Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
The Chicago and Quincy Railroad was a railroad that operated in the Midwestern United States. Referred to as the Burlington Route, the Burlington or as the Q, it operated extensive trackage in the states of Colorado, Iowa, Kentucky, Montana, Wisconsin, in New Mexico and Texas through subsidiaries Colorado and Southern Railway, Fort Worth and Denver Railway, Burlington-Rock Island Railroad, its primary connections included Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, St. Louis, Kansas City and Denver; because of this extensive trackage in the midwest and mountain states, the railroad used the advertising slogans "Everywhere West", "Way of the Zephyrs", "The Way West". In 1967, it reported 19,565 million net ton-miles of revenue freight and 723 million passenger miles. At the end of the year CB&Q operated 8,538 route-miles, C&S operated 708 and FW&D operated 1362. In 1970, it merged with the Northern Pacific and Great Northern Railroads to form the Burlington Northern Railroad; the earliest predecessor of the Chicago and Quincy, the Aurora Branch Railroad, was chartered by act of the Illinois General Assembly on October 2, 1848.
The charter was obtained by citizens of Aurora and Batavia, who were concerned that the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad would bypass their towns in favor of West Chicago on its route. The Aurora Branch was built from Aurora, through Batavia, to Turner Junction in what is now West Chicago; the line was built with minimal, if any, grading. Using a leased locomotive and cars, the Aurora Branch ran passenger and freight trains from Aurora to Chicago via its own line from Aurora to Turner Junction and one of the G&CU's two tracks east from there to Chicago; the G&CU required the Aurora Branch to turn over 70 percent of their revenue per ton-mile handled on that railroad. The line from Aurora to Chicago was built through the fledgling towns of Naperville, Downers Grove, Hinsdale and the west side of Chicago, it was opened in 1864, passenger and freight service began. Regular commuter train service started in 1864 and remains operational to this day, making it the oldest surviving regular passenger service in Chicago.
Both the original Chicago line, to a much lesser extent, the old Aurora Branch right of way, are still in regular use today by the Burlington's present successor BNSF Railway. The company was renamed Chicago and Aurora Railroad on June 22, 1852, given expanded powers to extend from Aurora to a point north of LaSalle. Another amendment, passed February 28, 1854, authorized the company to build east from Aurora to Chicago via Naperville, changed its name to Chicago and Southwestern Railroad; the latter provision was never acted upon, was repealed by an act of February 14, 1855, which instead reorganized the line as the Chicago and Quincy Railroad. With a steady acquisition of locomotives, cars and trackage, the Burlington Route was able to enter the trade markets in 1862. From that year to date, the railroad and its successors have paid dividends continuously, never run into debt or defaulted on a loan—the only Class I U. S. railroad for which this is true. After extensive trackwork was planned, the Aurora Branch changed its name to the Chicago and Aurora Railroad in June 1852, to Chicago and Quincy Railroad in 1856, shortly reached its two other namesake cities, Burlington and Quincy, Illinois.
In 1868 CB&Q completed bridges over the Mississippi River both at Burlington and Quincy, Illinois giving the railroad through connections with the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad in Iowa and the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad in Missouri; the first Railway Post Office was inaugurated on the H&StJ to sort mail on the trains way across Missouri, passing the mail to the Pony Express upon reaching the Missouri River at St. Joseph, Missouri; the B&MR continued building west into Nebraska as a separate company, the Burlington & Missouri River Rail Road, founded in 1869. During the summer of 1870 it reached Lincoln, the newly designated capital of Nebraska and by 1872 it reached Kearney, Nebraska; that same year the B&MR across Iowa was absorbed by the CB&Q. By the time the Missouri River bridge at Plattsmouth, Nebraska was completed the B&MR in Nebraska was well on its way to the Mile High city of Denver, Colorado; that same year, the Nebraska B&MR was purchased by the CB&Q, which completed the line to Denver by 1882.
Burlington's rapid expansion after the American Civil War was based upon sound financial management, dominated by John Murray Forbes of Boston and assisted by Charles Elliott Perkins. Perkins was a powerful administrator who forged a system out of loosely held affiliates tripling Burlington's size during his presidency from 1881 to 1901. Perkins believed the Burlington Railroad must be included into a powerful transcontinental system. Though the railroad stretched as far west as Denver and Billings, Montana, it had failed to reach the Pacific Coast during the 1880s and 1890s, when construction was less expensive. Though approached by E. H. Harriman of the Union Pacific Railroad, Perkins felt his railroad was a more natural fit with James J. Hill's Great Northern Railway. With its river line to the Twin Cities, the Burlington Route formed a natural connection between Hill's
Michigan Central Railroad
The Michigan Central Railroad was incorporated in 1846 to establish rail service between Detroit, Michigan and St. Joseph, Michigan; the railroad operated in the states of Michigan and Illinois in the United States, the province of Ontario in Canada. After about 1867 the railroad was controlled by the New York Central Railroad, which became part of Penn Central and Conrail. After the 1998 Conrail breakup Norfolk Southern Railway now owns much of the former Michigan Central trackage. At the end of 1925 MC operated 4139 miles of track. Michigan Central RailroadBattle Creek and Bay City Railroad 1889 Buchanan and St. Joseph River Railroad 1897 Central Railroad of Michigan 1837-1846 Detroit and St. Joseph Railroad 1831-1837 Detroit and Bay City Railroad 1881 Detroit and Charlevoix Railroad 1916 Frederick and Charlevoix Railroad 1901 Detroit River Tunnel Company Railroad 1918 Jackson and Saginaw Railroad 1871 Amboy and Traverse Bay Railroad 1866 Grand River Valley Railroad 1870 Joliet and Northern Indiana Railroad 1851 Kalamazoo and South Haven Railroad 1870 Michigan Air Line Railway 1870 Michigan Midland and Canada Railroad 1878 Saginaw Bay and Northwestern Railroad 1884 Pinconning Railroad 1879 Glencoe and Lake Shore Railroad 1878 St. Louis and Battle Creek Railroad 1889 The line between Detroit and St. Joseph, Michigan was planned in 1830 to provide freight service between Detroit and Chicago by train to St. Joseph and via boat service on to Chicago.
The Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad was chartered in 1831 with a capital of $1,500,000; the railroad began construction on May 18, 1836, starting at "King's Corner" in Detroit, the name by which the southeast corner of Jefferson and Woodward Avenue was known. Note that this is not the location of Michigan Central Station, which replaced this building; the small private organization, known as the Detroit and St. Joseph Railroad ran into problems securing cheap land in the private market, abandonment of the project was discussed; the City of Detroit invested $50,000 in the project. The State of Michigan bailed out the railroad in 1837 by purchasing it and investing $5,000,000; the now state-owned company was renamed the Central Railroad of Michigan. By 1840 the railroad was again out of money and had only completed track between Detroit and Dexter, Michigan. In 1846 the state sold the railroad to the newly incorporated Michigan Central corporation for $2,000,000. By this time the railroad had reached a distance 143.16 miles.
The new private corporation had committed to complete the railroad with T rail of not less than sixty pounds to the yard and to replace the poorly built rails between Kalamazoo and Detroit with similar quality rail, as the state-built rail was of low quality. The new owners met this obligation by building the rest of the line some 74.84 miles to the shores of Lake Michigan by 1849. However, rather than go to St. Joseph, instead they went to New Buffalo; this was. This involved passing through two other states and getting leave from two state legislatures to do so. To facilitate this process, they bought the Joliet and Northern Indiana Railroad in 1851, thus they reached Michigan City, Indiana by 1850 and finished the line to Kensington, IL in 1852, using Illinois Central trackage rights to downtown Chicago. The completed railroad was 270 miles in length; the Michigan Central Railroad operated passenger trains between Chicago and Detroit. These trains ranged from locals to the Wolverine. In 1904, MCR began a long-term lease of Canada Southern Railway, which operated the most direct route between Detroit and New York.
CSR's mainline cut between Windsor and Fort Erie. The new service, known as the Canada Division Passenger Service, saw a major surge beginning at the start of the 1920s. Between 1920 and 1922, the legendary Wolverine passenger train operated in two sections, five days per week along CSR's mainline. In the summer of 1923, the eastbound Wolverine began running from Detroit to Buffalo without any scheduled stops in Canada, making the trip in 4 hours and 50 minutes, an unprecedented achievement. During the same summer, the Canada Division was moving 2,300 through passengers per day. By the end of the decade, a fleet of 205 J-1 class Hudson – one of the most powerful locomotives for passenger service yet designed – was hauling passengers along the CSR mainline. However, by the 1930s the Wolverine was making stops in the Canadian section of the route. By the late 1940s, the Empire State Express passed from Buffalo into Southwestern Ontario, however, it terminated at Detroit. While Michigan Central was an independent subsidiary of the New York Central System, passenger trains were staged from Illinois Central's Central Station as a tenant.
When MC operations were integrated into NYC in the 1950s, trains were re-deployed to NYC's LaSalle Street Station home, where other NYC trains such as the 20th Century Limited were staged. IC won because the MC had a lease that ran for a few more years; the MC route from Chicago to Porter, Indiana, is intact. The Kensington Interchange, shared with the South Shore Line, was cut out; these tracks now belong to Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad, are overgrown stub tracks ending short of the interchange. Some trackage around the Indiana Harbor Belt's Gibson Yard has been removed; the MC's South Water Street freight trackage in downtown Chicago is g
William B. Ogden
William Butler Ogden was an American politician and railroad executive who served as the first Mayor of Chicago. He was referred to as "the Astor of Chicago." Ogden was born on June 1805, in Walton, New York. He was the son of Abigail Ogden; when still a teenager, his father died and Ogden took over the family real estate business. He assisted Charles Butler, his brother-in-law, with business matters related to opening a new building for New York University, attending the law school for a brief period himself, he was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1835. In 1837, he was elected the first mayor of Chicago, serving the customary one year term until 1838. Ogden was a leading promoter and investor in the Illinois and Michigan Canal switched his loyalty to railroads. Throughout his life, Ogden was involved in the building of several railroads. "In 1847, Ogden announced a plan to build a railway out of Chicago. Eastern investors were wary of Chicago's reputation for irrational boosterism, Chicagoans did not want to divert traffic from their profitable canal works.
So Ogden and his partner J. Young Scammon solicited subscriptions from the farmers and small businessmen whose land lay adjacent to the proposed rail. Farmer's wives used the money they earned from selling eggs to buy shares of stock on a monthly payment plan. By 1848, Ogden and Scammon had raised $350,000—enough to begin laying track; the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was profitable from the start and extended out to Wisconsin, bringing grain from the Great Plains into the city. As president of Union Pacific, Ogden extended the reach of Chicago's rail lines to the West coast."In 1853, the Chicago Land Company, of which Ogden was a trustee, purchased land at a bend in the Chicago River and began to cut a channel, formally known as North Branch Canal, but referred to as Ogden's Canal. The resulting island is now known as Goose Island. Ogden designed the first swing bridge over the Chicago River and donated the land for Rush Medical Center. Ogden was a founder of the Chicago Board of Trade.
Ogden served on the board of the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad and lobbied with many others for congressional approval and funding of the transcontinental railroad. After the 1862 Pacific Railroad Act, Ogden was named as the first president of the Union Pacific Railroad. Ogden was a good choice for the first president, but his railroad experience was most not the primary reason he was chosen; when Ogden came to lead the Union Pacific, the railroad wasn't funded and hadn't yet laid a single mile of track—the railroad existed on paper created by an act of Congress. As part of the 1862 Pacific Railroad Act, Congress named several existing railroad companies to complete portions of the project. Several key areas needed to link the East to the West had none, hence the Union Pacific was formed by Congress. Ogden was a fierce supporter of the transcontinental railroad at a time of great unrest for the country and was quoted as saying This project must be carried through by even-handed wise consideration and a patriotic course of policy which shall inspire capitalists of the country with confidence.
Speculation is as fatal to it. Whoever speculates will damn this project; as history now shows Ogden and many others got their wish. In 1860, Ogden switched his loyalty to the Republican Party, which shared his views regarding slavery, although he left the party over a dispute with Abraham Lincoln. Ogden felt. Following his defection from the Republican party, Ogden retired from politics and moved back to his native New York. On October 8, 1871, Ogden lost most of his prized possessions in the Great Chicago Fire, he owned a lumber company in Peshtigo, which burned the same day. He married Marianna Tuttle Arnot on 9 February 1875. Marianna was the daughter of Scottish born Harriet Arnot. In New York, he named his home in Bronx Villa Boscobel. Ogden died at his home in the Bronx on Friday, August 3, 1877; the funeral was held August 6, 1877, with several prominent pallbearers including, Gouverneur Morris III, William A. Booth, Parke Godwin, Oswald Ottendorfer, William C. Sheldon, Martin Zborowski, Andrew H. Green.
He was interred at Bronx. Namesakes of William B. Ogden include a stretch of U. S. Highway 34, called Ogden Avenue in Chicago and its suburbs, Ogden International School of Chicago, located on Walton Street in Chicago, Ogden Slip, a man-made harbor near the mouth of the Chicago River. Ogden Avenue in The Bronx is named after him, as is Ogden, Iowa; the Arnot-Odgen Memorial Hospital, founded by his wife Mariana bears his namesake. William B. Ogden at Find a Grave
Chicago and North Western Transportation Company
The Chicago and North Western Transportation Company was a Class I railroad in the Midwestern United States. It was known as the North Western; the railroad operated more than 5,000 miles of track as of the turn of the 20th century, over 12,000 miles of track in seven states before retrenchment in the late 1970s. Until 1972, when the employees purchased the company, it was named the Chicago and North Western Railway; the C&NW became one of the longest railroads in the United States as a result of mergers with other railroads, such as the Chicago Great Western Railway, Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway and others. By 1995, track sales and abandonment had reduced the total mileage to about 5,000; the majority of the abandoned and sold lines were trafficked branches in Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Large line sales, such as those that resulted in the Dakota and Eastern Railroad, further helped reduce the railroad to a mainline core with several regional feeders and branches. Union Pacific integrated it with its own operation.
The Chicago and North Western Railway was chartered on June 7, 1859, five days after it purchased the assets of the bankrupt Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad. On February 15, 1865, it merged with the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, chartered on January 16, 1836. Since the Galena & Chicago Union started operating in December 1848, the Fond du Lac railroad started in March 1855, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad is considered to be the origin of the North Western railroad system; the Winona and St. Peter Railroad was added to the network in 1867. After nine years in bankruptcy, the C. & N. W. was reorganized in 1944. It had turned to diesel power, established a huge diesel shop in Chicago, its Proviso Freight Yard, 12 miles west of the city center in suburban Cook County was constructed between 1926 and 1929 and remained the largest such in the world, with 224 miles of trackage and a capacity of more than 20,000 cars. Potatoes from the west were a main crop loading of the C. & N. W. and its potato sheds in Chicago were the nation's largest.
It carried western sugar beets and huge amounts of corn and wheat. This road, like other lines depending on crop movements, was adversely affected by government agricultural credit policies which sealed a lot of products on the farms where they were produced. Although it stood sixteenth in operating revenue in 1938, it was eighth in passenger revenue among American railroads, it served Chicago commuters. The North Western had owned a majority of the stock of the Chicago, St. Paul and Omaha Railway since 1882. On January 1, 1957, it leased the company, merged it into the North Western in 1972; the Omaha Road's main line extended from an interchange with the North Western at Elroy, Wisconsin, to the Twin Cities, south to Sioux City and finally to Omaha, Nebraska. The North Western acquired several important short railroads during its years, it finalized acquisition of the Litchfield and Madison Railway on January 1, 1958. The Litchfield and Madison railroad was a 44-mile bridge road from East St. Louis to Litchfield, Illinois.
On July 30, 1968, the North Western acquired two former interurbans — the 36-mile Des Moines and Central Iowa Railway, the 110-mile Fort Dodge, Des Moines and Southern Railway. The DM&CI gave access to the Firestone plant in Des Moines and the FDDM&S provided access to gypsum mills in Fort Dodge, Iowa. On November 1, 1960, the North Western acquired the rail properties of the 1,500-mile Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway. In spite of its name, it ran only from Minnesota, to Peoria, Illinois; this acquisition provided traffic and modern rolling stock, eliminated competition. On July 1, 1968, the 1,500 mi Chicago Great Western Railway merged with the North Western; this railroad extended between Oelwein, Iowa. From there lines went to the Twin Cities, Omaha and Kansas City, Missouri. A connection from Hayfield, Minnesota, to Clarion, provided a Twin Cities to Omaha main line; the Chicago Great Western duplicated the North Western's routes from Chicago to the Twin Cities and Omaha, but went the long way.
This merger further eliminated competition. After abandoning a plan to merge with the Milwaukee Road in 1970, Benjamin W. Heineman, who headed the CNW and parent Northwest Industries since 1956, arranged the sale of the railroad to its employees in 1972; the words "Employee Owned" were part of the company logo in the ensuing period. The railroad was renamed from Chicago and North Western Railway to Chicago and North Western Transportation Company; the railroad's reporting marks remained the same. After the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad ceased operating on March 31, 1980, the North Western won a bidding war with the Soo Line Railroad to purchase the 600-mile "Spine Line" between the Twin Cities and Kansas City, via Des Moines, Iowa; the Interstate Commerce Commission approved North Western's bid of $93 million on June 20, 1983. The line was well-engineered, but because of deferred maintenance on the part of the bankrupt Rock Island, it required a major rehabilitation in 1984; the company began to abandon the Oelwein to Kansas City section of its former Chicago
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Galena and Chicago Union Railroad
The Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was a railroad running west from Chicago to Clinton and Freeport, never reaching Galena, Illinois. Incorporated in 1836, the G&CU became the first railroad built to Chicago; the first railroad constructed out of Chicago, the Galena and Chicago Union, was chartered January 16, 1836, to connect Chicago with the lead mines at Galena. "The Pioneer," the first locomotive on the road, arrived at Chicago on October 10, 1848, nearly thirteen years after the charter was granted. In 1850, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was completed as far as Elgin; the railroad and the canal were vital in the development of Chicago and the population of the city tripled in the six years after the opening of the canal. Other railroads were built and Chicago became the largest railroad center in the world. In 1862 the G&CU leased in perpetuity the Cedar Rapids and Missouri Railroad, to be the first railroad to reach Council Bluffs and the First Transcontinental Railroad; the G&CU consolidated with the Chicago and North Western Railway in 1864, which merged with the Union Pacific Railroad over a century in 1996.
Today, the G&CU's main line between Chicago and West Chicago is a busy commuter service, jointly operated by Union Pacific and Metra as the Union Pacific / West Line. The railroad was constructed starting in March 1848, was completed in 1853; the first westbound train out of Chicago departed on October 25, 1848, pulled by a used Baldwin-built locomotive named Pioneer. Cronon, William. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the great west. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30873-1. Examines the economic effects of the railroad. A Chronological History of Chicago: 1673- Compiled by Chicago Municipal Reference Library, City of Chicago, updated by Municipal Reference Collection, Chicago Public Library
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai