click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pinole, California

Pinole is a city in Contra Costa County, United States. The population was 18,390 at the 2010 census; the name derives from "pinole", a Nāhuatl word for a kind of flour made from the seeds of maize and various other grasses and annual herbs. An expedition under Pedro Fages was said to have run out of provisions while exploring the area, to have been fed pinole by a local village, so the Spaniards named their camp "El Pinole". In 1823, Ygnacio Martinez, commandant of the Presidio of San Francisco, received a land grant of Rancho El Pinole from the Mexican government. Martinez built a hacienda in Pinole Valley at the present side of Pinole Valley Park. During the 1850s, Bernardo Fernandez, a Portuguese immigrant, started a trading facility on the shores of San Pablo Bay and built the historic Fernandez Mansion, which still stands today at the end of Tennent Avenue. From these early beginnings, a small but thriving community grew into the city now known as Pinole; the settlement grew with the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1878 and the establishment of the California Powder Works in nearby Hercules.

During this period, this city had an active waterfront and was a regional commercial and banking center. The first post office opened in 1878; the City of Pinole was incorporated in 1903. Pinole and the surrounding area grew during the post-World War II boom. With the coming of Interstate 80 in 1958, the town evolved into a suburban bedroom community within the San Francisco/Oakland commuter belt. Much of its original industry was displaced during this time, the town became predominantly residential. Today, the town is locally known for its "big box" shopping store district along Fitzgerald Drive, Pinole Vista Shopping Center, continuous with Richmond's Hilltop Area; the downtown area still retains much turn-of-the-century building stock and is being preserved by the city's development agency as a historic area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.6 square miles. 5.3 square miles of it is land, 8.3 square miles of it is water. The city of Pinole has habitat areas that support the endangered species Santa Cruz Tarweed on the California coastal prairie ecosystem.

A colony of this rare plant was discovered during preparation of an Environmental Impact Report for a proposed shopping center on the east side of I-80 in the late 1980s. Subsequently, a plan was developed by the city to conduct replanting of this tarweed on the slopes within the right-of-way of Interstate Highway 80. Running through is Pinole Creek; the 2010 United States Census reported that Pinole had a population of 18,390. The population density was 1,354.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Pinole was 8,488 White, 2,458 African American, 147 Native American, 4,220 Asian, 64 Pacific Islander, 1,741 from other races, 1,272 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,005 persons; the Census reported that 18,322 people lived in households, 53 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 15 were institutionalized. There were 6,775 households, out of which 2,202 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,500 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,012 had a female householder with no husband present, 363 had a male householder with no wife present.

There were 325 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 76 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,529 households were made up of individuals and 676 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70. There were 4,875 families; the population was spread out with 3,764 people under the age of 18, 1,674 people aged 18 to 24, 4,325 people aged 25 to 44, 5,779 people aged 45 to 64, 2,848 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. There were 7,158 housing units at an average density of 527.3 per square mile, of which 6,775 were occupied, of which 4,861 were owner-occupied, 1,914 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.5%. 13,210 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 5,112 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 19,039 people, 6,743 households, 5,057 families residing in the city.

The population density was 1,413.7/km². There were 6,828 housing units at an average density of 507.0/km². The racial makeup of the city was 54.39% White, 11.11% Black or African American, 0.57% Native American, 21.71% Asian, 0.37% Pacific Islander, 5.81% from other races, 6.03% from two or more races. 13.75 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 6,743 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families. 20.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.23. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males.

For every 100 females

Pecorino di Carmasciano

Pecorino di Carmasciano, more known as Carmasciano, is an Italian cheese of the Pecorino family of cheeses made from sheep's milk. It has been recognized since 2009 by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies as a prodotto agroalimentare tradizionale, abbreviated as PAT. Pecorino di Carmasciano was featured at Expo 2015 in Milan. Carmasciano cheese is produced in the area known as Carmasciano, constituted by the towns of Guardia Lombardi, Rocca San Felice, Frigento in the mountains of Alta Irpinia in the Italian Province of Avellino of the Campania region; the general area known as Carmasciano dates back to the Roman period and was documented by Virgil as the area between Guardia Lombardi and Rocca San Felice. "Carmasciano" was the name of a Roman soldier, given the land by the Emperor for his success in war. The cheese may be made in Sant'Angelo dei Lombardi, Torella dei Lombardi and Morra de Sanctis, it is made from the unpasteurized milk of the Laticauda breed of sheep. The name Laticauda means "broad-tailed," as the sheep is of the fat-tailed type.

The Laticauda sheep are present only in the Campanian Apennines, with their numbers estimated to be around 50,000. For this reason, Carmasciano is produced only in limited quantities on small, family-owned farms and is expensive. A 2015 survey indicated that only five farms produce around 2000 wheels of Carmasciano each year; the characteristics of the cheese are influenced by the conditions of the sheep. In the Ansanto valley, the sheep graze on sainfoin herbs near a fumarole; this fissure, known as Mefite, is named after the Samnite goddess Mefitis. It is located within Rocca San Felice; the fumarole emits gaseous carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid, carried by the wind and influences the formation of the cheese. The wheels of Carmasciano are 15–20 cm in diameter and 10–12 cm in height, weighing 1.5–2 kg. They are produced in cylindrical form; the unpasteurized milk is put into a tinned copper boiler called a "caccavo", placed over a wood-burning fire, where it is heated to 40–45 °C. It is continually mixed with a wooden utensil with a rounded tip.

The cheese is coagulated with rennet from lamb or calf and left to rest for 15 minutes. The curds are worked by hand and chopped to the size of a grain of rice and are left to settle on the bottom of the caccavo; the paste is left to rest for 48 hours collected and placed in a wicker basket and blanched in hot whey. Once dry, after 5 to 10 days, the cheese is salted, washed with wine, massaged every other day with olive oil, white wine, vinegar; the cheese matures on wooden boards in a cool room, where its rind is sprinkled with chili pepper to keep insects away. It is aged for at least 3 to 4 months. Carmasciano is a hard cheese that has a brown, hard and unctuous rind, it has a medium to medium-high aroma and can become spicy, though is not pungent. It is a natural antioxidant. Carmasciano is eaten as a table cheese and is paired with red wine, the most seasoned wheels are used to season pasta dishes. Laticauda sheep Prodotto agroalimentare tradizionale Pecorino List of Italian cheeses List of sheep milk cheeses

SS W.H. Gilcher

The SS W. H. Gilcher was a lake freighter, constructed in 1890 by the Cleveland Shipbuilding Company for Joseph C. Gilchrist, the managing partner of a firm, pioneering the industrialization of bulk carrier freight service on the Great Lakes, she drew 25 feet of water. She and her sister ship, the SS Western Reserve, were two of the first lake freighters to be constructed out of steel plate, her steel construction made it possible for the vessel to carry heavier loads of freight than her wooden rival steamships. According to the Glen Arbor Sun, the W. H. Gilcher was "the largest and most technologically advanced ship of its time."Only 17 months after she entered service in May 1891, the W. H. Gilcher vanished in fall 1892 with all hands. Traveling loaded from Buffalo to Milwaukee, she was last reported passing through the Straits of Mackinac. Sometime on the night of October 28-29, 1892 in Lake Michigan, the steel vessel and her cargo of coal disappeared, her sister vessel, the Western Reserve, had broken in two on Lake Superior eight weeks earlier, in an incident attributed to the improper use of brittle steel contaminated with sulfur and phosphorus, it is conjectured that the W.

H. Gilcher met a similar fate somewhere near North Manitou Island. All 18 or 22 men aboard the vessel were lost; as of 2019 the W. H. Gilcher is the second largest unidentified shipwreck on Lake Michigan, only surpassed by the car ferry Pere Marquette 18

NHS Gender Identity Development Service

The NHS Gender Identity Development Service is a nationally-operated health clinic specialising in working with children with gender identity issues, including gender dysphoria. Although based at a Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust site, it is commissioned by NHS England and takes referrals from across the United Kingdom, it is the only gender identity clinic for people under 18 in the UK and is the subject of much controversy. GIDS is a service provided by the Tavistock Clinic. Located at Tavistock Square in London, the clinic specialised in psychiatric care; the Tavistock Clinic treated both children, with their first patient being a child. However, it focused on military psychology, including shell-shock, now termed PTSD. In 1948, with the creation of the NHS, the Tavistock Clinic launched its children’s department, which developed many works by Robertson and Bowlby on attachment theory. In 1959, it opened an adolescent department and in 1967 absorbed in the London Child Guidance Clinic.

Following this, in 1989 the Tavistock Clinic established GIDS, the first and only service of its kind. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services provides the NHS support for children with mental health issues. However, CAMHS is organised by local government area and thus; the development of CAMHS within a four-tiered framework started in 1995. In 2000 the NHS Plan Implementation Programme required health and local authorities to jointly produce a local CAMHS strategy. GIDS takes referrals from all mental health care professionals Tier 2 and 3 CAMHS specialists. GIDS is distinct from CAMHS. However, in the CAMHS framework it sits in Tier 4, as a specialised service. In 2009/10, 97 patients were referred to GIDS. By 2015/16 this had increased fourteen-fold to 1419 and in 2017/18 to 2,519. Due to reduced funding and increased referrals, the average wait time is two years from referral to first appointment. In 2018 the parents of patients complained in a letter to the Trust board about the ‘fast-tracked’ nature of the services.

This led to the commissioning of an internal report by Dr. David Bell, which found the service was “not fit for purpose”. Marcus Evans, a member of the Trust board resigned in February 2019. Subsequently it was revealed that 35 psychologists have resigned since 2016, including six psychologists who claimed there was “over-diagnosis” of gender dysphoria and a push for early medical intervention. Alongside this, the National Institute for Health Research announced a £1.3 million grant for a study following young people referred to GIDS, to compare mental and physical health outcomes for children referred. The study will compare the effectiveness of different interventions, including psychological and alternative interventions. In July 2019 the Tavistock Centre was flooded which temporarily affected the IT servers at the clinic. In October 2019, a lawsuit was launched against GIDS by a mother of a patient at GIDS and a nurse who worked there. Services provided include: Assessments, to assess necessary support.

No surgical transition options are available through GIDS. People referred to GIDS may contribute to NIHR studies into gender dysphoria in children. In the financial year 2018-19, 31 referrals were made for children aged 5 or under. 30 referrals were made for adults over the age of 18. In 2018-19 there was a year-on-year increase of 6%, a relative plateau compared to previous year-on-year increases. Children who present may identify with a number of different labels, including non-binary, genderqueer, questioning or otherwise as dysphoric or gender non-conforming. GIDS say that the way children identify is changing, which may be due to cultural and societal shifts; as the only gender identity clinic for children in the UK, the service has been the subject of much controversy related to the broader topic of gender dysphoria and transitioning in childhood. A 2019 Sky News report found that 35 pyschologists resigned between 2016-2019. Six pyschologists who resigned raised concerns about the over-diagnosis and medicalisation of young people experiencing gender identity difficulties.

In February 2019, Tavistock trust member Marcus Evans resigned. In July 2019, Kirsty Entwistle wrote a public letter about the GIDS service, saying professionals were labelled “transphobic” if they raised doubts. Following a letter to the board at Tavistock, an internal report was commissioned to look at the functioning of GIDS. Dr David Bell authored the report which found that the service was “not fit for purpose”, it considered that the service could result in “damaging consequences” to children’s lives and failed to consider a child’s mental health background. However, it did not identify any “immediate” issues with regards to safety and in 2018 the CQC rated the effectiveness of the Trust as “outstanding”. Conversely, there is a long wait time for a first appointment at GIDS, averaging at two years as of January 2020. GIDS blame high referral numbers and low staff numbers for this wait time. In October 2019, lodged a legal complaint against GIDS at its satellite site in Leeds; the suit was brought by “Mrs. A”, a mother of a 15-year-old patient with autism, Sue Evans, a former nurse at the Leeds GIDS satellite site.

It alleges that advice around hormone therapy was “potentially m

Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II

Pedro Ruiz de Villegas y Cevallos II was a Spanish noble baron in the service of the Kingdom of Castile and a member of the Order of Santiago. He was a descendant of the houses of Cevallos and of Lucio; as the majorat of his own heraldic crest, he received titles over Villegas, Castillo Pedroso, Moñux, Pedrosa del Páramo, Valdegómez and the palace of Sasamón. For his service in the First Castilian Civil War, his role in the destruction of the Blanche of Bourbon league he received the castle of Caracena, was named high adelantado of Castile in 1354. A year Peter of Castile would execute him in the village of Medina del Campo. Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II was born in the city of Burgos in 1304, he was the son of Ruy Pérez de Villegas I and Teresa González de Cevallos, son in law of Garci Lasso de la Vega I. His full name was Pedro Ruiz de Villegas Lucio y de Cevallos, IV Señor de la Casa de Villegas y de diversas baronías, his father, Ruy Pérez de Villegas I and Teresa González Cevallos had four children: Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II Sancho Ruiz de Villegas «El Segundón» who married María Alfonso.

Lope Ruiz de Villegas, father of Alfonso López de Villegas. María Ruiz de Villegas. In 1332, the King Alfonso XI of Castile founded the Order of the Band with the intent of consolidating his power over the unruly nobility of Castile, he ordered that certain nobles were to dress like him with white cloths and a crimson taffeta band that he had designed himself. The members were made to follow a rigid etiquette behavior, to participate in jousts, to be solitary and to remain, above all, loyal to the King, it was thus that Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II was named a Knight of the Order of the Band along with his younger brother Lope Ruiz de Villegas. In 1348 he married Teresa González de la Vega, daughter of Garci Lasso de la Vega I, a noble from Cantabria. On March 19, 1351, Pedro and Teresa sold most of their properties to their paternal uncle, Garci Lasso de la Vega II. In early 1350, Tello de Castilla, son of Alfonso XI and Leonor de Guzmán, inherited various properties from his father on his 13th birthday.

Tello appointed Villegas as the chief administrator of all his properties, a move that would cost Villegas dearly when some of these properties were lost in the subsequent Castilian Civil War. Alfonso XI of Castile died on the 26th of March, 1350. Upon his death, Prince Pedro assumed the throne at a mere 16 years of age. Peter abandoned his father's agenda of Reconquista and pursued a policy of cutting the powers of the Spanish nobles and concentrating power in the crown of Castile and the bourgeoisie. Peter took other unpopular steps such as the protection of the minority Jewish community; when the nobles rebelled in defense of their privileges, the King responded with severity and executed various nobles, including the father of Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II. To inflame matters in 1351, the Queen Dowager María de Portugal, ordered the assassination of the former lover of King Alfonso XI, Leonor de Guzmán, held prisoner in Talavera de la Reina, she had given birth to the twins Fadrique Alfonso de Castilla and Enrique II de Castilla, the latter of which had secretly married Juana Manuel de Villena y Núñez de Lara in July 1350.

This murder further ignited the Castilian Civil War. As Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II was in the service of Tello de Castilla, who had joined the rebellion against the King, he was branded an enemy of the crown. In 1355. Peter of Castile consolidated himself in Segovia and in Burgos where he oversaw the suppression of the remaining rebels. In April of the same year, by mandate of the King, Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II was assassinated while he slept along with his squire in the village of Medina del Campo. "Historia de Cantabria". "Revista Hidalguía". "Alrededor de los Parientes en España de los siglos XVI y XVII". "Prueba de Hidalguía" del marqués de Fernando de Villegas. "Nobiliario…". "Anales de Aragón" Padrón antiguo de Cóbreces. Padrón antiguo de Ocaña. C. P. Francisco de Quevedo - Pueblos de Santiurde de Tornazo - Señoríos de Villasevil y Acereda de la Casa Mayor de Villegas y de la posterior segundona Casa Ruiz de Villegas Pueblos de Palencia - Manquillos - Solariego de Nuño Pérez de Lara, Pedro Ruiz de Villegas y sucesores Breve aproximación de la vida de Don Tello (por José Ma.

Domínguez del Hoyo Castillo de Caracena, señorío de Pedro Ruiz de Villegas y su hijo Ruy Pérez de Villegas hasta 1366 Pueblos de Soria - Moñux - Señorío de Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II Caballeros de la Orden Real de la Banda - Pedro Ruiz de Villegas II, Adelantado Mayor de Castilla Pueblos de Corvera de Toranzo - Señorío de Castillo Pedroso - Segundona Casa Ruiz de Villegas - Sancho Ruiz de Villegas y Terán

Paso Yobai

Paso Yobai is the largest and easternmost district of the Guairá Department, Paraguay. It was founded in 1923 by the Swiss colonist George Naville. Paso Yobai was governed as part of the district of Independencia until 1993, when it was granted independence by the central government; the largest town in the district is named Paso Yobai, contains around 2,500 people. Paso Yobai is known for the high quality of its production of yerba mate. Is known for the production of sugar-cane and soy; the Canadian company "Latin American Minerals, Inc." bought "Paraguayan Mines" in 2007 and negotiated an agreement with the Paraguayan government to begin mining in the district. The company believes. Although mining has brought increased prosperity to Paso Yobai, it has brought environmental problems, the most serious being mercury contamination in the streams; the harpist, Enrique Samaniego was born in Paso Yobai. Until the production and processing of yerba mate was the dominant economic activity in the district of Paso Yobai.

At one time yerba mate cultivation covered 10,000 hectares of territory. Presently there are 8,000 hectares under cultivation, gold mining has replaced yerba mate as the most lucrative economic activity. Still, yerba mate is important to the local economy. Several factories in the district process yerba mate and produce brands such as Sudetia and Labrador. While the cultivation of yerba mate, sugar cane and other crops is still of great importance to the district, the discovery of gold encouraged many people to abandon agriculture in order to devote themselves to small scale mining; the recent presence of the Canadian company is a source of both expectation. Many think that it will create good paying work and but others worry about whether they will be able to continue their small scale mining activities as the company expands its presence in the zone. Although rumors of gold had been floating for years in the area of Paso Yobai, only since the late 1990s have people begun mining; the gold rush began.

The two got married, the Ecuadorian discovered gold in a stream on his father-in-law's property. From there began the Gold fever that changed the life of many families. Many locals call the small scale gold miners "garimpeiros"; the steps needed to depend on the talent of the miner. Depending on their luck and the quality of the product, a miner might earn around 125,000 Guaranis per gram of gold powder, it takes between one and two days for a small scale miner to extract a gram of gold. But this gram is difficult to obtain. A garimpeiro can survive of their mining activities if he can obtain 10 grams or more of gold a month. Miners use mercury to separate gold from clay; the mercury enters and contaminates creeks. Arroyo Gasory, Paso Yobai's largest creek, is now contaminated with mercury and the fish are unsafe to eat. One of the most important celebrations in Paso Yobai is the Patronage Festival, celebrated every August 15 honoring its saint patron, the Virgin of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Asunción.

The festivities start with the novena each afternoon, with every neighborhood organizing one day of it. On the lawn of the Catholic Church there is a religious chorus competition. People come from throughout the district to participate in this celebration. On the morning of the 15th there is a procession with the image of the Virgin on the streets Paso Yobai, which are decorated with arcs of bamboo and paper strings; the procession proceeds to the church. After the Mass, the celebration continues with bullfights and music. North: The Mauricio José Troche district and the Caaguazú Department. South: The Caazapá Department. West: The Colonia Independencia District. East: The Caazapá Department. Through the district flows the Capiibary river and the following streams: Mangrullo Baba Pacobá Curuzú Ycuá Porá Morotí Gasory Itacarú Zanja Pytá Cabayuby The main social-demographic indicators in the district report: Population under 15 years old: 45.2% Average of kids per woman: 3.6 kids Percentage of illiterates: 10.7% Percentage of the population occupied in agricultural activities: 82.0% Percentage of houses with electricity service: 77.8% Percentage of houses with water service: 12.1%Population with unsatisfied basic needs in: Education: 9.6% Sanitary infrastructure: 18.3% Housing quality: 50.3% Subsistence capacity: 17.0% The district has 22 rural sub-districts joined by dirt roads.

The most important districts are: Sudetia, Arroyo Morotí, San Isidro, Nueva Guairá, Curuzú, San Roque, Torres Cué, San Antonio, Nansen, 3 de Noviembre, San José, Santa María and San Francisco Berthal. There are several native communities in the district, containing people of the mby'a ethnicity; these communities include: Rancho Kuña Yryvu Kua Naranjito Santa Teresita Nance Ovenia Isla Hu Many bus lines serve Paso Yobai. Empresa Ybytyruzu has three buses a day to and from Asunción. Empresa Sudetia has six buses a day to and from Villarrica. Empresa 8 de Noviembre has one bus a day to and from Caaguazu; because the roads are made of dirt motorized vehicles have difficulty after rainstorms. Since the discovery of gold and more people in the district are buying and riding motorcycles. According to the most recent data provided by the General Office of Statistics and Census, this is the demographic information for the Paso Yobai district: The total populat