Condottieri were Italian military leaders involved in classical formation battles, first as mercenary captains commanding free companies and as generals of multi-national armies. In medieval Italian, condottiero meant "contractor" but the term acquired the broader meaning of "military leader" in reference to Italian Catholics serving as commanders for the Roman Catholic side during the Counter-Reformation. Therefore, in Italian historiography, the term Condottiero: refers to mercenary captains, named capitani di ventura, contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy. Excludes military commanders in contemporary warfare; some authors have described Guido da Landriano as the "first condottiero" and Napoleon Bonaparte as the "last condottiero": according to this view, the condottieri tradition would span a huge diverse period from the battle of Legnano in 1176 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Most historians would narrow it down to the years from c.1350 to c.1650, with a particular focus on the rise of the ventura captains and their transformation in captain generals fighting for the major powers during the struggle for political and religious supremacy in Europe.
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa were rich from their trade with the Levant, yet possessed woefully small armies. In the event that foreign powers and envious neighbors attacked, the ruling nobles hired foreign mercenaries to fight for them; the military-service terms and conditions were stipulated in a condotta between the city-state and the soldiers, the contracted leader, the mercenary captain commanding, was titled the Condottiere. From the eleventh to the thirteenth century, European soldiers led by professional officers fought against the Muslims in the Crusades; these crusading officers provided large-scale warfare combat experience in the Holy Land. On the Crusades' conclusion, the first masnada appeared in Italy. Given the profession, some masnade were less mercenaries than desperate men; these masnada were not Italian, but German, from the Duchy of Brabant, from Aragon. The latter were Spanish soldiers who had followed King Peter III of Aragon in the War of the Sicilian Vespers in Italy in October 1282, post-war, remained there, seeking military employment.
By 1333 other mercenaries had arrived in Italy to fight with John of Bohemia as the Compagnia della Colomba in Perugia's war against Arezzo. The first well organised mercenaries in Italy were the Ventura Companies of Duke Werner von Urslingen and Count Konrad von Landau. Werner's company differed from other mercenary companies because its code of military justice imposed discipline and an equal division of the contract's income; the Ventura Company increased in number until becoming the fearsome "Great Company" of some 3,000 barbute. The first mercenary company with an Italian as its chief was the "Company of St. George" formed in 1339 and led by Lodrisio Visconti; this company was defeated and destroyed by Luchino Visconti of Milan in April 1339. In 1377, a second "Company of St. George" was formed under the leadership of Alberico da Barbiano an Italian and the Count of Conio, who taught military science to condottieri such as Braccio da Montone and Giacomuzzo Attendolo Sforza, who served in the company.
Once aware of their military power monopoly in Italy, the condottieri bands became notorious for their capriciousness, soon dictated terms to their ostensible employers. In turn, many condottieri, such as Braccio da Montone and Muzio Sforza, became powerful politicians; as most were educated men acquainted with Roman military science manuals, they began viewing warfare from the perspective of military science, rather than as a matter of valor or physical courage—a great, consequential departure from chivalry, the traditional medieval model of soldiering. The condottieri fought by outmanoeuvring the opponent and fighting his ability to wage war, rather than risk uncertain fortune—defeat, death—in battlefield combat; the earlier, medieval condottieri developed the "art of war" into military science more than any of their historical military predecessors—fighting indirectly, not directly—thus, only reluctantly endangering themselves and their enlisted men, avoiding battle when possible avoiding hard work and winter campaigns, as these all reduced the total number of trained soldiers available, was detrimental to their political and economic interest.
Niccolò Machiavelli said that condottieri fought each other in grandiose, but pointless and near-bloodless battles. However in the Renaissance the condottieri line of battle still deployed the grand armoured knight and medieval weapons and tactics after most European powers had begun employing professional standing armies of pikemen and musketeers. In 1347, Cola di Rienzo had Werner von Urslingen executed in Rome, Konrad von Landau assumed command of the Great Company. On the conclusion of the Peace of Bret
Carpi is an Italian town and comune of about 71,000 inhabitants in the province of Modena, Emilia-Romagna. It is a busy centre for cultural and commercial exchanges; the name "Carpi" is derived from carpinus betulus, a hornbeam tree widespread in medieval times in the Po valley region. In Prehistoric times it was a settlement of the Villanovan Culture; the foundation by the Lombard king Aistulf of St. Mary's church in the castle in 752 was the first step in the current settlement of the city. From 1319 to 1525 it was ruled by the Pio family, after whom it was acquired by the Este, as part of the Duchy of Modena; the city received a Silver Medal for Military Valour in recognition of its participation in the resistance against the German occupation during World War II. The town has one of the largest square in the heart of the city, Piazza dei Martiri, it is surrounded by the catedral, the town hall and a 52 arches long portico. Every Thursday and Saturday the square hosts the local market. Carpi used to be the finishing point of the annual Italian Marathon, which begins in nearby Maranello.
1000 athletes enter the senior men's and women's race, held every year since 1988 in honor of Dorando Pietri, a long distance runner born in Carpi that lost his Olympic Gold Medal for being helped to stand up after a fall near the finish line. The area was crippled in the earthquakes of May 2012; as a titular Duke of Modena, the current holder of the title of "Prince of Carpi" would be Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este. Located in the northern area of its province, at the borders with the one Reggio Emilia, Carpi borders with the municipalities of Campogalliano, Correggio, Modena, Novi di Modena, Rio Saliceto, San Prospero and Soliera, it counts the hamlets of Budrione, Cantone di Gargallo, Cibeno Pile, Fossoli, Lama di Quartirolo, Osteriola, San Marino, San Martino Secchia and Santa Croce. Carpi is distinguished by its great Renaissance square, called Piazza Martiri https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g670816-d4380076-Reviews-Piazza_dei_Martiri-Carpi_Province_of_Modena_Emilia_Romagna.html the largest in the region.
It is flanked by a portico with 52 columns. Other notable landmarks include: Town hall - the castle of the Pio family, it includes parts from different ages, such as the merloned-tower of Passerino Bonaccolsi, the Renaissance façade and the tower of Galasso Pio, the 17th century watch tower. It includes a chapel frescoed by Vincenzo Catena. Carpi Cathedral - Originally designed by Baldassarre Peruzzi, drawings for it are located in the Gabinetto dei Disegni e Stampe in the Uffizi and document Peruzzi's contact with Leonardo da Vinci. Construction begun 1514, Baroque façade added in 1701 and cupola completed 1774). Church of Santa Maria in Castello or La Sagra - façade designed by Peruzzi. Church of Santa Chiara Church of Santissimo Crocifisso Church of San Bernardino Realino Church of San Bernardino da Siena Church of San Nicolò, Carpi Church of Sant'Ignazio- home of the Museum of the Diocese of Carpi Church of San Francesco d'Assisi The biggest football team in Carpi is Carpi FC 1909 who play in the 4,144 capacity Stadio Sandro Cabassi.
Carpi FC 1909 played in Serie B during the 2013-14 season, achieving a 12th-place finish ensuring second tier football remained in the town for another season. On April 28, 2015, the club clinched promotion to Serie A for the first time in its history. On 2016 the born in Carpi world champion swimmer Gregorio Paltrinieri won Gold Medal on 1 500 free style at Brazil Olympics. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi, physician Ermes Effron Borgnino, known as Ernest Borgnine, U. S. actor, was the son of Anna Boselli, born in Carpi Liliana Cavani, film director and screenwriter Alida Chelli, actress Giacomo Mantovani, filmmaker Ciro Menotti, patriot Gregorio Paltrinieri, swimmer Galasso I Pio, Prince of Carpi Alberto III Pio and humanist Rodolfo Pio da Carpi and humanist Bernardino Ramazzini, physician Carlo Rustichelli, composer Beppe Lopetrone, fashion photographer Fossoli concentration camp Cassa di Risparmio di Carpi Carpi official website Carpi at Emilia Romagna Turismo
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices, they have diplomatic immunity. The regular use of permanent diplomatic representation began between the states of fifteenth century Italy; however the terms ‘diplomacy’ and ‘diplomat’ appeared in the French Revolution. Diplomat is derived from the Greek διπλωμάτης, the holder of a diploma, referring to diplomats' documents of accreditation from their sovereign. Diplomats themselves and historians refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz, the Quai d’Orsay, the Wilhelmstraße.
For imperial Russia to 1917 it was the Choristers’ Bridge. The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta." Though any person can be appointed by the state's national government to conduct said state's relations with other states or international organisations, a number of states maintain an institutionalised group of career diplomats—that is, public servants with a steady professional connection to the country's foreign ministry. The term career diplomat is used worldwide in opposition to political appointees. While posted to an embassy or delegation in a foreign country or accredited to an international organisation, both career diplomats and political appointees enjoy the same diplomatic immunities. Ceremonial heads of state act as diplomats on behalf of their nation following instructions from their head of Government. Whether being a career diplomat or a political appointee, every diplomat, while posted abroad, will be classified in one of the ranks of diplomats as regulated by international law.
Diplomats can be contrasted with consuls and attachés, who represent their state in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions. Diplomats in posts collect and report information that could affect national interests with advice about how the home-country government should respond. Once any policy response has been decided in the home country's capital, posts bear major responsibility for implementing it. Diplomats have the job of conveying, in the most persuasive way possible, the views of the home government to the governments to which they are accredited and, in doing so, of trying to convince those governments to act in ways that suit home-country interests. In this way, diplomats are part of the beginning and the end of each loop in the continuous process through which foreign policy develops. In general, it has become harder for diplomats to act autonomously. Diplomats have to seize secure communication systems and mobile telephones can be tracked down and instruct the most reclusive head of mission.
The same technology in reverse gives diplomats the capacity for more immediate input about the policy-making processes in the home capital. Secure email has transformed the contact between the ministry, it is less to leak, enables more personal contact than the formal cablegram, with its wide distribution and impersonal style. The home country will send instructions to a diplomatic post on what foreign policy goals to pursue, but decisions on tactics – who needs to be influenced, what will best persuade them, who are potential allies and adversaries, how it can be done - are for the diplomats overseas to make. In this operation, the intelligence, cultural understanding, energy of individual diplomats become critical. If competent, they will have developed relationships grounded in trust and mutual understanding with influential members of the country in which they are accredited, they will have worked hard to understand the motives, thought patterns and culture of the other side. The diplomat should be an excellent negotiator but, above all, a catalyst for peace and understanding between peoples.
The diplomat's principal role is to foster peaceful relations between states. This role takes on heightened importance. Negotiation must continue – but within altered contexts. Most career diplomats have university degrees in international relations, political science, economics, or law. Diplomats have been considered members of an exclusive and prestigious profession; the public image of diplomats has been described as "a caricature of pinstriped men gliding their way around a never-ending global cocktail party". J. W. Burton has noted that "despite the absence of any specific professional training, diplomacy has a high professional status, due to a degree of secrecy and mystery that its practitioners self-consciously promote." The state supports the high status and self-esteem of its diplomats in order to
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Rodolfo Pio da Carpi
Rodolfo Pio da Carpi was an Italian Cardinal and patron of the arts. The nephew of a diplomat, he himself became a diplomat by the age of thirty, came to know both Emperor Charles V and King Francis of France, he negotiated with both on behalf of the pope, his uncle, Alberto Pio da Carpi, had been educated by Pico della Mirandola, had become a noted humanist scholar. These associations formed Rodolfo's education, he formed a notable library and participated in the humanist studies of 16th-century Rome though he served on the Roman Inquisition. He helped to establish the Inquisition at Milan; the Lords of Carpi first made a position for themselves in the 14th century. From the house of Este they received the lordship of Carpi, in 1518, through the influence of Pope Leo X they acquired the subsidiary fiefs of Meldola and Sassuolo, with which Rodolfo Pio da Carpi was invested. Many members of the family continued in the family tradition as condottieri: Alberto Pio obtained from the house of Savoy in 1450 the privilege of adding "di Savoia" to his name, as a reward for his military services.
Others beside Cardinal Carpi made careers in diplomacy: the Alberto Pio, Imperial ambassador in Rome, won fame as a man of learning. Ascanio Pio was a dramatic poet. Spain conferred the title of prince on the family, one branch of the family is to this day established in Spain. Rodolfo Pio da Carpi was born in Carpi near Modena, his father was Lionello da Carpi and his mother was Maria Martinengo. In 1516 he was a Chevalier of the Knights of S. John of Jerusalem and Commendatory of the church of S. Lorenzo di Colorno in the diocese of Parma. Pope Leo X granted him the church of the Holy Trinity in Ferrara as a favor to his uncle rather than an acknowledgment of his own achievements. Rodolfo was sent to study at the University of Padua, where he became Doctor of Philosophy, at Rome, where he took up an ecclesiastical career as a Papal Chamberlain under Pope Clement VII, who made him bishop of Faenza in 1528. There Carpi presided over a synod in 1533, he was absent, during most of the sixteen years of his episcopate, therefore the duties of his office were performed by his brother Teodoro and by Segicellus of Faventia.
Carpi's first mission to France took place between 26 July and 28 November 1530. He was back in France as a special envoy in the summer of 1533, charged with arranging a personal meeting between Francis I and Pope Clement VII, he was received by Francis at Lyon on 11 June. The Pope wanted to meet at Nice, but the meeting took place in Marseille, where the marriage of Henri II and Catherine de' Medici was solemnized, where Pope Clement was able to engage in negotiations with both Francis I and Charles V. Carpi attracted further notice in papal diplomacy when he was established as papal Nuncio at the court of François I, his commission was dated 9 January 1535. There he negotiated a peace between King Francis and the Emperor Charles V, pleased enough to appoint him "protector of the Holy Roman Empire". While Carpi was in France in 1533, there were rumors being spread around Rome, suggesting that Carpi was furnishing information to the Imperialists. Carpi was advised about these rumors by Pope Paul's secretary, Ambrogio Ricalcato, who indicated that they were being circulated by agents of the Cardinal de Lorraine.
Evidently King Francis heard about these rumors as well, since, in the middle of the night of 26 January 1536 he summoned Carpi to tell him that he deplored these rumors and considered Carpi a good servant. The King wrote to the Pope. Carpi initiated discussions about having a general council of the Church to address the problems of heresy and church reform, though it became clear that the King and the Emperor had different views as to how, where, what, he left France in July 1537, having been appointed Cardinal. Pope Paul III created Rodolfo Pio da Carpi a cardinal in the Consistory of 22 December 1536, on 23 July 1537, he was given his cardinal's ring and the titulus of Santa Pudenziana, he exchanged S. Pudenziana for Santa Prisca on 28 November 1537. On 19 December 1537 Cardinal Carpi was named Legatus a latere to King Francis I of France, he travelled to France in the company of Cardinal Cristoforo Jacobazzi, named Legate to the Imperial Court in Spain. Both cardinals had a personal interview with King Francis at Montpellier in mid-January 1538.
His purpose, Jacobazzi's, was to bring together Francis I and Charles V in a meeting with Pope Paul III. The meeting duly took place in May, though at Nice rather than at Montpellier, but Cardinal Carpi did not attend, he had been sent to Rome, to act as Legate of the City in the Pope's absence. On 21 April 1539, Carpi was appointed Legate to the March of Ancona; the province was due to the repeated campaigns of the French and Imperialists. After restoring order, Carpi's most important work in that office was the revision of the Aegidian Constitutions, by which the March had been governed since 1357. Carpi's work, into which he drew the assistance of fourteen experts, was given approval and authorization by Pope Paul III in September 1544. In 1543, Cardinal Carpi composed a Memorandum for the Emperor Charles V, entitled "Discorso del rev. card. Di Carpi del 1543 a Carlo V Cesare del modo di dominare." The manuscript has never been published, but brief quotations have bee
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.