in History from the American Association for State, the site of San Marino was originally occupied by a village of Tongva Indians located approximately where the Huntington School is today. The area was part of the lands of the San Gabriel Mission, principal portions of San Marino were included in an 1838 Mexican land grant of 128 acres to Victoria Bartolmea Reid, a Gabrieleña Indian. She called the property Rancho Huerta de Cuati, after Hugo Reids death in 1852, Señora Reid sold her rancho in 1854 to Don Benito Wilson, the first Anglo owner of Rancho San Pascual. In 1903, the Shorb rancho was purchased by Henry E. Huntington, the site of the Shorb/Huntington rancho is occupied today by the Huntington Library, which houses a world-renowned art collection and rare-book library, and botanical gardens. The first mayor of the city of San Marino was George Smith Patton, the son of a slain Confederate States of America colonel in the U. S.
Civil War, Patton graduated from the Virginia Military Institute in 1877, just before moving west. He married Ruth Wilson, the daughter of Don Benito Wilson and their son was the World War II general, George S. Patton, Junior. To a prior generation of Southern Californians, San Marino was known for its old-money wealth, San Marino is the location of the Huntington Library and gardens. El Molino Viejo, completed about 1816 as a grist mill for Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, is in San Marino, the original two-story structure measured 53 feet by 26 feet. It is the oldest commercial building in Southern California, the town is located on the former lands of the historic Rancho Huerta de Cuati. It is a National Historic Landmark, the Michael White Adobe House, is located on the high school campus and houses the San Marino Historical Society archives. The University of Southern California owns a house in San Marino which is used as the residence of the President of the University, the residence and grounds are often used for University Presidential events
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, consisting of the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles. The island,10,990 square kilometres in area, lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, Jamaica is the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean, by area. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494, Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish imported African slaves as labourers. Named Santiago, the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy highly dependent on slaves imported from Africa. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British imported Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations, the island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962.
With 2.8 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, Kingston is the countrys capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans predominately have African ancestry, with significant European, Hakka, due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora around the world, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as the head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaica from March 2016, the indigenous people, the Taíno, called it Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the Land of Wood and Water or the Land of Springs. Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their island as the Rock. Slang names such as Jamrock, Jamdown, or briefly Ja, have derived from this, the Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC.
When Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques, the south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour. The Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655, the Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/Arawak. Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494 and his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, now called Discovery Bay, although there is some debate that it might have been St. Anns Bay. St. Anns Bay was named Saint Gloria by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land, the capital was moved to Spanish Town, called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean, the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In 1655, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, the English continued to import African slaves as labourers
Coraline /ˈkɒrəlaɪn/ is a dark fantasy childrens novella by British author Neil Gaiman, published in 2002 by Bloomsbury and Harper Collins. It was awarded the 2003 Hugo Award for Best Novella, the 2003 Nebula Award for Best Novella, and it has been compared to Lewis Carrolls Alices Adventures in Wonderland and was adapted into a 2009 stop-motion film directed by Henry Selick. Coraline Jones and her parents move into an old house that has divided into flats. The flat beside Coralines is unoccupied, one rainy day Coraline discovers a locked door in the formal living room. She begs her mother to unlock the door, which at one point led to the apartment next door, Coraline goes to visit her new neighbors and Mr. Bobo relays to her a message from his mice, Dont go through the door. Coraline has tea with Miss Spink and Miss Forcible, and Miss Spink spies danger in Coraline’s future after reading her tea leaves and she gives her a lucky stone with a hole in the middle. The ladies explain that the stone is supposed to be good for bad things and she says it will help her in the future.
Despite these warnings, Coraline decides to unlock the door when she is home by herself and this time, she finds the brick wall behind the door is gone. In its place is a hallway that leads to a flat identical to her own. They seem to look like her parents, except that in place of eyes, the Other Mother, however, is notably taller and thinner than her real mother. Her black hair seems to move by itself, her skin is paper-white and she even finds that the feral black cat that wanders around the house in the real world can talk. The cat identifies itself as the cat that lives in the real world. Although intentionally rude and unhelpful for the part of the conversation, it briefly praises her for bringing protection. Coraline is horrified and returns through the door to her home, upon her return to her apartment, Coraline finds that her real parents are missing. They do not return the day, and the black cat wakes her and takes her to a mirror in her hallway. They signal to her by writing Help Us on the glass, though frightened of returning, Coraline goes back to the Other World to confront the Other Mother and rescue her parents.
In the garden, Coraline is prompted by the cat to challenge the Other Mother, as kind of thing loves games. The Other Mother tries to convince Coraline to stay, but Coraline refuses, in the small dark closet space, she meets three ghost children
Greenwich is an early-established district of todays London, centred 5.5 miles east south-east of Charing Cross. The town lends its name to the Royal Borough of Greenwich, Greenwich is generally described as being part of South-east London and sometimes as being part of East London. Greenwich is notable for its history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian. The town became the site of a palace, the Palace of Placentia from the 15th century. The palace fell into disrepair during the English Civil War and was rebuilt as the Royal Naval Hospital for Sailors by Sir Christopher Wren and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor. These buildings became the Royal Naval College in 1873, and they remained an establishment for military education until 1998 when they passed into the hands of the Greenwich Foundation. The historic rooms within these buildings remain open to the public, other buildings are used by University of Greenwich and Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance. The town became a resort in the 18th century and many grand houses were built there, such as Vanbrugh Castle established on Maze Hill.
From the Georgian period estates of houses were constructed above the town centre, Greenwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created. The place-name Greenwich is first attested in a Saxon charter of 918 and it is recorded as Grenewic in 964, and as Grenawic in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1013. It is Grenviz in the Domesday Book of 1086, and Grenewych in the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of 1291, the name means green wic or settlement. An article in The Times of 13 October 1967 stated, East Greenwich, gateway to the Blackwall Tunnel, remains solidly working class, the manpower for one eighth of Londons heavy industry. West Greenwich is a hybrid, the spirit of Nelson, the Cutty Sark, the Maritime Museum, an industrial waterfront and a number of elegant houses, ripe for development. Royal charters granted to English colonists in North America, often used the name of the manor of East Greenwich for describing the tenure as that of free socage, New England charters provided that the grantees should hold their lands as of his Majesty’s manor of East Greenwich.
Grants named the castle of Windsor, places in North America that have taken the name East Greenwich include a township in Gloucester County, New Jersey, a hamlet in Washington County, New York, and a town in Kent County, Rhode Island. Tumuli to the south-west of Flamsteed House, in Greenwich Park, are thought to be early Bronze Age barrows re-used by the Saxons in the 6th century as burial grounds, to the east between the Vanbrugh and Maze Hill Gates is the site of a Roman villa or temple. A small area of red paving tesserae protected by railings marks the spot and it was excavated in 1902 and 300 coins were found dating from the emperors Claudius and Honorius to the 5th century. This was excavated by the Channel 4 television programme Time Team in 1999, broadcast in 2000, the Roman road from London to Dover, Watling Street crossed the high ground to the south of Greenwich, through Blackheath
Rococo artists and architects used a more jocular and graceful approach to the Baroque. Their style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, unlike the political Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes. By the end of the 18th century, Rococo was largely replaced by the Neoclassic style. In 1835 the Dictionary of the French Academy stated that the word Rococo usually covers the kind of ornament and design associated with Louis XVs reign and it includes therefore, all types of art from around the middle of the 18th century in France. The word is seen as a combination of the French rocaille and coquilles, the term may be a combination of the Italian word barocco and the French rocaille and may describe the refined and fanciful style that became fashionable in parts of Europe in the 18th century. The Rococo love of shell-like curves and focus on decorative arts led some critics to say that the style was frivolous or merely modish, when the term was first used in English in about 1836, it was a colloquialism meaning old-fashioned.
While there is some debate about the historical significance of the style to art in general. Italian architects of the late Baroque/early Rococo were wooed to Catholic Germany and Austria by local princes, an exotic but in some ways more formal type of Rococo appeared in France where Louis XIVs succession brought a change in the court artists and general artistic fashion. By the end of the long reign, rich Baroque designs were giving way to lighter elements with more curves. These elements are obvious in the designs of Nicolas Pineau. During the Régence, court life moved away from Versailles and this change became well established, first in the royal palace. The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is seen as perfectly in tune with the excesses of Louis XVs reign. The 1730s represented the height of Rococo development in France, the style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture, exemplified by the works of Antoine Watteau and François Boucher. The Rococo style was spread by French artists and engraved publications, william Hogarth helped develop a theoretical foundation for Rococo beauty.
Though not intentionally referencing the movement, he argued in his Analysis of Beauty that the lines and S-curves prominent in Rococo were the basis for grace. The development of Rococo in Great Britain is considered to have connected with the revival of interest in Gothic architecture early in the 18th century. The beginning of the end for Rococo came in the early 1760s as figures like Voltaire and Jacques-François Blondel began to voice their criticism of the superficiality, Blondel decried the ridiculous jumble of shells, reeds, palm-trees and plants in contemporary interiors. By 1785, Rococo had passed out of fashion in France, replaced by the order, in Germany, late 18th century Rococo was ridiculed as Zopf und Perücke, and this phase is sometimes referred to as Zopfstil
Henry E. Huntington
Henry Edwards Huntington was an American railroad magnate and collector of art and rare books. Huntington settled in Los Angeles, where he owned the Pacific Electric Railway as well as real estate interests. In addition to being a businessman and art collector, Huntington was a booster for Los Angeles in the late 19th. Huntington held several positions working alongside his uncle with the Southern Pacific. He had four children with Mary Alice, Howard Edward, Clara Leonora, Elizabeth Vincent, and Marian Prentice, arabellas son Archer, from her prior marriage from which she was widowed, had earlier been adopted by Collis. In 1898, in competition with his uncles Southern Pacific, Huntington bought the narrow gauge. In 1901, Huntington formed the sprawling interurban, standard gauge Pacific Electric Railway, known as the Red Car system, centered at 6th, Huntington succeeded in this competition by providing passenger friendly streetcars on 24/7 schedules, which the railroads couldnt match. Connectivity to Downtown Los Angeles made such suburbs feasible, by 1910, the Huntington trolley systems stretched over approximately 1,300 miles of southern California.
In 1905 Huntington, A. Kingsley Macomber, and William R. Staats developed the Oak Knoll subdivision, the road was completed in February 1907. The property was donated to the city of Riverside by the heirs of Frank Miller. Huntington was a Life Member of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of California, Huntington retired from active business in 1916. In 1927 Henry E. Huntington died in Philadelphia while undergoing surgery and he and Arabella are buried, with a large monument, in the Gardens of the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. The Huntington Hotel was originally named Hotel Wentworth when it opened its doors on February 1,1907, financial problems and a disappointing first season forced the Hotel Wentworth to close its doors indefinitely. Henry Huntington purchased the Hotel Wentworth in 1911, renaming it the Huntington Hotel and it reopened in 1914, transformed into a beautiful winter resort. The 1920s were a time for the hotel, as Midwestern and Eastern entrepreneurs discovered Californias warm winter climate.
The hotels reputation for fine service began with general manager and owner Stephen W. Royce. By 1926, the hotels success prompted Royce to open the property year-round, the golden years ended with the stock market crash and the Great Depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s. However, by the end of the 1930s the hotel was back on solid ground, when World War II began, all reservations were cancelled and the hotel was rented to the Army for $3,000 a month
Bond Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. The southern section is Old Bond Street and the northern section New Bond Street—a distinction not generally made in everyday usage. The street was built on fields surrounding Clarendon House on Piccadilly and it was built up in the 1720s, and by the end of the 18th century was a popular place for the upper-class residents of Mayfair to socialise. It is one of the most expensive and sought after strips of real estate in Europe, Bond Street is the only street that runs between Oxford Street and Piccadilly. Old Bond Street is at the end between Piccadilly and Burlington Gardens. The northern section, New Bond Street, extends as far as Oxford Street, the entire street is around 0.5 miles long. Many of the shop frontages are less than 20 feet wide, the nearest tube stations are Green Park in Piccadilly, and Bond Street station in Oxford Street. Despite its name, Bond Street station does not directly connect to either New or Old Bond Street, No buses use the street, although the C2 service crosses New Bond Street.
Part of New Bond Street is numbered B406 but the remainder, New Bond Street is pedestrianised between Grafton Street and Clifford Street to prevent through traffic and to stop the road being used as a rat run. There is evidence of Roman settlement around what is now Bond Street, in 1894, a culvert made from brick and stone was discovered in the area. At that time, the house backed onto open fields, known as Albemarle Ground, New Bond Street was laid out during a second phase of construction 14 years after Bonds syndicate began developing the area. Most of the building along the street occurred in the 1720s, john Rocques map of London, published in 1746, shows properties along the entire length of Bond Street, including the fully constructed side streets. The two parts of the street have always had separate names, and a plan by the council to merge the two into a singular Bond Street in the 1920s was rejected by locals. During the 18th century, the street began to be popular with the bourgeoisie living around Mayfair, shop owners let out their upper storeys for residential purposes, attracting lodgers such as Jonathan Swift, George Selwyn, William Pitt the Elder and Laurence Stern.
In 1784, Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, an active socialite and this had caused him to lose his seat in parliament, leading to the dissolution of the Fox–North Coalition. She insisted people should look for nearer shopping streets, and encouraged people to go to Bond Street, the street became a retail area for people living in Mayfair. By the end of the century, a social group known as the Bond Street Loungers had appeared, wearing expensive wigs and parading up. Lord Nelson stayed at temporary lodgings in New Bond Street between 1797–8, and again in 1811–13, Thomas Pitt, 2nd Baron Camelford lived in Bond Street and was unhappy about the presence of the Bond Street Loungers
Richmond Hill, London
Immortalised in paintings by Sir Joshua Reynolds and J. M. W. Turner, it was described by Sir Walter Scott as an unrivalled landscape. It was this view that inspired the name of Richmond, the scenic panorama may be viewed from Terrace Walk, laid out near the top of the hill in the 18th century. This promenade surmounts the Terrace Gardens and both are Grade II* listed in Historic Englands Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England and that situation is still in vogue today. The original homes on Richmond Hill were built in what is now The Vineyard, including Clarence House, Halford House, Michels Almshouses, Turner at The Tate BBC webpage – View from Richmond Hill BBC webpage – panoramic view BBC webpage – photos of Richmond Hill
Royal Academy Summer Exhibition
The Summer Exhibition is an open art exhibition held annually by the Royal Academy in Burlington House, Piccadilly in central London, during the summer months of June and August. The exhibition includes paintings, drawings, architectural designs and models, when the Royal Academy was founded in 1768 one of its key objectives was to establish an annual exhibition, open to all artists of merit, which could be visited by the public. The first Summer Exhibition took place in 1769, it has held every year since without exception. Today, around 1,000 works are selected each year from as many as 10,000 entries representing some 5,000 artists, any artist may submit up to two works at a fee of £25 per piece for selection by The Summer Exhibition Selection and Hanging Committee. Due to the significant increase in the volume of entries over recent years, the number of entries per artist was reduced to 2, the committee is formed from the Council of Academicians and is traditionally chaired by the President of the Royal Academy.
In addition to those selected by the committee, all 80 Academicians are entitled to have six of their own pieces in the exhibition. The 2005 exhibition theme was Printmaking and the multiple, in 2006, the theme was From Life. In 2008, the theme was Man Made, the theme for 2010 was Raw. In 2011, the committee agreed to have no specific theme. For the 2006 exhibition, the received a statue and a plinth from David Hensel. By mistake, the two parts were judged independently, with the result that the statue was rejected and the put on display. The RA Summer Exhibition usually opens to the public in early June, the main event is called Varnishing Day, the day that, according to popular legend, artists would come to add a final coat of varnish to their paintings. Traditionally, artists walk in procession from Burlington House to St Jamess Church, Piccadilly, at the opening reception the shortlists for various prizes are announced. Over £70,000 prize money, including the £25,000 Charles Wollaston Award, is awarded each year at the Summer Exhibition, in addition, a £10.000 architectural prize is awarded.
Almost all exhibited works are for sale, the Academy receives 30% of the purchase price, in 2003, this amounted to a sum of some £2,000,000 for the institution, which receives no financial support from the state or crown. The Royal Academy revisited, Victorian paintings from the Forbes magazine Collection, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Art of the United Kingdom
The Art of the United Kingdom refers to all forms of visual art in or associated with the United Kingdom since the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. For earlier periods, and some more detailed information on the period, see English art, Scottish art, Welsh art. Increasing British prosperity led to an increased production of both fine art and the decorative arts, the latter often being exported. The Romantic period produced the diverse talents of William Blake, J. M. W. Turner, John Constable. The Victorian period saw a great diversity of art, and a far larger quantity created than before, much Victorian art is now out of critical favour, with interest concentrated on the Pre-Raphaelites and the innovative movements at the end of the 18th century. The oldest surviving British art includes Stonehenge from around 2600 BC and this had a brief but spectacular flowering in all the countries that now form the United Kingdom in the 7th and 8th centuries, in works such as the Book of Kells and Book of Lindisfarne.
The Insular style was influential across Northern Europe, and especially so in Anglo-Saxon art, the Protestant Reformations of England and Scotland were especially destructive of existing religious art, and the production of new work virtually ceased. The Artists of the Tudor Court were mostly imported from Europe, the portraiture of Elizabeth I ignored contemporary European Renaissance models to create iconic images that border on naive art. His counterpart in Edinburgh, Sir John Baptist Medina, born in Brussels to Spanish parents, had died just before the Union took place, and was one of the last batch of Scottish knights to be created. Medina had first worked in London, but in mid-career moved to the competitive environment of Edinburgh. Richardson trained the most notable Irish portraitist of the period and his best-known work is at Greenwich Hospital, Blenheim Palace and the cupola of Saint Pauls Cathedral, London. From 1714 the new Hanoverian dynasty conducted a far less ostentatious court, the booming British economy was able to supply aristocratic and mercantile wealth to replace the court, above all in London.
Other subjects were only issued as prints, and Hogarth was both the first significant British printmaker, and still the best known. Many works were series of four or more scenes, of which the best known are, A Harlots Progress and A Rakes Progress from the 1730s and Marriage à-la-mode from the mid-1740s. Like many painters Hogarth wanted above all to achieve success at history painting in the Grand Manner, the academy was taken over by Thornhill in 1716, but seems to have become inactive by the time John Vanderbank and Louis Chéron set up their own academy in 1720. This did not last long, and in 1724/5 Thornhill tried again in his own house, with little success. Hogarth inherited the equipment for this, and used it to start the St. Martins Lane Academy in 1735, Hogarth helped solve the problem of a lack of exhibition venues in London, arranging for shows at the Foundling Hospital from 1746. The Scottish portraitist Allan Ramsay worked in Edinburgh before moving to London by 1739 and his main London rival in the mid-century, until Reynolds made his reputation, was Reynolds master, the stodgy Thomas Hudson
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal. Its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785, the capital of Madeira is Funchal, located on the main islands south coast. The archipelago is just under 400 kilometres north of Tenerife, Canary Islands, since 1976, the archipelago has been one of the two Autonomous regions of Portugal. It includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Desertas, the region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution. Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419, the archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Portuguese Age of Discovery, which extended from 1415 to 1542. Today, it is a popular resort, being visited every year by about one million tourists. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy and cultural value, its flora and fauna, landscapes which are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and embroidery artisans.
Its annual New Year celebrations feature the largest fireworks show in the world, Madeira is the second richest region of Portugal by GDP per capita, only surpassed by Lisbon. They are called the Isles of the Blessed, archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900-1030. During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and they were driven off their course by a violent storm and their ship went aground along the coast of an island, that may have been Madeira. Later this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico, knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339. The following year, an expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira. Subsequently, the new settlers observed a black cloud suspended to the southwest. Their investigation revealed it to be the island they called Madeira. The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425, grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the islands could be profitable.
The planting of sugarcane, and Sicilian sugar beet, allowed the introduction of the salt into Europe. These specialised plants, and their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands, the expansion of sugar plantations in Madeira began in 1455, using advisers from Sicily and financed by Genoese capital. The accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to bypass Venetian monopolies, by 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp